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De Arte Graphica. 


Art of Painting, 

B Y 




Tranflatcd into Englip?^ 

Together with an Original Treface containing 

A Parallel betwixt Painting and Poetri?. 

ByMr. Bd^rDEN. 

As alfo a Short Account of the mod Eminent PAINTERS, 

both Ancient and Modern^ continu'd down to the 

Prtfent Times ^ according to tbe Order of their Succeffion; 

S)/ another Hand* 

Vt Pi5lura Toefis erit -— Hor. dc Arte Poetica. 


Printed by jF. Heptinjiall for Wi. EOfl;er0, at the Sun 
againft St. Dunflans Church in Ffeetftreet. M DC XCV. 

f ^ \ IV^ u ' 

1 bi^ 




With a Parallel, 

Of Poetry and Painting. 

IT may be reafonably expeded, that I fliorfd 
fay fomething on my own behalf, in refpeft 
to my prefent Undertaking. Firft , then , 
the Reader may be pleas'd to know, that it was 
not of my own choice that I undertook this 
Work. Many of our moft Skillfull Painters, 
and other Artifts, were pleas'd ro recommend 
this Authour to me, as one who perfedly under- 
ftood the Rules of Painting ; who gave the beft 
and moft concife Inftrudlions for Performance, 
and thefureft to inform the Judgment of all who 

( a ) lov'd 


lov'd this noble Art. That they who before were- 
rather fond of it , than knowingly admir'd it, , 
might defend their Inclination by their Reafonr 
that they might underftand thofe Excellencies. 
which they blindly valu d, fo as not to be farther 
impos'd on by bad Pieces, and to know when 
Nature was well imitated by the moft able Ma- 
ilers. *Tis true indeed, and they acknowledge 
it, that befide the Rules which are given in this 
Treatife, or which can be given in any other, 
that to make a perfedl Judgment of good Pidures, 
and to value them more or lefs when compar'd 
with one another, there is farther required a long 
converfation with the beft Pieces, which are not 
very frequent either in f ranee or England -^ yet 
fome we have , not onely from the hands of^ 
HolheiUy ^hns^ and F^andyck, (one of them ad- 
mirable for Hiftory- painting, and the other two . 
for Portraits,) but of many Flemijh-Majlers, and 
diofe not inconfiderable, though tor Defign, not 
equal to the Italians, And of thefe latter alfo, 
we arc not unfurniflh'd with fome Pieces of ^- 
phaely Titian, Ccneggioy Michael Angela and others. 
But to return to my own undertaking of this 
Tranflation, I freely own^ that I thought my 
felf uncapable of performing it, either to their Sa- 
tisfadlion, or my owa Credit. Not but that f. 



"underftood the Ori^tml Latine, and the French Ju- 
■//;owr perhaps as well as mo& Englip^mm :^ But I 
was not fufficiently vers'd in the Tenns of Art : 
And therefore thought that many of thofe perfons 
who put this honourable task on me, were more 
able to perform it themfelves, as undoubtedly 
they were. But they alTuring me of their afli- 
ftance, in corre<5ting my faults where I Ipoke im- 
properly, I was encourag'd to attempt it 5 that 
I might not be wanting in what I cou'd, to fa- 
tisfie the defiresof fo many Gentlemen who were 
willing to give the world this ufefuU Work. They 
have effe<5tually perform'd their promife to me ; 
and I have been as carefuU on my fide, to take 
their advice in all things ; fo that the Reader may 
aflfure himfelf of a tolerable Tranflation. Not 
Elegant, for I proposed not that to my felf : but 
familiar, clear and inftrudive. In any of which 
.parts, if I have fail'd, the fault lies wholly at my 
door. In this one particular onely I muft beg 
the Readers pardon. The ^roje Tranflation of 
the ^oem is not free from Poetical Expreflions, 
and I dare not promife thatfome of them are not 
fuftian, or at leaft highly metaphorical 5 but this 
being a fault in the firft digeftion (that is, the 
Original Latine) was not to be remedy 'd in the 
fecond (V/;^.) the Tran/latmt, And I may confi- 

.( a 2 ) dently 

iv. T R EFA C E. 

dently fay, that whoever had attempted it, muft 
have fallen into the fame inconvenience ; or a 
much greater, that of a falfe Verfion. When I 
undertook this Work, I was already ingagM in 
the Tranflation of Ftrgily from whom I have bor- 
rowed onely two months, and am now return- 
ing to that which I ought to underftand better. 
In the mean time I beg the Readers pardon, for 
entertaining him fo long with my felf: 'Tis an u- 
fual part of ill manners in all Juthoursy and al- 
moft in all Mankind , to trouble others with 
their bufinefs 5 and I was fo fenfible of it before- 
hand^ that I had not now committed it, unleis 
fome concernments of the ^aders hsid been inter- 
woven with my own. But I know not, while I 
am attoning for one Error , if I am not 
falling into another: for I have been importuned 
to fay fomething farther of thif Art, and to make 
fome ObferVations on- it in relation to the likefie/? 
and agreement which it has with Poetry its Sifter. 
But before I proceed, it will noD be amifs, iPl 
copy from Sellori ( a moft ingenious Authour, 
yet living) fome part of his Idea of a fainter , 
whiclv cannot be unpleafing, at leaft to fuch who 
are<:onverfant in the Philofophy of <?lato. And 
to avoid tedioufnefs, Iwill not tranflate the whole 
Difcourfe, but take and leave as I find occafiork 



• PRE FACE. . y^ 

God Alm'tpjoty^ in the Fahriciue of the Univerfey 
firji contemplated him/elf and refJeSied on his own 
Excellencies'.^ from which he drew , and conflituted 
thofe firjl Forms, which are call'd Idea's, So thai 
every Species which was afterwards exprefs'd was pro- 
duced from that frjt Idea , forming that wonderfull 
contexture of all created 'Beings* ^ut the Cmleftial 
bodies aboVe the Moon being incorruptible, and not fub- 
jeB to change, remain d for eVer fair, and'm perpetU' 
al order: On the contrary, all things ivhich are fublu- ' 
itary are fubjeB to change, to deformity^ and to decay. 
And though Nature always intends a confummate beau- 
ty in her produBions, yet through the ine^^uality of the 
Matter , the Forms are alter d; .and in particular. 
Humane Beauty Jujfers alteration for the worfe, as 
i»e fee to our mortification, in the deformities, anddlf 
proportions whlcly are in m. For which reafon the 
Art full fainter and the Sculptour^ imitating the Di- 
vine Maker, form to themfehes as well as they are 
able, a Model of the Superiour Beauties-, and refleBmg 
on them endeavour to correEi and amend the common 
Nature-, and to reprefent it as It was frfl created 
without fault, either In Colour or In Lineament. 

Tins Idea, which we may call the Goddejs of J^aln- 
ting and of Sculpture, defc ends upon the Marble and the 
Cloth y and becomes the Origmal of thofe Arts y ana 
being meafur d by the Compajs of the IntelleH^ is It 


m. T R E V A C E. 

fclf the Mcafure of the performing fiand; and being 
aninuited by the Imagmatio2L, vifujes Life mto tbe 
Jma<^e. Tl:e Idea of the Painrer and the Sculptour, 
is undoubtedly that perfeB and excellent Example of 
the Mmd 'y by imitation of which imagtnd form^ all 
things are reprefented ivhich fall under humane fight : 
.Suclj is the Definition which is made by Cicero in his 
^ook of the Oratour to Brutus. " As therefore in 
*' Forms and Figures there is fomewhat which is Excel- 
" lent and ^erfeEi^ to which imagind Species all 
*' things are refer/ d by Imitation which are the Obje&s 
• *' of Sight y in like manner we behold the Species o/^ 
*^ Eloquence in our Minds ^ the Effigies ^ or aSiual 
*^ Image of which we feek in the Organs of our Hear- 
^' i?ig. This is likewife confirm' d by proclus in the 
" Dialogue of Plato caKd Timaeus: If^ fays he, 
'^ you take a Man^ as he is made by Nature^ a?id 
^^ compare hnn with another who is the effeH of Art j 
*^ the work of 'Nature will always appear tbe lefsbeau- 
" tifull, becaufe Art is more accurate than Nature. 
SBut Zeuxis, who from the choice which he made of 
Fiye Virgins drew that wonderfull ^iSlure of He- 
lena, which Cicero in his Oratour beforemention d. 
Jets before us as the mofl perfeEl Example of 'Beauty^ 
at the fame time admonijhes a Taintery to contemplate 
the Idea's of the mofl Natural Forms ; and to make a 
judicious choice of federal bodies J all of them the mofl 


PREFACE: rij. 

Elegant which he can find, 'By which tve may plainly 
underfland that he, thought it impojfibk to find in any 
one Body all thofe ^erfeBions which he fought for the 
accomplifhment of a Helena, becaufe Nature in any 
ijidiVtdual per f on makes nothing, that is perfect in all its 
parts. For this reafon Maximus Tyrius ^Z/iyiyx, 
that the Image which is taken by a fainter from leVe- 
ral Bodies produces a Beauty j which it is impojfihle t(y 
find in any fingle Natural Body^ approaching to the 
perfeBion of the fairefl Statues, Thus Nature on 
this account is jo much inferiour to Art , that thofe 
A'tifls who propofe to themfelves onely the imitation and ^ 
likenef? of fuch or fuch a particular perfon^ without 
eleBion of thofe Idea's bef ore-mention d^ haye often- 
heen reproach' d for that omijjion : Demetrius was 
taxd for being too Natural; Dionyfius was alfo 
hlam'd for drawing Men lih uSy and was commonly 
called 'Av^^ct^TToy^^^^ that isy a Painter of Men. 
In our times Michael Angelo da Caravaggio, wa^- 
efleem d too Natural. He dreipperfons as they tt^ere; 
and BamboviOj and mofi of the Dutch 'Painters haVe 
drawn the worfl likenefi'. hy Hf pus of oldj upbraided 
the common fort of Sculptours, for making Men fuch 
as they were found in Nature , and hoafiedof himfelf' 
that he made them as they ought to be : which is a^ 
%'ecept of Ariftotle, giyen a^ well to Poets as to • 
Painters. Phidias raisd a?^ .admiration eVen to aflo^ 



F K EF A C E. 

7i'ip?mcnt , in thofe who beheld his Statues , with 
tf?2 FormSy which he gaVe to his Gods and Heroes ; 
hy imitating the Idea rather than Nature. And Ci- 
cero fpeahng of him affirms^ that figuring Jupiter 
and Pallas y k did not contemplate any ObjeH: from 
whence he took the likenefsy but conftder d in his own 
niindagreat and admirable form of beauty ^ and accor- 
ding to that Image in his Soul, he direEled the operation 
of his Hand, Seneca alfo feems to wonder, that 
Phidias having neVer beheld either Jove or Pallas, 
yet coiid conceive their diVme Images in his Mind^ 
Apollonius Tyanasus fays the fame in other wordsy 
that the fancy more inftruBs the Painter than the imi- 
tation ; for the lajl makes onely the things which it feesy 
but the firjl inak^ alfo the things which it myer 

Leon Battifta Alberti tells us, that we ought not 
jo much to loVe the \ikenejs as the beauty, and to choofe 
from the fairejt [Bodies feVerally the fairefl ^arts. 
Leonardo da.Ymdi?iJlruBs the fainter to form this 
Idea to himfelf: And Raphael, the greatefl of all 
modern Maflers, writes thus to Caftiglione, concer- 
ning his Galatea : " To paint a Fair one, 'tis neceffary 
^^ for me to fee many Fair ones j but becaufe there is Jo 
*' great a fcarcity of lonely Wo?nen, lam conjlraind to 
" make ufe of onecenain Idea, which I haVeform'dto 
[^ ''!> f^^f ^^ ^y ou^n fancy. Guido Reni fending to 



Kome his S/. Michael which he had painted for the 
Church of the Capuchins, at the fame time wrote to 
Monfignor Maffano, who was Maeftro di Cafa 
(or Steward of the Houfe) to ^ope Urban tfe Eighth, 
in this manner. Iwijh I had the wings of an Angel, 
to haVe afcended into Paradife, and there to haVe be- 
held the Forms of thofe beatify d Spirits^ from which I 
might haVe copyd my Archangel ; !But not being able 
to mount fo high y it was in yain for me to f earth his 
refemblance here below: fo that I was fore d to make an 
IntrofpeBiony into my own mind, and into that Idea 
ofSeauty, which Ihaye forni d in my own imagination. 
I haVe likewife created there the contrary Idea of de- 
formity and uglinefs ; but I leaVe the confideration of 
ity till I paint the Devil : and in the mean time fbun 
the "Very thought of it as much as pojjibly I can, and 
am even endeavouring to blot it wholly out of my re- 
membrance. Tl?ere was not any Lady in aU Antiquity y 
who was Mffirefs <jffo much 'Beauty as was to be 
found in the Venus of Gnidus^ made by Praxiceles, 
or the Minerva of Athens by Phydias ; which was 
therefore call'd the BeautifuU Form. Neither is there 
any Man of the prefent Jge, equal in the flrength^ 
proportion, and knitting of his Limbs, to the Hercules 
of Farnefc, made by Glicon : Or any Woman who can 
juflly becompardwith the Medicean V^enus o/Cleo- 
menes. And upon this account, the ndblefi Poets 

( b ) and 

X. PR £ F A C E. 

and the heft Oratours, when they defird to celebrate 
any extraordinary (Beauty ^ are fore d to haVe recour/e 
to Statues and Pidures, and to draw their ^erfons^ 
and Faces into Comparifon. Ovid endeavouring to- 
exprefs the Seauty of Cillarus, the faireft of the 
Ccntaures, celebrates him as next in perfeBiony to the 
moft admirable Stsitucs. 

Gratus in ore vigor, cervix, humeriq; manu(q5 
Fc<ftoraq; Artificum laudatis Troxima Signis. 

Jpleafing Vigour his fair Face exprefs' d-y 

His Neck) his Hands, his Shoulders y and his !Breafty 

Did next in Gracefulnefs and beauty ftand, 

To breathing Figures of the Scnlptours Hand* 

III another place he fets Ai^cWcs aboyeYcaus.. 

Si Venerem Cois nunquam pinxiflet JpelleSy 
Merfa fub asqiioreis ilia lateret Aquis. 

Tl?us yaryd* 

One Sirth to Seas the Cyprian Goddefs ow'd^ 
A Second Sirth the Painter'jf >^rf heftowd: 
Lefs by the Seas than by his pow'r wasgiVn ; 
They made her liye^ but headVancd to HeaVn, 



• •'■"•♦. ^.^ 

The Idea of this 'Beautyy is indeed yarious^ accor- '"^' 
alr^ to the feVeral forms which the Painter or Scul- 
ptour woud defcribe : As one in Strength^ another in 
Magnanimity 5 and fometimes it conpfts in Chearfulmfs^ 
and fometimes in Delicacy 5 and is always diVerfifyd by 
the Sex and Age, 

The beauty of^GSt is one^ and that 0/ Juno ano- 
ther : Hercules, and Cupid are ferfeB (Beauties^ 
though of different hinds -^ for beauty is onely that 
which makes all things as they are in their proper and 
perfeSl Nature^ which the befi Painters always choofe 
by contemplating the Forms of each. We ought farther 
to conjidery that a TiBure being the reprefentation of 
a humane aEiionj the Painter ought to retain in his 
mind J the Examples of all AffeEiions^ and ^affionsy as 
a Poet preferyes the Idea of an Angry many of one 
Ufho is fearfully fad or merry y and fo of all the reft. 
For 'tis impojjible to exprefs that with the Hand, which 
never enter d into the Imagination. In this ynanner as 
I have rudely and briefly p?ewn you. Painters and Scul- 
ptours, choofing the mofl elegant natural Seauties, per- 
feEiionate the Idea, and advance their Art, even aboVe 
Nature /Yy^^, in her individual produHionSy which is 
the utmoji maflery of humane performance. 

From hence afifes that ajlonijhmenty and almofl ado- 
ration which is paid by the IQiowing to thofe divme re- 
mainders o/Anticjuicy. From hence Phydias, Ly- 

( b 2 ) fippus, 



fippus, and' Other woWe Sculptours, are Jilll held m 
feneration ; and Apelles, Zeuxis, Protogenes, and 
other admirable Painters, though their Works are fe- 
rifl?dy are and will be eternally admird^ mho all of 
them drew after the Idczs of TerfeHion ; which are 
the Miracles of Nature y the TroVidence of the Und^r- 
flandingy the Exemplars of the Mind, the Light of 
the Fancy ; the Sun which from its rifngy inffirdthe 
Statue of Memnon, and the fire which warm'd into 
Iffe the Image of Prometheus : 'Tts this which caufes 
the Graces, aitd the Loves to take up- their habitations 
in the hardejl Marble, and to fubftfl in the emptinefs 
0/ Light, and Shadows. (Butfiice the Idea oyElo- 
1 quence is as far infer tour to that 0/ Painting, as th 
\ force of Words is to the Sight y I mufl here break off 
abruptly y andhavijig conduced the '^tiAtrasitwere to 
1 afecret Walky thereleaVe him in the midfl of Silence to 
' ^ contemplate thofe Idea's ; which IhaVe onely f ketch* dy 
and which e^^erymanmufl finifh for himfelf 

In thefe pompous Expreflions, or fuch as thefe 
the Italiarr has given you his Ide^ of a fainter 3 and 
though I cannot much commend the Style, I 
muft needs fay there is fomcwhat in the Matter ; 
Tlato himfelf is accuftom'd to write loftily, imi- 
tating, as the Critiques tell us, the manner of Ho- 
7ner 5 but furely that inimitable Poet, had not fo 
iDUoh of. Smoke in his writing, though. not lefsof 


F R EF AC K xiij; 

Fire. But in fliort, this is the prefent Genius of 
Italy, What Thilojtratus tells us in the Troem of his" 
Figures is fomewhat plainer ; and therefore I will 
tranflate it almoft word for word. " He who 
" will rightly govern the Art of Painting, ought of 
" necejfity firfl to under fland Humane Nature. He 
^^ ought likewife to he endued with a Genius to expre/? 
" the Jtg7is of their Tajfjtons whom he reprefents -, and 
" to jnake the dumb as it wei'e to fpeak: He mujt 
" yet further under fland what is contain d in the con- 
" ftitution of the Cheeks y in the temperament of the 
" EyeSy in the naturalnef^ (if I may fo call it) of the 
" Eye brows : and in fliort whatfoeyer belongs to the 
" Mind and Thought, He who throughly pojfejfes alt 
" thefe things will obtain the whole. And the Hand 
" will excjuifitely reprefent the aBion- of e'Veryfarticu- 
^^ lar-perfon, IfithappenthathebeeltlTermad^yOr 
^' ^^Wy-> ^^l^^cholique^ or chearfullj afpr4ghtlyTouthy 
" or a langutfl^ing LoVer-, in one word^ he will be able 
^^ to paint whatfoeyer is proportionable to any one: 
" And even in all this there is afweet errour without 
" caufing any fl^ame. For the Eyes and Minds of 
" the beholders being faflen don OhjeBs^ which haVe no 
" real ^eing^ as if they were truly Exiflenty and be- 
^^ inginducdbythemtobelieVethemfoy what pleafure^ 
" is it not capable of giving^ The Ancient Sf and 
[^ other Wife Meny haye written many things, concer- 



•" ti'ing the Symmetry whicJ? is in the Art o/Paint- 
" ing ; conjlituting as it were fome certain hzwsfor 
" the proportion of e'Very Member , not thinking it 
" pojjible for a Painter to undertake the exprejjion of 
" thofe motions which are in the Mind, without a con- 
" current Harmony in the natural meafure. For 
^' that which is out of its own kind and meafure^ is 
" not receiVdfrom Nature y whofe motioji is always 
" right. On a ferious confideration of this matter it 
" ipill be found. That the Arc of Painting ha^ a 
" wonderfull affinity with that of Poetry ; and that 
" there is betwixt them a certain common Imagination, 
" For as the Poets introduce the Gods ayid Heroes, 
" and all thofe things which are either Majeflicaly Ho- 
^ nefl or Delightfully in like manner the Painters, by 
" the Virtue of their OutlmeSy Colours y Lights and 
^^ ShadowSy reprefent the fame Things and Terfons 

^^ in their pictures, 


Thus , as Convoy Ships either accompany , or 
fliou'd accompany their Merchants till they may 
profecute the reft of their Voyage without danger, 
fo Wiloflratus has brought me thus far on my 
way, and I can now fail on without him. He 
has begun to fpeak of the great relation betwixt 
fainting and Poetry y and thither the greateft part 
of this Difcourfe by my promife was directed. 
I have not ingag'd my felf to any perfe<5t Method, 


T R E F A C K XV. 

neither am I loaded with a full Cargo. 'Tis 
fufficient if I bring a Sample of fome Goods in 
this Yoyage. Ic will be eafie for others to add 
mqre when the Commerce is fettled. For a Trea^ 
tife twice as large as this of fainting cou d not 
contain all chat might be faid on the Parallel of 
thefe two StflerArts, I will take my rife from 
^ellor't before I proceed to the Authour of this 

The bufinefs of his preface is to prove, that a 
learned fainter (hou d form to himklf an Idea of 
perfe(5t Nature. This Image he is to fct before 
his Mind in all his Undertakings, and to draw 
from thence as from a Store- houfe, the Beauties 
which are to enter into his Work j thereby cor- 
reeling Nature from what adually flhe is in indi- 
viduals, to what fhe ought to be, and what flhe 
was created. Now as tfiis Idea of ^erfeSilon is oC 
little ufe in Portraits (or the refemblances of par- 
ticular perfons) fo neither is it in the Chara(5ters 
of Comedy^ and Tragedy ; which are never to be 
made perfed, but always to be drawn with fome 
fpccks of frailty and deficiencc 5 fuch as they have 
been defcribed to us in HiJlo}y, if they were reaL 
CharaBers 5 or fuch as the ^oet began to fliew them^ 
at their firft appearance, if they were onely fidli- 
tious, (or imaginary.) The perfedion of fuch^ 

xv^. ? R ET A C-E. 

Stage-charaSlers confifts chiefly in their hkencfsto 
the deficient faulty Nature, which, is their Origi- 
nal. Onely, as it is obferv'd more at large here- 
after, in fuch cafes jthere will always be found a 
better likenefs , and a worfe 5 and the better is 
conftantly to be chofen : I mean in Tragedy , 
which reprefents the Figures of the higheft form 
amongft Mankind. Thus in Tortraits, the fain- 
ter will not take that fide of the Face which has 
fome notorious blemifli in it ; but either draw ic 
in profile fas Jpelles did AntigonuSy who had loft 
one of his Eyes) or elfe fliadow the more imper- 
fedl fide. For an ingenious flattery is to be al- 
low'd to the ProfeflTours of both Arts ; fo long as 
the likenefs is not dcftroy'd. 'Tis true that all 
manner of Imperfections mufl: not be taken away 
from the CharaBerSy and the reafon is, that there 
may be left fome grounds of pity for their mif- 
fortunes. We can never be grieved for their mi- 
feries who arc thoroughly wicked, and have there- 
by juftly caird their calamities on themfelves. 
Such Men are the natural Objects of our hatred, 
notofour commiferation. If on the other fide 
their Characters were wholly perfe(5t, (fuch as for 
Example, the CharaEier of a Saint or Martyr in a 
(P/^jf, ) his, or her misfortunes, wou'd produce 
impious thoughts in the Beholders ; they wou d 


PREFACE. xvij. 

accufe the Heavens of injuftice, and think of lea- 
ving a %eligt(my where Piety was fo ill requited. 
I fay the greater part wou d be tempted fo to do, 
I fay not that they ought ; and the confequence is 
too dangerous for the practice. In this I have 
accus'd my felf for my own St. Catharine^ but let 
truth prevail. Sophocles has taken the juft medium 
in his Oedipus. He is fomewhat arrogant at his 
firft entrance ; and is too inquifitive through the 
whole Tragedy: Yet thefe Imperfections being ba- 
lanced by great Vertues, they hinder not our com- 
paffion for his miferies 3 neither yet can they de- 
ftroy that horrour which the nature of his Crimes 
have excited in us. Such in fainting are the Warts 
and Molesy which adding a likenefs to the Face, 
are not therefore to be omitted. But thefe pro- 
duce no loathing in us. But how far to proceed, 
and where to ftop, is left to the judgment of the 
^oet and the fainter. In Comedy there is fome- 
what more of the worfe likenefs to be taken. Be- 
caufe that is often to produce laughter ; which is 
occafion'd by the fight of fome deformity : but 
for this I referr the Reader to Arijlotle. 'Tis a 
fiiarp manner of Inftrudtion for the Vulgar who 
are never well amended, till they are more than 
fufficiently expos'd. That I may return to the 
beginning of this Remark , concerning perfed: 

( c ) Ideas^ 

» xviij. PREFACE, 

Ideasy I have oncly this to fay, thatthe (P^r^/Wis 
often true in Epique-^oetry, 

The Heroes of the Toets are to be drawn accor- 
ding to this Rule. There is fcarce a frailty to be 
left in the beft of them j any more than is to be 
found in a Diyine Nature. And if JEneas fomc- 
times weeps, it is not in bemoaning his own mi- 
^ feries, but thofe which his people undergo. If 

this be an Imperfedlion, the Son of God when he 
was incarnate flied tears of Compaffion over Je- 
r.ufalem. And Lentulus defcribes him often weep- 
ing, but never laughing 5 fothat F/V^r/is juftify'd 
even from the Holy Scriptures. I have but one 
word more , which for once I will anticipate 
from the Authour of this 'BooK Though itmuft be 
an Idea of TerfeBion, from which both the Epique 
'Toety and the Hi ftory fainter draws; yet all Per- 
fections are not fuitable to all Subjeds: But eve- 
ry one muft be defign'd according to that pcr- 
fe<5t Beauty which is proper to him. An JpoBo 
muft be diftinguifli'd from a Jupiter , a Dallas 
from a Venus : and fo in Poetry an j^mas from 
any other Heroe : for ¥iety is his chief Terfe&ion. 
Homer s Achilles is a kind of Exception to this Rule: 
but then he is not a perfedl Heroe^ nor fo intend- 
ed by the ^oet. All his Gods had fomewhat of 
humane imperfedion 5 for which he has been 


PREFACE. xix. 

tax*d by ^PUto, as an Imitatour of what was bad. 
But Ftr^il obferv'd his fault, and mended it. 
Yet Achilles was perfed: in the ftrength of his Bo- 
dy, and the vigour of his Mind. Had he been 
kfs paflionate, or lefs rcv^ngefull, tht ^oet wdl 
forefaw that HeEior had been kili'd, and Troy ta- 
ken at the iirft aflfault j which had deftroy'd the 
beautiful! contrivance of his lUadsy and the moral 
oi preventing Difcord amongft Confederate 
Princes, which was his principal intention. For 
the Moral (as ^oJ[u obferves) is the firft bufinefs 
of the ^oet , as being the ground-work of his In- 
ftrud:ion. This being form'd, he contrives fuch 
a IkJlgHy or Fabky as may be moft fuitable to 
the Moral After this he begins to think of the 
Perfons, whom he is to employ in carrying on 
his Vejign : and gives them the MannerSy which 
are moft proper to their fe veral CharaBers, The 
thoughts and words are the laft parts, which give 
Beauty and Colouring to the Piece. When I fay, 
that the Manners of the Heroe ought to be good in 
perfe(5lion, I contradict not the Marquefs of Nor- 
manhy's opinion, in that admirable Verfe, where 
If eaking of a pcrfed: Character, he calls it J Fauk- 
lefs Monjler^ which the World neer knew. For that 
Excellent Critique, intended onely to fpeak ofVra- 
matique Charaiiers , and not of E^que, Thus at 

( c 2 ) Icaft 

XX. P'BrBf^J^CE. 

lead I have fliewn, that in the moft perfect Poewr, 
which is that of Virgil, ^'^trfeSlldea was required, 
and folio w'd. And conlequently that all fuccec- 
ding ^oets ought rather to imitate hiniy than even 
' Homer, I will now proceed as I promis'd, to 
the Authour of this ^ooK He tells you almoftin 
the firft lines of it, that the chief end of fainting is 
tofleafe the Eyes : and 'tis one great End of Toetry to 
pleafe the Mind. Thus far the Parallel of the Jrts 
. holds true : with this difference, That the principal 
I end of Tainting is to pleafe 5 and the chief defign 
of poetry is to inflruB. In this the latter feems to 
have the advantage of the former. But if we con- 
fider the Jrtijis themfelves on both fides, certain- 
ly their aims are the very fame : they wou d both 
make fure of pleafing, and that in preference to 
inftrudion. Next, the means of this pleafure is 
by Deceipt. One impofes on the Sight, and the 
other on the Underftanding. EiHion is of theEf- 
(ence of Toetry as well as of Tainting ; there is a 
rcfemblance in one,of Humane Bod ies,Things and 
Actions which are not real, and in the other, of 
a true Story by a Fidlion. And as all Stories are 
not proper Subje(5ts for an Epicjue Toeniy or a Tra- 
gedy ^ fo neither are they for a noble Tifture, The 
Subjefts both of the one, and of the other, ought 
to have nothing of immoral, low, or filthy in 

them J 

them 5 but this being treated at large in the fBookit- 
felfj I wave it to avoid repetition. Onely I muft'«<' 
add, that though Gfw/Zw^^Ovy and otherswereof a- 
nother opinion, that the Subje(5l oi^oetSyZnA even 
their thoughts and expreflions might be loofe, pro-^ 
vided their lives were chart and holy, yet there arc 
nofuch licences permitted in tto^rt any morethaa 
in Taintin^^ to defign and colour obfcene Nudities.. 
Vita proba ejly is no excufe, for it will fcarcely be ■ 
admitted, that either a ^oet or a Tainter can be 
chart, who give us the contrary examples in their 
Writings and their ^iElures, We fee nothing of 
this kind in Virgil : that which comes the neareft ■ 
to it, is the adventure of the CaVCy where Vido and 
jEneas were driven by the Storm: Yet even there- 
the ^oet pretends a Marriage before the Confum- 
mation ; and Juno her felf was prefent at it. Nei- 
ther is there any expreflion in that Story, which a 
^man Matron might not reade without a bluQi- 
Befides the ^oet pafles it over as haftily as he can,, 
as if he were afraid of flaying in the Cave with, 
the two Lovers, and of being a witnefs to their 
Ad:ions. Now I fuppofe that a fainter wou d 
not be much commended, who fliou'd pick out 
this Cavern from the whole Eneids, when there is» > 
not another in the Work. He had better leave 
them, in their obfcurity , than let in a flafli ofc^ 




Lightning to clear tlie natural darknefs of the 
place, by which he muft diicover himfelf as much 
as them. The Ahar-fiecesy and holy Decorati- 
ons of Tamtingy (how that Art may be apply'd 
to better ufes, as well as Toetry, 

And amongft many other inftances, the Far- 
nejian Gallery, painted by Hannibal Carracci, is a 
fofficient witnefs yet remaining : the whole Work 
being morally inftrud:ive, and particularly the 
Herculis &Vium, which is a perfed: Triumph of 
Vertue oVer Vice, as it is wonderfully well de- 
fcrib'd by the ingenious Sellori, 

Hitherto I have onely told the ^ader what 
ought not to be the fubje^ of a TiEiure or of a 
Toem: what it ought to be on either fide 5 our 
Author tells us: it muft in general be great and 
noble : and in this, the Parallel is exadly true. 
The fubjed of a Toet either in Tragedy or in an 
Epique IPoem is a great action of fome illuftrious 
Hero. 'Tis the fame in fainting 5 not every a- 
(Stion, nor every perfon is confiderable enough to 
enter into the Cloth. It muft be the Anger of 
an Achilles, the Piety of an yE?ieas, the Sacrifice 
of an Ifhigenia (for Heroins as well as Heroes are 
comprehended in the Rule;) but the Parallel is 
more compleat in Tragedy, than in an Epique 
^oem. For as a Tragedy may be made out of 

• many 

PREFACE xxiij. 

many particular Epifodes of Homer or of Virgily fo 
may a noble ^ISlure be defign'd out of this or 
that particular Story in either Author, Hiftory is 
alfo fruitful! of defigns both for the fainter and 
the TragKjue ^oet : Curtius throwing himfelf into 
a Gulph, and the two Decli facrificing themfelves 
for the fafety of their Country, are fubje^ls for Tra- 
gedy and ^lEiure. Such is Sclplo reftoring the Spa- 
ni(h Sridey whom he either lov'd or may be fup- 
fos'd to love, by which he gain d the Hearts of 
a great Nation, to interefs themfelves for 3^owe 
againft Carthage: Thefe are all but particular 
Pieces in LiVys Hiftory ; and yet are full com- 
pleat Subje<5ts for the ^en and TenciL Now the 
reafon of this is evident. Tragedy 2Lnd ^iBure are 
more narrowly circumfcrib'd by the Mechanick. 
^les of Ttme and ^lace than the Epiqi^e Toem. 
The time of thislaft is left indefinite. 'Tis true, 
Homer took up onely the fpacc of eight and for- 
ty days for his Iliads ; but whether Firgils adiion. 
was comprehended in a year or fomewbat more,, 
is not determined by Sojfu. Hower made the place 
of his action Trey, and the Grecian Camp befieging 
it. Virgil introduces his j£nea^y fometimes in 5/- 
cily^ fometimes in Carthage, and other times at Cu- 
nut, before he brings him to Laurentum j and evcn^ 
after that, he wanders again to the Kingdom of. 


xxlv. P R £ F ^ C E 

Evander and fome parts of Tufcany^ before he re- 
turns to finifh the War by the death of Turnup. 
But Tragedy according to the Pracflice of the Anci- 
mtSj was always confin'd within the compafs of 
X4 hours, and feldom takes up fo much time. 
As for the place of it, it was always one, and 
that not in a larger Sence3 as for example, A 
whole City or two or three feveral Houfes in it ; 
but the Market or fome other publick place, com- 
mon to the Chorus and all the Adtours. Which 
eftablifh'd Law of theirs, I have not an oppor- 
tunity to examine in this place, becaufe I cannot 
do it without digreffion from my fubjedt, though 
it feems too ftri^t at the firft appearance becaufe 
it excludes all fecret Intrigues, which are the Beau- 
ties of the modern Stage : for nothing can be car- 
ry'd on with Privacy, when the Chorus is fuppos'd 
to be always prefcnt. But to proceed, I mull 
lay this to the advantage o{^aint'mg^ even above 
Tragedy^ that what this laft reprefents in the fpace 
of many Hours, the former fliows us in one Mo- 
ment. The Adion, the Paffion, and the man- 
ners of fo many Perfons as are contained in a 
^ifturCy are to be difcern d at once, in the twink- 
ling of an Eye j at leaft they would be fo, if the 
Sight could travel over fo many different Obje(fts 
all at once, or the Mind could digeft them all at 



the fame inftant or point of time. Thus in the 
famous Pidure of ^oujfm^ which reprefents the 
Injlitution of the !BleJfed Sacrament , you fee our 
SaVwur and his twelve Difciplesy all concurring 
in the fame a6tion, after different manners, and 
in different poftures, onely the manners of Judas 
are diftinguifli'd from the reft. Here is but one 
indivifible point of time obferv'd : but one acti- 
on perform'd by fo many Perfons, in one Room 
and at the fame Table : yet the Eye cannot 
comprehend at once the whole Object, nor the 
Mind follow it fo faft; 'tis confider'd at leifure, 
and feen by intervals. Such are the Subje(5ts of 
Noble ^iBures : and fuch are onely to be un- 
dertaken by Nohle Hands. There are other parts 
of Nature, which are meaner, and yet are the 
Sub'jc6tshotho( Painters J and oi^oets. 

For to proceed in the Tar allele as Comedy is a 
reprefentation of Humane Life, in inferiour per- 
fons, and low Subjects, and by that means creeps 
into the nature of Toetryy and is a kind of Juni- 
fery a Shrub belonging to the fpecies oi Cedar y fo 
is the painting of Clownsy the reprefentation of a 
Dutch K^ermisy the brutal fport of Snick or Stieey 
and a thoufand other things of this mean inventi- 
on, a kind of TiBurey which belongs to Nature, 
but of the loweft form. Such is a La;^ar in com- 

( d ^ parifon 

xxvi; PREFACE. 

mrifon to a Venus -y both are drawn in Humane 
Figures :, they have Faces alike, though not like 
Faces. There is yet a lower fort of foetry and 
Taintingy which is out of Nature. For a Farce is^ 
that in Toehy^ which Grotefque is in a ^iSiure. The 
Perfons, and Adion of a Farce are all unnatural^ 
and the Manners falfe, that is, inconfifting with 
the chara(5lers of Mankind. Grotefquepamting is the 
juft refemblance of this ; and Horace begins his 
Jrt of Toetry by defcrlbing fuch a Figure ; with 
a Mans Head, a Horfe*s Neck, the Wings of a 
Bird, and a FifliesTail j parts of different fpecies 
. ' jumbled together, according to the mad imagi- 
nation of the Dawler 3 and the end of all this, as 
he tells you afterward, to caufe Laughter. A ve- 
ry Monfler in a (Bartholomew-Fair for the Mob to 
gape at for their two-pence. Laughter is indeed 
the propriety of a Man, but juft enough to di- 
ftinguifh him from his elder Brother, with four 
Legs. ' 'Tis a kind of Baftard-pleafure too, ta- 
ken in at the Eyes of the vulgar gazers, and at 
the Ears of the beaftly Audience. Church-Pain- 
ters ufe it to divert the honeft Countryman at Pub- 
lick Prayers, and keep his Eyes open at a heavy. 
Sermoju And Farce- Scribkrs make ufe of the 
fame noble invention to entertain Citi:^ensy Country^ 
Gentlemen^ and Coyent-Garden Fops. If they are. 


merry, all goes well on the Toet's fide. The bet- 
ter fort goe thither too, but in defpair of Senft, 
and the juft Images of Nature, which are the ade- 
quate pleafures of the Mind. But the Authour 
can give the Stage no better than what was given 
him by Nature: and the ASiors mud reprefent 
fuch things, as they are capable to perform, and 
by which both they and the Scribbler may get their 
living. After all, 'tis a good thing to laugh at 
any rate, and if a ftraw can tickle a man, 'tis an 
inftrument of happinefs. Beafts can weep when 
they fufFer, but they cannot laugh. And as 
Sir William Va'Venant obferves in his Preface to Gon- 
diberty 'Tis the w'ljdom of a Government to permit 
^lays (he might have added Farces) as 'tis the pru- 
dence of a Carter to put Sells upon his Horfesy to 
make them carry their burthens chearfully, 

I have already {hewn, that one main end of 
Toetry and Tainting is to pleafe, and have faid 
fomething of the kinds of both, and of their Sub- 
je^s, in which they bear a great refemblance to 
each other. I muft now confider them, as they 
are great and noble Arts 5 and as they are ArtSy 
they muft have ^lesy which may diredt them to 
their common end. 

To all Arts and Sciences, but more particularly 
to thefe may be apply'd what Hippocrates fays of 

( d 2 ,) Phyfick, 



Phyfick, as I find him cited by an eminent French 
Critique. " Medicine has long fubjtjled in the. 
" IforlJ. Tl?e Trinci^'les of it are cert amy and it. 
^^ has a certain way j by hoth which there has heeit 
^^ foujid in the courfe of ?nany JgeSy an infinite num- 
*' her of things y the experience of which has confirm d 
^' its nfefuhiefs and goodnefs. All that is wanting to 
^^ the perfeFlion of this Jrt^ will undoubtedly be found^ 
" if able Men, andfuch as are inflruBed in the An- 
'* cient ^les will make a farther enqtury into it^ and 
*' endea'Vour to arrive at that, which is hitherto un- 
" Known, by that which is already known. !But ally 
*' who having rejeBed the Ancient ^leSy and taken 
^* the oppojite ways, yet boafi themfelves to be Majlers 
** of this Arty do hut deceive otherSy and are them- 
J' fehes deceiVd'j for that is abfolutely impojfible. 

This is notorioufly true in thefe two Arts : for 
the way to pleafe being to imitate Nature 5 both 
the Toets and the Taintersy in Ancient times, and 
in the beft Ages, have ftudy'd her : and from 
the pradice of both thefe ArtSy the Rules have been 
*diawn, by which we are inftru(5ted how to pleafe, 
and to compafs that end which they obtained, by 
following their Example. For Nature is ftill 
the fame in all Ages, and can never be contrary 
to her felf Thus from the practice of JS/chylus, 
Sophocles^ and Euripides^ Arifiotk drew his Rules 



for Tragedy ; and Wiloflratus for fainting. Thus 
amongfl: the 'Moderns, the Italian and French CrU 
tiques by fludying the Precepts of Jrijlotle, and 
Horace, and having the Example of the Grecian 
foets before their Eyes, have given us the Rules 
of Modern Tragedy: and thus the Critiques of ths 
fame Countries, in the Jrt of fainting have given 
the Precepts of perfecting r/;^/- ^/t. 'Tis true that 
foetry has one advantage over fainting in thefe 
laft Ages, that we have ftill the remaining Ex* 
amples both of the Greek and Latinefoets : where- 
as the fainters have nothing left them from JfeU 
lesy frotogenesj farrhafiips, Xeuxis and the reft, 
but onely the teftimonies whrch arc given of their 
incomparable Works. But inftead of this, they 
have fome of their beft Statues^ ^afsf^elieyo Sy 
ColumnSy Ob'di/quesy &c. which were favM out of 
the common ruine, and are ftill preferv'd in Ita^ 
ly: and by well diftinguifhing what is proper to 
Sculpturey and what to fainting^ and what is com^ 
mon to them both, they have judicioufly repaired 
that lois. And the great Gmins oi^phael, and 
others, having fuccceded to the times of Barbarifm 
and Ignorance, the knowledge of fainting is novw 
arriv'd to a fupreme perfedion, though the per* 
formance of it is much dcclin d in the prefent Age. 
The greatcft Age for foetry amongft the f^niam 

XXX. T R E V A C E. 

was certainly that oi Augujlus Cdtfar^^ and yet wc 
are told that (paintinj^ was then at its loweft Ebb, 
and perhaps Sculpture was alfo declining at the 
fametinie. In the Reign oiVomltlany and fomc 
who fuccecded him, Poetry was but meanly cul- 
^tivated, but fainting eminently flouridi'd. I am 
not here to give the Hiflory of the two Arts ; how 
• they were both in a manner extinguifli'd, by the 
Irruption of the barbarous Nations, and both rc- 
fl:or*d about the times of Leo the Tenth, Charles 
the Fifth, and Francis the Firft j though I might 
obferve, that neither Jriofio, nor any of his Con- 
temporary Toets ever arriv'd at the Excellency of 
Raphael, Ttt'tan, and the reft in Tainting, Bat in re- 
venge at this time, or lately in many CountrieSjPc?- 
etry is better pra6lis'd than her Sijler-Art. To what 
height the Magnificence and Encouragement of the 
prefenti^/wg of France may carry Taint i?ig and Scul- 
pture is uncertain, but by what he has done, before 
the War in which he is ingag'd, we may expc^ 
what he will do after the happy Conclufion of z 
Peace, which is the Prayer and Wiih of all thofe 
who have not an intereft to prolong the miferics 
of Europe. For 'tis moft certain, as our Author 
amongft others has obferv'd. That Reward is the 
Spur of Vertue, as well in all good Arts, as in all 
laudable Attempts : and Emulation which is the 


E R E F A mm xxxK 

©ther Spur, willnever be wanting either amongft 
Toets or Painters y when particular Rewards and 
Prizes are propos'^d to the beft defervers. But to 
return from this digreflion, though it was almoft' 
neceflaryj all the ^les oi fa'mti?ig 2Lre niethodi- 
eally, concifely, and yet clearly deliver 'd in thU 
prefent Treatife which I have tranflated. !Boffk 
has not given more exa6l (^les for the Epique ^Po- 
enty nor Dacier for Tragedy, in his kte excellent 
Tranflation of Arijlotle znd his notes upon himj 
than our Frefnoy has made for ^Mmtlng-y with the 
Parallel of which I muft refume my Difcourfe, . 
following my Authors Texty though with morq. 
brevity than I intended, becaufe Ftrgil calls me^ 
The principal and moft important parts of ^aintin^^ is 
to know wh^z is moj} heaut'tfuU inlSLatuKey andmofi- 
proper for that Art: that which is the moft beautiy 
full is the moft noble Subjed : fo in Poetry y Tra-. 
gedy is more beautifull than Comedy j becaufe, as 
1 faid, the Perfons are greater whom the !p4)ef in— 
ftruds, and confequently the inftruftions of n;iorc: 
benefit to Mankind : the a6tionis like wife great* 
erand more noble, and thence is deriv'd the great- - 
er and more noble Pleafure. 

To imitate Nature well in whatfoever Subjeft, . 
is the perfection of both Arts^ and that ^iBure-r 
and that !Pi>em which comes neareft to che^ reftm-.- . 


xxxij. PREFACE. 

blance of Nature isthebeft. But it follows not, 
that what pleafes moft in either kind is therefore 
-good 5 but what ought to pleafe. Our deprav'd 
Appetites, and ignorance of the Arts, miflead our 
Judgments, and caufe us often to take that for 
true imitation of Nature, which has no refem- 
blance of Nature in it. To inform our Judgments, 
and to reform our Tafts , ^des were invented, 
that by them we might difcerri when Nature was 
imitated, and how nearly. 1 have been forc'd 
to recapitulate thefe things, bccaufe Mankind is 
not more liable to deceit, than it is willing to con- 
tinue in a pleafing error ftrengthen d by a long 
habitude. The imitation of nature is therefore 
juftly conftituted as the general, and indeed the 
onely (^le of pleafing both in Toetry and Taint- 
; »g. Arijlotk tells us, chat imitation pleafes, be- 
( caufe it affords matter for a Reafoner to enquire 
into the truth or falfliood of Imitation, by com- 
paring its likenefs or unlikenefs with the Original, 
But by this Rule, every Speculation in Nature, 
whofe truth falls under the enquiry of a Thilofo- 
phefy muft produce the fame delight which is not 
true j Ifliould rather affign another reafon. Truth 
is the Object of our Underftanding as Good is 
of our Will: And the Underftanding can no 
• more be delighted w ith a Lye, than the Will can 


PREFACE.. xxxiij. 

choofe an apparent Evil. As Truth is the end 
of all our Speculations, fo the difcovery of it is 
the plcafure of them. And fince a true know- 
ledge of Nature gives us pleafure, a lively imita- : 
tion of it, either in Poetry or fainting, mud of 
neceffity produce a much greater. For both thefe 
Jrts as I faid before, are not onely true imitati- 
ons of Nature, but of the bed Nature^ of that 
which is wrought up to a nobler pitch. They pre- 
fent us with Images more perfect than the Life in 
any individual : and we have the pleafure to fee 
all the fcatter'd Beauties of Nature united by a 
happy Chymijlrjiy without its deformities or faults. 
They are imitations of the paflions which always 
move , and therefore confequently pleafe : for 
without motion there can be no delight; which 
cannot be confider'd, but as an adive pa/fion* 
When we view thefe Elevated Ideas of Nature^ 
the refult of that view is Admiration, which is 
always the caufe of Pleafure. 

This foregoing Remark, which gives the rea- 
fon why imitation pleafes5 was fent me by Mr. 
Walter Mbyky a moft ingenious young Gentleman, 
converfant in all the Studies of Humanity, much 
above his years. He had alfo furnifli'd me (ac- 
cording to my requeft) with all the particular 
paflages in Ariftotk and Horace^ which are us'd 

( e ) by 

xxxiy. ^R EFAC E: 

by them to explain the Jyt of Poetry by that of 
fainting : which if ever I have time to retouch 
this EJJayy fhall be inferred in their places. Having 
thus lliewn that Imitation pleafes, and why ic 
pleafes in both theje JrtSy it follows that fome 
Q{ules of Imitation are neceCTary to obtain the 
end : for without ^les there can be no Jrt ; any 
more than there can be a Hcufe'^wizhom a Door to 
condudl: you into it. The principal parts of 
fainting and Toetry next follow. 

InVentmi is the firfl: part, and abfolutely necef 
fary to them both ; yet no ^le ever was or ever 
can be givenhow to compafs it. A happy Ge- 
nius is the gift of Nature : it depends on the in- 
fluence of the Stars fay the Ajlrologersy on the Or- 
gans of the Body fay the Naturalijts ; 'tis the par^ 
ticular gift ' of Heaven fay the DiyineSy both Chrh 
Jiians and Heathens. How to improve it many 
Books can teach us ; how to obtain it none j that 
nothing can be done without it all agree. 

Tu 7uhil inyita dices fade fve MineryL 

Without Invention a fainter is but a Copier ^ at?d a 
^oet but a 'P/^^wrj/ of others, ^th are allow'd 
fometimcs to copy and tranflate ; but as our Au- 
thourtAXs you that is not the bcft part of their Re- 



|)utation. Imitatours are but a SerVile kind of Cat tie ^ 
fays the ^oet -^ or at beft, the Keepers of Cattle 
for other men j they have nothing which is pro- 
• perly their own ; that is a fufficient mortification 
For me while I am tranflating VirgiL But to co- 
py the bed Authour is a kind of praife^ if I per- 
form it as I onghc. As a Co^ after (l(aphael is 
more to be commended, than an Original of any 
indilEFerent Tainter, 

Under this head of LiVention is plac'd the Difpo- 
fition of the Work, to put all things in a beautiful! 
order and harmony ; that the whole may be of a 
piece. The Compojitions of the fainter fhou'd be 
conformable to the Text of Ancient Authours, to 
the CuftomSj and the Times. And this is exact- 
ly the fame in Poetry ; Homer, and Vtrgil, are to 
be our guides in the Epique-^ Sophocles, and Eu- 
ripides, in Tragedy : in all things we are to imi- 
tate the Cuftoms, and the Times of thofe Perfons 
and Things which we reprefent. Not to make 
new ^ules of the Drama, as Lope:^ de Vega has 
attempted unfuccefsfully to do 5 but to be con- 
tent to follow our Matters, who underftood Na- 
ture better than we. But if the Story which we 
treat be modern, we are to vary the Cuftoms, 
according to the Time and the Country where 
thje Scene of Adion lies : for this is ftill to imitate 

( e 2 ) Nature, 

xxxvi. PREFACE. 

Nature, which is always the fame, though in a^. 
different drefs. 

As in the Compoficion of a ^iflure, the ^ain^ 
ter is to take care that nothing enter into it, which* 
is not proper, or convenient to the Subje<5l ; fo 
likewife is the Toet to rejed all incidents which, 
are foreign to his foeniy and are naturally no parts 
of it: they are Wenns, and other Excrefcences ^, 
which belong not to the Body, but deform it. 
no perfon, no incident in the (P/er^, or in the 
(P%, but muft be of ufe to carry on the mam^ 
Dejiffu All things elfe are like fix fingers to the 
hand 3 when Nature which is fuperfluous in no- 
thing, can do her work with five. A fainter muft- 
rejedl all trifling Ornaments, fo muft a (Poet re- 
fufe all tedious , and unneceffary Defcriptions., 
A Robe which is too heavy, is Icfs an Ornament 
than a Burthen. 

In Poetry Horace calls thefe things, Ferfus ino- 
pfs reruniy nugd^que cajtoriC; thefe are alfo the 
lucHS ^ ara Dian£y which he mentions in the 
fame Jrt of Poetry. But fince there muft be Or- 
naments both in fainting, and Toetry^ if they are 
not neceffary, they muft at leaft be decent : that 
is, in their due place, and but moderately us*d, . 
The fainter is not to take fo much pains about 
the Drapery as about the Face, where the princi- 


PREFACE. xxxvij; 

pal rcfemblance lies : neither is the Toet who is 
working up a paflion, to mzkc Jimdes which will 
certainly make it languifh. My Monte^^ma dies 
with a fine one in his naouth : but it is ambitious 
and out of feafon. When there are more Figures 
in a Picture than are neceffary, or at leaft orna- 
mental, out Authour calls them Figures to helett:. 
becaufe the Pidure has noufe of them. So I have 
fcen in fome modern Plays above twenty JSioursy. 
when the A6lion has not required half the num- 
ber. In the principal Figures of a PiBurej the 
fainter is to employ the finews of his Art, for in- 
them confifts the principal beauty of his Work. 
Our Authow faves me the comparifon with Tragedy y 
for he fays that herein he is to imitate the Tragi^ue 
Poet J who employs his utmoft force in thofe pla- 
ces wherein confifts the height and beauty of the 
A<5lion. DuFrefnoy, yMhom Hollow y makes 2)^- 
Jtgn or Drawing the fecond part of Painting : But 
the Rules which he gives concerning the Poflure op 
the Figures^ are almoft wholly proper to that Arty 
and acjmit not any co?nparifon that I know with 
Poetry, The Pojiure of a Poetique Figure is as I 
conceive, the Defcription of his Heroes in the per- 
formance of fuch orfuch anAdion: as of Achilles 
juft in the ad of kiUing HeSlor : or of j£neas who 
hzs Turnus undtr him* Both the Poet and the 


Exxviij. PREFACE. 

fainter vary the ^ojiures according to the Acflion, 
or Paflion which they reprefenc of the fame per- 
son. But all muft be great and graceful! in them. 
The fame ^hcas muft be drawn a Suppliant 
to T>ldo with refped in his Geftures, and humility 
in his Eyes ; But when he is forc'd in his own de- 
fence to kill Lau/uSy the Toet fliows him compaf- 
fionate, and tempering the feverity of his looks 
with a reludance to the Adlion, which he is go- 
ing to perform. He has pity on his Beauty, and 
his Youth 5 and is loath to deftroy fuch a Mafter- 
piece of 'Nature. He confiders Laufm refcuing 
his Father at the hazard of his own life 5 as an 
image of himfelf when he took Jnchifes on his 
Shoulders, and bore him fafe through the rage of 
the Fire, and ^the oppofition of his Enemies. And 
therefore in the pofture of a retiring Man, who 
avoids the Combat, he ftretches out his Arm in 
fign of peace, with his right Foot drawn a little 
back, and his Breaft bending inward, more like 
an Oratour than a Souldier ; and feems to diflTwadc' 
the Young man from pulling on his deftiny, by 
attempting more than he was able to perform : 
take the paflage as I have thus tranflated it, 

'Shouts of Jpplaufe ran ringing through the FieUy 
To fee the Son^ the Van^iuifh'd Father fhield : 


P R E FAC E.. xxxix. 

AU^ fir d with noble Emuktioriy Jir'iVe'^ 
And with a Jl&rmofDarts to dijiance drive 
The Trojan Chief -y who held at Say, from fair 
On his Vulcanian Or by fuflaind the War. 
i£neas tinis oerwhebnd oh eVeryfide^ 
TImr firfl Ajfault undaunted did abide ; (cryd, 
And thus to Laufus, /owJ with friendly threatning 
Why wilt thou rufh to certain, death , and rage 
In rap? attempts beyond thy tender Agey 
Setrayd by, pious hve^ 

And afterwards. 
HegritVdy he wept, the Sight an Image brought 
Of his own Filial LoVe 5 a fadly pkajing thought. 

Butbefide the Outlines of the Poflurej.the Dejig}^ 
of the TiBure comprehends in the next place tha 
forms of Faces which are. to be different : and fo 
in a Toem, or a Tlay^ muft the feveral CharaBen 
of the Perfons be diftinguifh'd from each other. 
I knew a ^oet, whom out of refped 1 will not 
name, who being too witty himfelf, cou d draw 
nothing but Wits in a Comedy of his : even his 
Fools were infedled with the Difeafe. of their Au- 
thonr. They overflow'd with fmart Repcrties,, 
and were only diftinguifh'd from the intended 
Wits by being call'd Coxcombs ; though they de- 
ftry'd not fo icandalous a Name. Another, who 


had a great G^nm for Tragedy, following the fury 
of his natural temper, made every Man and Wo- 
man too in his ^lays ftark raging mad ; there was 
not a fober perfon to be had for love or money. 
All was tempeftuous and bluftering ^ Heaven and 
Earth were coming together at every word ; a 
raeer Hurrican from the beginning to the end, 
and every Adour feem'd to be haftning on the 
Day of Judgment. 

Let every Member he made for its own Head, fays 
our Juthoury not a wither'd Hand to a young 
Face. So in the Perfons of a Tlay, whatfoever is 
laid or done by any of them, muft be confident 
with the manners which the Toet has given them 
diftindly ; and even the Habits muft be proper 
to the degrees, and humours of the Perfons as 
well as in a TiBure. He who enter d in the firft 
Ad:, a Young man like Terides Prince of Tyre, 
muft not be in danger in the fifth A61, of com- 
mitting Inceft with his Daughter: noranllfurer, 
without great probability and caufes of Repen- 
tance, be turn d into a Cutting Moorcraft. 

I am not fatisfy'd that the comparifon betwixt 
the two Arts in the laft Paragraph is altogether fo 
juft as it might have been ^ but I am fure of this 
which follows. 



PREFACE. xli, 

The principal Figure of the SuhjeSl mujl appear in 
the fnidji of the ^TiEiure^ under the principal Light to 
dijlinguijh it from the reft which are onely its at ten- 
dants. Thus in a Tragedy or an Epique ¥oem, the 
Hero of the Tiece mull be advanc'd foremoft to 
the view of the (Reader or SpeHator ; He muft 
out-fliine the reft of all the CharaBers -^ He muft 
appear the Prince of them, like the Sun in the Co- 
pernican SyflerUy encompafs'd with the lefs noble 
Planets, Becaufe the Hero is the Centre of the 
main Ad:ion j all the Lines from the Circumfe- 
rence tend to him alone : He is the chief obje(5l of 
Pity in the Drama, and of Admiration in the E- 
pique Toem, 

As in a Pidlure, befides the principal Figures 
which compofe it, and are plac'd in the midft 
of it 5 there are lefs Grouppes or Knots of Figures 
di(pos'd at proper diftances, which are parts of 
the Piece, and feem to carry on the fame Defign 
in a more inferiour manner. So in Epique ^oe^ 
try^ there are Epifodes, and a Chorus in Tragedy, 
which are Members of the A(5lion, as growing 
out of it, not inferted into it. Such in the ninth 
!Book of the Eneids is the Epifode of Nifus and Eu- 
ryalus : the adventure belongs to them alone ; they 
alone are the Objects of Compaffion and Admi- 
ration y but their bufinefs which they carry on, 

xfij. PREFACE 

is the general Concernment of the Trojan Camp, 
then beleaguer'd by Turnus and the Lat'mes^ as 
the Chrijtians were lately by the Turks. They 
were to advertife the chief Hero of the Diftrcfles 
of his Subjects occafiond by his Abfence, to crave 
his Succour, and foUicite him to haften his Re- 

The Grecian Tragedy was at firft nothing but 
a Chorus of Singer s^ afterwards one J6ior was in- 
troduced, which was the (Po^thimfelf, who enter- 
tain d the people with a difcourfe in Verfc, betwixt 
the Paufes of the Singing. This fucceeding with 
the People , more ABors were added to make the 
variety the greater 5 and in procefs of time, the 
Chorus onely fung betwixt the JEls 3 and the Co- 
riphdusj or Chief of them fpoke for the reft, as an. 
A^or concern'd in the bufinefs of the ^lay. 

Thus Tragedy was perfected by degrees, and be- 
ing arriv d at that Perfection, the Painters might 
probably take the hint from thence, of adding 
Grouppes to their ^iBures. But as a good 'Pi- 
Qure may be without a Grouppe ; fo a good Tra- 
gedy may fubfift without a Chorus : notwithftand- 
ing any reafons which have been given by Dacier- 
to the contrary. 

Monfieur Racine has indeed us'd it in his Ejlhery. 
but not that he found any neceffity of it, as 


PREFACE xliij. 

the French Critique would infinuatc. The Chorus 
at Sc Cyr^ was onely to give the young Ladies an 
occafion of entertaining the i\jn^ with vocal Mu- 
fick, andof commending their own Voices. The 
Tlay it felf was never intended for the publick 
Stagey nor without difparagement to the learned 
Author J could poflibly have fucceeded there, and 
much lefs the Tranflation of it here. Mr. Wi- 
€herljiy when we read it together was of my opini- 
on in this, or rather I of his ; for it becomes me 
fo to fpeak of fo excellent a ^oet, and fo great a 
Judge. But fince I am in this place, as Virgil fays, 
Spatiis exclufus iniqm 5 that is, fliortenM in my 
time, I will give no other reafon, than that it is 
impracticable on our Stage, A new Theatre 
much more ample and much deeper muft be 
made for that purpofe, befides the coft of fome- 
times forty or fifty Habits, which is an expence 
too large, to be fupply'd by a Company of JBors. 
'Tis true, I fliould not be forry to fee a Chorus 
on a Theatre^ more than as large and as deep a- 
gain as ours, built and adorn d at a i\jngs 
Charges, and on that condition , and another , 
which is. That my Hands were not bound be- 
hind me, as now they are; I (liould not defpair 
of making fuch a Tragedy ^ as might be both in- 
ftrudive and delightfull, according to the man- 
ner of the Grecians, ( f 2 } To 

xliv. P R E F J C H. 

To make a Sketchy or a more perfe6l Model of 
a TiSiurCy is in the Language of <Poef5, to draw 
lip the Scenary of a 'P/^jy, and the reafon is the 
fame for both ; to guide the Undertaking, and 
to preferve the Remembrance of fuch things, 
w hofe Natures are difficult to retain. 

To avoid Abfurdities and Incongruities, is the 
fame Law eftablifh'd for both Arts. The Painter is 
not to paint a Cloud at the Bottom of a J^iHurey 
but in the uppermoft parts : nor the J^oet to place 
what is proper to the end or middle in the begin- 
ning of a Toem. I might enlarge on this, but 
there arc few Toets or Taintersy who can be fup- 
pos'd to fin fo grofly againft the Laws of Naturey 
and of Art. I remember onely one P/^^, and 
for once I will call it by its name, The Slighted 
Maid: where there is nothing in the Firji AB, but 
what might have been faid or done in the Fifth^ 
nor any thing in the Midfty which might not have 
been plac'd as well in the ^Beginmtg or the End. To 
exprefs the Paffions which are fcated iti the Heart 
by outward Signs, is one great Precept of the 
^aintersy and very difficult to perform. In Poe- 
tryy the fame Paffions and Motions of the Mind 
arc to be exprels'd j and in this confifts the prin- 
cipal Difficulty, as well as the Excellency of that 
Art. This, fays my Author y is the Gift oi^upi- 

t^r :. 

F R £ F ^ C E xlv. 

Hr : and to fpeak in the fame Heathen LanguagCy, 
we call it the Gift of our Jpollo : not to be obtained 
by Pains or Study, if we are not born to it. For. 
the Motions which are ftudied are never fo natu- 
ral, as thofe which breakout in the height of a r£- 
al Paflion. Mr. Otway poffefs'd this part as tho- 
roughly as any of the Ancients or Moderns, I wijL 
not defend every thing in his Venice preferVdy but 
1 muft bear this teftimony to his Memory, That 
the Tafflons are truly touched in it, though perhaps 
there is fomewhat to be defir'd both in the Grounds 
of them,and in the Height and Elegance ofExpreffi-. 
on 5 but Nature is there,which is the greateft Beauty. 
Li the ^affionSy fays our Author, we mujl haVe 
a "Very great regard to the (Quality of. the Terfons who 
are aHually f^efs'd with them. The Joy of a Mbr 
narch for the news of a Victory, muft not be ex>- 
prefs'd like the Ecftafy of a Harlequin on. the Re- 
ceipt of a Letter from his Miftrefsj thi^ is fo 
much the fame in both the ArtSy that it is no longer 
Q.. Comparifon. What he fays of Face paintings or 
the ^rotrait of any one particular Perfon ; conr 
cerning the likenefs is alfo as applicable to Toetry. 
In the charaEler of anjH^ro, as well as in an inferir 
our Figure, there is a better or worfe likenefs to^* 
be taken 5 the better is a ^Panegyrickii it be not 
falii, and the worfe is a Libel : Sophocles^ fays Ar 


xlv;. PREFACE. 

• * r'tjlotle always drew men as they ought to be, that 
'is better than they were 5 another, whofe name I 
have forgotten, drew them worfe than naturally 
they were. Euripides altered nothing in the Cha- 
rad:er, but made them fuch as they were reprc- 
fented by Hifioryy Epijue Toetry or Tradition, Of 
the three, the draught of Sophocles is moft com- 
mended by Jrijlotle, I have foUow'd it in that 
part of OedipHSj which I writ, though perhaps I 
have made him too good a man. But my Cha- 
radters of Jnthmy and Cleopatra^ though they are 
favourable to them, have nothing of outrageous 
^anegyricky their Pa/lions were their own, and 
fuch as were given them by Hijiory, onely the de- 
formities of them were caft into Shadows^ that they 
might be Objects of CompafEon j whereas if 
I had choknSL Noon day Light for them, fomewhat 
muft have been difcover'd, which would rather 
have mov'd our Hatred than our Pity. 

The Gothique manner, and the barbarous Orna- 
ments, which are to be avoided in a TiBurCy are 
juft the fame with thofe in an ill order'd Tl^. For 
example, our Englijh Tragicomedy muft be confefs'd 
to be wholly Gothique^ notwithftanding the Succefs 
■which it has found upon our Theatre, and in the 
Tajior Fido (Si Guarini ', even though Corifca and 
the Satyr contribute fomewhat to the main A<5Son. 


P R EFAC E. xlvij. 

Neither can I defend my SpaniJJ? FryaVy as fond « 
as otherwife I am of it from this Imputation : for 
though the comical parts are diverting, and the fe- 
rious moving, yet they are of an unnatural min- 
gle. For Mirth and Gravity deftroy each other, 
and are no more to be allow'd for decent, thari' 
a gay Widow laughing in a mourning Habit. 

I had almoft forgotten one confiderable refem- 
hUnce, Du Frefmy tells us, That the Figures of the 
Grouppesy mujl not he all on a JlJe, that is, with 
their face and 'Bodies all turnd the Jams way 5 hut 
muji contraft each other by their federal pojitions. Thus 
in a (P/^jy, fome characters mufl be rais'd to op- 
pofe others 5 and to fet them off the better, ac- 
cording to the old Maxim, Contraria juxta fe pa- 
Jitay magis elucefcunt. Thus in the Scornfull Lady^ 
the Ufarer is fet to confront the Prodigal. Thus 
in my Tyrannicque LoW, the Atheift Maximin is op- 
posed to the charader of St. Catharine. 

I am now come, though with the omiffion of 
many Likenejfesy to the third Part oi^aintingy 
which is caird the Cromati(pue or Colourings E^ 
preffioHy and all that belongs to words, is that in- 
a ^oe?n, which Colouring is in a ^iBure, The 
Colours well chofen in their proper places, toge- 
ther with the Lights and Shadows which belong 
to them, lighten the Defign, and make it pleafing 


? K EF A C E. 

to the Eye. The Words, the Expreffions, the 
Tropes and Figures, the Verfification, and all 
-the odier Elegancies of Sound, as Cadences, 
Turns of Words upon the Thought, and many 
other things which arc all parts of expreflion, 
perform exadlly the fame Office both in Dra- 
matijue and Epique Poetry. Our Author calls Co- 
louring, Lena Sororis, in plain Englifli, The !Bawd 
of her Slfler the Vefign or Drawing : flie cloaths, 
flie drefles her up, (he paints her, (he makes her 
appear more lovely than naturally flie is, flie pro- 
cures for the Dejtgn, and makes Lovers for her. 
For the Dejtgn of it felf, is onely fo many naked 
lines. Thus in Poetry , the ExpreJJion is that 
which charms the ^ader, and beautifies the De- 
fign which is onely the Out-lines of the Fables. 
'Tis true, the Vefign muft of it felf be good j if 
it be vicious or (in one word) unpleafing, the 
coft of Colouring is thrown away upon it. 'Tis 
an ugly woman in a rich Habit fet out with Jew- 
-els, nothing can become her : but granting the 
Defign to be moderately good, *tis like an ex- 
^ellent'Gomplexion with indifferent Features j the 
white and red well mingled on the Face, make 
what was before but. paffable, appear beautifulL 
'€perum Colores is the very word which Horace ufes, 
to fignify Words and elegant Expreflions, of which 


PREFACE. xlix. 

he himfelf was fo great a Maftcr in his O^es. A- 
moncrft the Ancients. Zenxis was mofl: fafnous 
for his Colouring' Amongft the "Moderns^ Titian 
and Correggio, Of the two Ancient Epti^ue ToetSy 
who have fo far excell'd all the Moderns, the In- 
vention and Dejtgn were the particular Talents of 
Homer, Virgil muft yield to him in both, for 
the DeJ^n of the Latine was borrowed from the 
Grecian: But the diSiio Virgiliana, the expre/Iion 
o£ Virgil', his Co/ownwg; was incomparably the bet- 
ter, and in that I have always endeavour'd to 
copy him. Moft of the Pedants I know main- 
tain the contrary, and will have Homer exceli e- 
ven in this part. But of all people, as they are 
the moft ill manner'd , fo they are the worft 
Judges ; even of words which are theit Province, 
they feldom know more than the Grammatical 
conftru6tion , unlefs they are born with a Poetical 
Genius 'j which is a rare Portion amongft them. 
Yet fome I know may ftand excepted ; and fuch 
I honour. Virgil is fo exa6l in every word, that 
none can be chang'd but for a worfe : nor any 
one remov'd from its place, but the harmony will 
be alter'd. He pretends fometimes to trip 5 but 
'tis oncly to make you think him in danger of a 
fall , when he is moft fecure. Like a skilful! 
dancer on the Ropes (if you will pardon the 

( g ) meannefs 

I. P R EF A &f. 

meannefs of the fimilicude) who flips willingly 
and makes a feeming ftumble, that you may 
think him in great hazard of breaking his neck 3 
while at the fame time he is onely giving you a 
proof of his dexterity. My I'ateLord (^fcomonwzs 
often pleas'd with this reflexion, and with the 
examples of it in this admirable Author. 

I have not leifure to run through the whole 
• Compart f on of Lights and Shadows with Tropes and 
Figures 'y yet I cannot but take notice of Metaphors, 
which like them have power to leflcn or greaten 
any thing. Strong and glowing Colours are the juft 
refemblances of bold Metaphors, but both mufl be 
judicioufly apply'd ; for there is a difference be- 
twixt daring and fool-hardinefs. Lucan and Sta- 
tins often ventured them too far, our Virgil never. 
But the great defeat of the ^harfalia and the The- 
hitis was iathe Vejign ; if that had been more per- 
fed-,, we might have forgiven many of their bold 
ftrokes in the Colourino^ : or at leaft excused them : 
yet fome of them are fuch as Vemojlhnes or Cice- 
rp could not have defended. Virgily if he could 
have feen the firft Vcrfes of the Sybd, would have 
thought Sr^fii^ mad in his fuftian Defcription of 
the Statue on the hra:^en Horfe, But that Toet was al- 
ways in a Foara at his fetting out, even before the 
Motion of the Race had warra'd him. The fo- 


? REV ACE. % 

berncfs of Firstly whom he read it feems to little 
purpofe, might have fliown him the difference be- 
twixt, Arma Vtrumfj cano, and Magnanimum Ma- 
cidem, formidatamq\ tonanti J^rogeniem. But Virgil 
knew how to rife by degrees in his expreflions : 
Statins was in his towring heights at the firft ftretch 
of his Pinions. The defcription of his running 
Horfe juft ftarting in the Funeral Games for ^r- 
themormy though the Verfes are wonderfully fine, 
are the true Image of their Author. 

Stare adeo nefcltj pereunt Vejligia rnille 

Jnte fugam-j ahfentemcj^fertt gravis ungulacampum. 

Which would cofl: me an hour, if I had the lei- 
furetotranflatethem, there is fo much of Beauty 
in the Original. Virgil ^ as he better knew his 
Colours^ fo he knew better how and where to place 
them. In as much haft as I am, I cannot for- 
bear giving one example. 'Tis faid of him. 
That he read the Second^ Fourth and Sixth (Books 
of his jEneids to Augujlus Cafar. In the Sixthy 
(which we are fure he read, becaufe we know 
OBaVta was prefent, who rewarded him fo boun- 
tifully for the twenty Verfes which were made in 
honour of her deceased Son MarceUus) in this fixth 
Book I fay, the ¥oet fpeaking of Mifenus the 
Trumpeter, fays, ( g ^ ) Q^<> 

lij, f R EFA e E. 

—^ Quo mn prdjiantior altera 

JEn ciere Vtrosy - 

And broke off in the Hemyjlick or midft of the* 
. Verfe : But in the very reading fiez'd as it were 
with a dilfine Fury^ he made up the latter part of 
the Hemyfiicky with thefe following words j 

— Martemqi accendere canbt^ 

How warniy nay how glowing a Colouring is this! 
In the beginning of the Verfe, the word jEs^ or 
Brafs, was taken for a Trumpet, becaufe the In- 
ftument was made of that Metal, which of it felf 
was fine 5 but in the latter end, which was made 
ex tempors-y you lee three Metaphors, Martemquey 

-— accendere y cantu. Good Heavens ! how the 

plain fence is rafsM by the Beauty of the words. 
But this was Happinefs, the former might be on- 
ly Judgment ; this was the curioja felidtasy which 
(Pefro;2/»5 attributes to Horace-^ 'tis the Pencil thrown 
luckily full upon the Horfes mouth to exprefs the 
Foam which the fainter with alL his skill could 
not perform without it. Thefe hits of words a 
true 9oet often finds, as I may fay, without 
feeking : but he knows their value when he finds 
them, and is infinitely pleas'd. A badfoef ma,y 


F R E F A C E. liij. 

lometimes light on them, but he difcerns net a 
Diamond from a Bnfloljlone 5 and would have 
been of the Cocks mind in j^fopy a Grain of Par- 
ley would have pleas'd him better than the JeweL 
T\\^ Lights and Shadows which belong to Colourin^y 
put me in mind of that Verfe in Horace^ Hoc a- 
mat ohfcururuy yult hoc fub luce Vtdm : fome parts 
of a Toem require to be amply written, and with 
all the force and elegance of Words : others muft. 
be caft into Shadows j that is, pafs'd over in fi- 
lence , or but faintly touch'd. This belongs 
wholly to the. Judgment of the ^oet and the ^aim 
ter, . The moft beautif ill parts of the ^lElure and 
the ^oem muft be the moft finifli'd, the Colours 
and Words moft chofen ; many things in both 
which are not deferving of this care, muft be fliif 
ted ofFj content with vulgar expreflions and thofe 
very fhort, and left as inafhadow to the imagi- 
nation of the ^ader. 

We have the Proverb, manum de tahula, from 
the Painters 'y which fignifies, to know when to 
give over, and to lay by the Pencil. Both Ho- 
mer and Firg'd pradis'd this Precept wonderfully 
well, but FtrgH the better of the two. Hornet 
knew that when HeEior was flain, Troy was as 
good as already taken ; therefore he concludes his 
Aftion there.. For what, follows in the Funcials 
/ of ^ 

3iV. P R E F ^ C E. 

oi fatroclusy and the redemption of He^o/s Bo- 
dy, is nor (properly fpeaking) a part of the main 
Action. But Virgil condiides with the death of 
Turnus: for after that difficulty was removed, yE- 
7ie<t5 might marry and eftablifli the Trojans when 
he plcas'd. Tins (^le I had before my Eyes in the 
conclufion oftheS/^dmy^ Fryar^ when the difcove- 
ry was made, that the King was living, which 
was the knot of the Tlay unty'd, the reft is fliut 
up in thecompafs of fome few lines, becaufe no- 
thing then hindered theHappinefs oiTorifmond and 
Leonora. The faults of that Drama arc in the 
kind of it, which is Tragicomedy. But it was 
given to the people ; and I never writ any thing 
for my felf but Anthony and Cleopatra. 

This (^mark I muft acknowledge is not fo pro- 
per for the Colouring as the Dejtgn^ but it will hold 
for both. As the words, ci^rr. are evidently fliown 
to be the cloathing of the Thought, in the fame 
fenfe as Colours are the cloathing of the Defign, 
fo the fainter and the Toet ought to judge cx- 
adlly, when the Colouring and Expreflions are 
perfecft, and then to think their work is truly 
finidi'd. Apelles faid of Trotogenes , Tl?at he 
knew not when to give oyer. A work may be over- 
wrought as well as under-wrought ; too much 
Labour often takes away the Spirit by adding to 



the polifliing 5 fo chat there remains nothing but a 
dull corre<5tncfs, a piece without any confiderable 
Faults, but with few Beauties; for when the Spi- 
rits are drawn off, there is nothing but a caput mor- 
tiium, Stat'tus never thought an expreffion could 
be bold enough; and if a bolder could be found 
he reje(5ted the firft. Ttrgtl had Judgment enough 
IG know daring was neceflary ; but he knew the 
difference betwixt a glomng Colour and a glaring ; 
as when he compared the (hocking of the Fleets 
at AEl'mm to the juftling of Iflands rent from their 
Foundations, and meeting in the Ocean. He knew 
the comparifon was fore d beyond Nature and^ 
rais'd too high : he therefore foftcns the Metaphor 
with a Credos, You would almoft believe, that 
Mountains or Iflands rufh'd againft each other^^ 

Credos innare reVulfas 

Cy dados: aut montes concur r ere mont'tbus dcjuos. 

But here I muft break off without finifliing the ' 

Cynthm aurem "VeUit O* admonuitj (^c, the things 
which are behind are of too nice a confideration 
for an EJJ^ayy begun and ended in twelve Morn- 
ings, and perhaps the Judges of ^-ainting^ind ^oe* 
fryj whenitell them, how Abort a time it coft' 



me, may make me the fame anfwer, which my 
late Lord <I(ocheJler made co one, who to com- 
mend a Tragedy J faid it was written in three weeks-j 
How the Devil could he be lo long about it ? For 
that Toem was infamoufly bad ; and I doubt this 
Parallel is littk better j and then the fliortnefs of 
the time is fo far from being a Commendation, 
that it is fcarcely an Excufe. But if I have really 
drawn a Portrait to the Knees, or an half length 
with a tolerable Likenefs, then I may plead with 
ibme Juftice for my felf, that the reft is left to 
the Imagination. Let fome better Artift pro- 
vide himfelf of a deeper Canvas, and taking thefe 
hints which I have given , fet the Figure on its 
Legs, and finish it in the JnVention, Vejlgn and 





O F T H E 

French Author. 

AMong all the beautiful and delightful 
Arts, that of Painting has always 
found the mojl Lovers 5 the number 
of them almofl including ^i/ Mankind* 
Of whom great multitudes are daily found ^ who 
value themfelves on the kjiowledge of it\ either 
becaufe they J^ef company with Painters, or that 
they have feen good Pieces 5 or laftly^ becaufe 
their Gufto is naturally good. Which notwith- 
ftanding^ that Knowledge of theirs (if we may 
fo call it) is fo very fuferficial^ and fo illgrouiid- 
edy that it is imfojjible for them to defer ibe in 
what confifts the beauty ofthofe Works which they 
admirey or the faults which are in the greatefl 

{ h ) part 

'\i F K EFAC R 

part ofthofe which they condemn: and truly 'tis 
n$t hard to find^ that this -proceeds from no other 
caufe, than that they are not furnijV d with Rules 
by which to judge^ nor have any folid Foundati- 
onsy which are as Jo many Lights fet up to clear 
their underftanding and lead them to an entire 
and certain kjiowledge, I think, it fuperfluom 
to prove that this is necejary to the knowledge of 
Painting. 'Tis fufficient^ that Painting he ac- 
knowledgd for an Art 3 for that being granted 
it follows without difpute^ that no Arts are with- 
out their Precepts. Ifhall fatisfy my felf with 
telling you-, that this little Treatife wiU furnifh 
you with infallible Rules of judging truly : fince 
they are not 07iely fotinded upon right Reafon 
but upon thehejl Pieces of the beji Mafters, which 
our Author hath carefully examin d during the 
fpace of more than thirty years ; and on which he 
has made all the refleSlions which are necejfary to 
render this Treatife worthy of Pojierity : which- 
though little in bulk^ yet contains mo ft judicious 
Remarks, and fufers nothing to efcape that is ef- 
fential to the Subject which it handles. If you 
will pleafe to reacf it with attention, you will 
find it capable of giving the moft nice and deli- 
cate fort 0/ Knowledge, not onely to the Lovers, 
hut evm tat/j€r Profeflors of that Arc 

F R E F A C E: 

It muldle too long to tell you the particular 
advantages which it has above all the Book$ 
which hath appear d before it in this kind: you 
need onely to read it, and that will convince you 
of this truth. All that I will allow my felf to fay^ 
is onely this. That there is not a word in it, which 
carries net its weight:, whereas in all others, 
there are two confiderable faults which lie open 
to the fight, (viz.) That faying too much, they 
always fay too httle. / afure my felf, that the 
Reader will own 'tis a work, of general profit, to 
the Lovers of Painting, for their infiruUion how 
to judge exaSily 5 and with Knowledge of the Caufe^ 
which they are to judge. And to tloe Painters 
themfelves, by removing their difficulties, that 
they may work, with pleafure ^ becaufe they may 
be in fome manner certain that their ProduUions 
me good. 'Tis to be ufed like Spirits and preci- 
ous Liquours, the lefsyou drink, of it at a time 
'tis with the greater pleafure: tcsid it often, and 
but little at once, that you may digeft it better 5 
and dwell particularly on thofe pajfages which 
you find marled with an Aftcrifm^. For the 
obfervations which follow fuch a Note, will give 
you a clearer Light, on the matter which is there 
treated, Tou will find them by the Numbers 
which are on the fide of the Tranflation, from five 

C h 2 ) ^ t4 



^- ?RBfA C £. 

to five Vcr fcs ; by fearching for the likf Number 
in the Remarks which are at the end of ity and 
which are diftinguijh*d from each other b} this 
note ^. Tou wilt find in the latter Pages of this 
Book, the Judgment of the Author on thofe 
Painters, who have acquird the greateft Repu- 
tation in the World, Among/l whom^ he was not 
willing to comprehend thofe who are now living: 
They are undoubtedly his^ as being found among 
his Papers written in his own hand. 

As for the Profe Tranflation which you will 
find on the other fide of the Latine Poem, Jmuft 
inform you on whatoccafion^ and in what manner 
it was perform d. The Love which I had for Pain- 
ting, and the pleafure which I found in the Ex- 
ercife of that noble Art, at my leifurehours^ gave 
me the defire of being acquainted with the late 
Mr. du FRESNOY 5 who was generally reputed 
to have a //;ro//g A knowledge of it. Our Ac- 
quaintance at length proceeded to that degree of 
Intimacy 5 that he intrufted me with his Poem, 
which he believd me capable both of underftan- 
ding, a?id tranflating 5 and accordingly defird 
me to undertake it- The truth is^ that we had 
conuersd fo often on that Subjed:, and he had 
communicated his Thoughts of it fo fully tome -j. 
thatihhad not the leaft remaining difficulty con- 


lerning it. I undertook therefore to tranflate //, 
and imployd my felf in it mth Pleafure^ Care^ 
and Ajfiduity 5 after which^ I put it into his 
hands^ and he alter d in it rphat he pleas' d^ till 
at laji it was vpholly to his Mind- And then he 
gave his Confent that it fhould be publijh'd : 
but his Dc^t\\ preventing that Defign, Itl)Ought 
it a wrong to his Memory, to deprive Mankind 
any longer of this TrandsLtiony which I may fafe'^ 
ly affirm to be done according to the true fence of 
the Author, and to his liking: Since he him-^ 
felf has given great Teftimonies of his Approba- 
iionto many of his Friends-, and they who were 
acquainted with him^ know hk humour tabe fuch^ 
that he woildiiever confirain himfelf fo far^ as td 
commend what he did not realiy approve. I 
thought my felf obligd to fay thus much^ in viTh- 
die at ion of the faithfulnefs of my Work, to thofe 
who underfiand not the Latine : for as to thofe - 
who are converfant in both the tongues, I leave' 
them to make their own judgment of it. 

The Remarks which I have added tohis'worH^ 
are alfo wholly conformable to his opinions 5 and' 
I am certain that he woiid not have difdpprov d' 
them- I have endeavour d in them /o explain » 
fome of the moji ohkuxc paflages , and thofe 
which are.mojincccffaxy to be underftood ; and' 


Ixij. T R E FA C E 

IhoT/e done this according to the manner wherein 
he 116 d to exprefs himfelfjn many ConVerfations 
which we had together. I have confind them 
alfo to the narrowefl compafs I was able^ that I 
might not tire the patience of the Reader, and 
that they might be read by all perfons. But if it 
happens^ that they are not to the taft of fome 
Readers (as doubt lefs it will fo fall out) I leave 
them entirely to their own difcretion, and fh all 
not be difpleasd that another hand jhoud fuc- 
ceed better. Ijhall 07iely beg this idiWom from 
them^ that in reading what I have written, they 
will bring no particular gufto alo?ig with them, 
or any prevention of mind, and that whatfoever 
judgment they mak§, it may be purely their own, 
whether it he in my favour, or in my condem- 

.>? 'VvX^" 

A TABLE of the Precepts 

Contain'd in this TREATISE, 

/^F what is Beautiful, p. 7 
^ Of theory and Pramce.^ 
Concerning the Suhje^. 1 1 
Invention the firft part of 

Painting. i x 

The Difpojition of the whole 

mrk. ib. 

The Faithfulnefs of the SuB- 

je^. ib. 

Whatfoever palls the Suhje^ 

to he reje^ed, 1 5* 

Defign, or Drawing the fe- 

cond part of Painting, 1 6 
Variety in the Figures, 1 9 
The Members and Drapery of 

every Figure to he fuita* 

hie to it, ib. 

The Anions of Mutes to he 

imitated. ib. 

Of the principal Figure of 

the Suhje^. ib. 

Group pes of Figures. 20 

The Diverfity of Poflures in 

the Grouppes, ib. 

Equality of the Piece. ib. 
Of the number of Figures. 13 
Of the Joints and Feet, ib. 

The Motions of the Hands 

and Head mufl agree, ib. 
What mufl he avoided in the di^ 

jlrihution of the FiguresXh, 
That we mufl not tie our [elves 

to Nature, hut accommo- 

date her to our Genius. 24 
Ancient Figures the Rules of 

imitating Nature. xy 
A Jjngle Figure how to he 

treated. ib. 

Of the Draperies, ib. 

What things contrihute to a^ 

dorn the Figure, 31 

Of precious Stones and Pearls 

for Ornament, ib. 

The Model. ib. 

The Scene of the Figure, ib. 
The Graces and theNshlenefs, 

Let every thing he fet in its 

proper place. ib. 

OfthePaffions. 32- 

Gothique Ornamens to he a- 

voided i ib. 

Colouring the third part of 

Painting, 3 5- 




The Con^u^ of the tones of 
Li^ht and Shadows. 3 9 

Of dark Bodies on light 
grounds. 40 

That there mufl not le two e- 
qual Lights in a Figure. 4 3 

Of White and Black. 44 

The Reflexion of Colours. 4 7 

The Vnion of Colours. ib. 

Of the Inter pofition of Air. ib. 

The relation ofDiJiances. 48 

Of Bodies which are dijlancd. 


Of Bodies which are contigu- 
ous^ and of thofe which are 
feperated. ib. 

Contrary -extremities to he a- 
voided. ib. 

Diverfity of Tones and Co- 
lours. ib. 

The Choice of Light. 5 1 

Of certain things relating to 
the pr apical part. ib. 

The Field y or Ground of the 

Figure. ib. 

Of the Vivacity of Colour s.^t 

Of Shadows. ib. 

The Figure to^he of one Piece. 


The Looking-glafs the Pain- 
ters left Mafter. ib. 

An half Figure i or a whole one 

before others. ib. 

i Portrait. SS 

The place of the Pifture. ib. 
L^rge Lights. 5 (J 

What Lights are requifte. ib. 
Things which are vicious in 
Painting to he avoided, ib. 
The prudential part of a Pain- 
ter, ib. 
The Idea of a heautifui Piece. 

.J . ^^ 

Advice t9 a young Painter. ib. 

Art muft he fuhfervient to 

the Painter. 60 

Diverfity and Facility are 

pleafing. ib. 

The Original mufi he in the 

Headl and the Copy on the 

Cloth. ib. 

The Compafs to he in the 

Eyes. ib. 

Pride an Enemy to good 

Painting. 63 

Know your Jelf ib. 

Pra^ife perpetually. 64 

The Morning mofi proper for 

Work. ib. 

Every day do fomething. ib. 
The Pajions which are true 

and natural ib. 

Of Table-Books. 67 

The method of Studies for a 

young Painter. yi. 

Nature and Experience per- 
fea Art. y^ 





O F 








UT PICTURA POESis ERJT j fimilifyue Toefi 
Sit TiBuraj refert far ^mula qu^/eq, for or em y. 
Alternantcjue Vices O* nomina 5 muta Toefis 
Dicitur h^Cy ^iSura loquens/olet ilta Vocari, 

Qnoi fuit auditu gratum cecinere ^oetae^ 
Quodpulchrum afpe^u ^lEiores finger e cur ant : 
Qu^que J^oetarum numeris indignafuere^ 
Non eadem Tiiiorum oferam Jiudiumque merentur : 

Amhdt quippe facros ad ^ttigionis honor es 
Sydereos Juperant ignes^ Julamque Tonantis 
Ingrejf<€y DiVum afpeltuy alloquioque fruuntur y 
Oraque magna Veum ^ di£ia ob/erVata reportanty 
Codeftemque fuorum operutn mortalibm ignem. 
Inde^per hunc orhem Jludik coeuntibHS erranty 



Art of Painting. 


^ "W-^Ainting and Poefy are two Sifters, which The Pajjaget 
are fo like in all things, that they mil LrV w2 
tually lend to each other both their '^'^ ^-/^'^'>* * 

1 j-^rr j^ ' i!> 1 are more am ' 

Name and Orlice. One is calld z^iy explain d 
Jumb Poefy, and the other a fpeaking Picture. '^^^^^'^ ^^' 
The Poets have never faid any thing but what j. 
they believ'd would pleafe the Ears. And it has 
been the conftant endeavour of the Painters to ^ 

give pleafure to the Eyes. In fliort, thofe things :^ 

which the Poets have thought unworthy of their ^ :^; 

Pens, the Painters have judg'd to be unworthy '% 

of their Pencils. ^ For both of them, that they 
might contribute all within their power to the 
facred Honours of Religion, have rais*d them- | o. 
felves to Heaven, and, having found a free ad- 
mifBon into the Palace oiJo'Ve himfelf, have en- 
joy'd the fight and converfation of the Gods 5 
whofe Majefty they obferve, and contemplate 
the wonders of their Difcourfej in order to relate 
them to Mankind ; whom at the fame time they. 
infpire with thofe Cceleftial Flames, which fhine 
fo glorioufly in their Works. From Heaven they 

B 2 take 

4. Tk Art of Painting. 

take their paffage through the World ; and are 
neither (paring of their pains nor of their ftudy to 

i^j, colle(5t whatfoever they find worthy of them. 
^They dive (as I may fay) into all part Ages^j 
and fcarch their Hiftories, for Subjects which are 
* proper for their ufe : with care avoiding to treae 
of any but thofe which, by their noblenefs, or by 
fome remarkable accident, have defcrv'd to be 
confecrated to Eternity, whether on the Seas, or 

20. Earth, or in the Heavens. And by this their 
c^ire and ftudy it comes to pafs, that the glory 
of Heroes is not extinguifli'd with their lives : 
and that thofe admirable works, thofe prodigies 
of skill, which even, yet are the objedls of our ad- 
miration, are ftill preferv'd. * So much thefe Di- 
vine Arts have been always honoured : and fuch 

Zj* authority they preferve amongft Mankind. It 
will not here be neceflary to implore the fuccour 
of Jpolloy and the Mufes ; for the gracefulnefs of 
the Difcourfe^ or for the Cadence of the Verfes i 
which containing onely Precepts, have not fa 
much need of Ornament, as of Pcrfpicuity. 

JO. I pretead not in this Treatife to tye the hands 

of Artifts, whofe skill confifts onely in a certain, 
practice, or manner which they have affected j 
and made of it as it were a Common Road. 
Neither would I ftifle the Genius by a jumbled 


De Arte Graphiea, 

Carpentes qud dignafu't^ re'Volutatiue lufirant i j, 

Tempora. Quarendis conjort'ihm Argumentis, 

Denique cjua^cumcjut in cmh^ terracjue^ marique 

Longim in tempus durare, ut pukhruy merentur^ 

Nobilitate fua clarocjue tnjignia cafuy 

Diyes <(s* ampla manet Ti^ores at que ^oetas iO* 

MaterieSy inde aha fonayit per f^ecula mundo 

Nomina, magnaninm Heroihus inde fuperjles 

Gloria, perpetuoque operum miracula rejlant : 

XantHS inejl divis honor Artihm atque poteflas* 

TSlon mihi ^ieridum chorus hie, nee Apollo yocandus, zj. 
Majm ut eloqmum numeris aut gratia fanS 
Dogmaticis illuflret opus rationibm hor^ens : 
Cum mtidatantum^srfacili digtjia loquela., . 
Ornari pr^ecepta negant ', eontenta doceru 

Nee mihi mens animufve fuit conjiringere nodos 3 o." 

Artipcium manihus, quos tantum dirigit ufm 5 
Indolis ut vigor inde potens obJiriBm hehefcat, 


De Arte Graphica. 

TSlonncirum numcro imtnam Geniumque tnoretur 

Sed rermn ut pollens Ars cognttione gradatlm 

TSlatUYdt fefe infimety "Verique capacem 

Tran/eat in Genium^ Geniufque ufu induat Artem, 

VrimMmVtX'^y^cipua imprimis Jrtifcjue potijjima pars efiy 

De pSdiro. '^^Jf^ i^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Natura crearit ad Artem 

^ulchriHSyid(iue Modumjuxtay MentetfKjue Vetuftanty 

40. (hi^ fif^^ harlaries Cdua <s* temeraria Tukhrum 
Hegligity infukans ignot£ audacior Arti, 
Ut curare nequtty qu^ non modo noyerit effe, 
Uludapud Veteresfuity unde notahile diSiutUy 
Nil Pidtore malo fecurius atquc Pocta. 

/ Cognita 

The Art of Painting. t 

heap of Rules: nor extinguifli the fire of a veitr 
which is lively and abundant. But rather to 
make this my bufinefs, that Art being ftrength- 
ned by the knowledge of things, may at length 
pafs into Nature by flow degrees j and fo in pro- j j, ' 
cefs of time may be fublim'd into a pure Genius 
which is capable of choofing judicioufly what is 
true ^ and of diftinguifliing betwixt the beauties 
of Nature, and that which is low and mean in 
her ; and that this Original Genius by long ex<er- 
cile and cuftoms, m;iy perfectly poflefs all the 
Rules and Secrets of that Art. 

^ The principal and moft important part of Precept i. 

_ . . > > I 11 ft Of what is 

Painting, is to hnd out and thoroughly to un- BeaHtifulL 
derftand what Nature has made moft beautifullj 
and moft proper to this Art ; ^ and that a choice 
of it may be made according to the guft and 
manner of the Ancients, ^ without which all is 40. 
nothing but a blind, and rafli barbarity 5 which 
rejects what is moft beautifull, and feems with an 
audacious infolcnce to delpife an Art,, of which 
it is wholly ignorant ; which has occafion'd thefe 
words of the Ancients ; Tliat no man is fo boldj Jo 
rap?y and fo o'verweening ofhisowntporhj as an ill 
fainter J and a had Toety who are not confcioHS to 
thmfebes of their own Ignorance, 

8 "ihe Art of fainting. 

4y. ^ We love what we underftand 5 we defire 
what we love 5 we purfue the enjoyment of thofe 
things which we defire ; and arrive at laft to the 
poflTefliori of what we have purfu'd, if we con- 
ftantly perfift in our Defign. In the mean time, 
we ought not to exped: that blind Fortune (hould 
infallibly throw into our hands thofe Beauties : 
For though we may light by chance on fome 
which are true and natural, yet they may prove 
cither not to be decent or not to be ornamental. 

J o. Becaufe is is not fufficient to imitate Nature in 
every circumftance, dully, and as it were literally, 
and meanly 5 but it becomes a Painter to take 
what is moft beautifuU, ^ as being the Soveraigti 
Judge of his own Art ; and that by the progrefs 
which he has made, he may underftand how to 
corre<5l his errors, and ^ permit no tranfient 
Beauties to efcape his obfervation. 

i^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^"^^ manner, that bare practice, de- 

W Franicf. ftitute of the Lights of Art, is always fubjed: to 

fall into a Precipice hke a blind Traveller, wich- 

jy, out being able to. produce any thing which con- 
tributes toafolid reputation: So the fpeculative 
part of Painting, without the afliftance of manual 
operation, can never attain to that perfe(5tion 
which is its objedt ; But floathfuUy languiflies as 
in a Prifon : for it was not with his Tongue that 


De Arte Graphica. 9 

Cognita amasy <(s* amata cupis, feciuerifque cupita j 45. 
^ajjibws ajfequeris tandem qu^e ferVidm urges ;• 
lUci tamen qu^ pulchra decent 5 non omnia cafus 
Quallacumque dabunty etiam'Ve fimllllma Veris : 
2iam quamcumque modo ferVtli haudfufficit ipfam 
Tiaturam exprimere ad Viyum, fed ut Arbiter Artis j 0. 
Seliget ex ilia tantu^m pulcherrima ^iBor. 
Quodque mirms pulchrtmiy aut mendofum corriget ipfe 
Marte fuoy form a Veneres captando fugaces. 

II. Prxcep^ 

Utque manusgrandi nil nomine praEiica dignum one&Pr^' 
AJfequitur^ pur urn arcane quam deficit Artis j j, 

Lumeny O* in prteceps ahitura ut caca yagatur 5 
Sic nihil Ars opera manuum privata fupremum 
Exequitury Jed languet iners uti VmBa lacertos ; 
Vifpofitumque typum non lingua pinxit Apelles. 

C Ergo 

I o De Arte Graphica. 

60. Ergo licet tot a normam hand poffinms in Arte 

Ponere, (citm nequeant qutC funt fakherrima did) 
Nitimur h^ec paucisj Jcrutati fumma magijlr^ 
Dogmata Nature, Artifque Exemplaria prima 
Altim intuit i j Jtc mens habilifque facultas 

6y, Indolis excolitur, Ceniumque fcientia cojnflet, 

Luxurianfque in monjira furor compefcitur Arte : 
Eft modus in rebus, funt certi denique fines, , 
QuQs ultra citraque nequit confiftere redum.. 



DeArgu, His pojitisy eritoptandumTljemanohiky pulchrumy 

7a, Quodque yenuflatum circa Formam atque Colorem 
Sponte capax amplam emeriti mox preheat Arti 
Materiam^ retegens aliquid falls <s* documenti. 


"the Art of Painting. * it 

^peltes perform'd his Noble Works. Therefore 60. 
though there are many things in Painting, of 
which no precife rules are to be given (^ becaufe 
the greateft Beauties cannot always be exprefs'd 
for want of terms) yet I fhall not omit to give 
fome Precepts which I have feledled from among 
the moft confiderable which we have received 
from Nature, that exad School- miftrefs, after ha- 
ving examin'd her moft fecret receffes, as well as 
^ thofe Maftef-pieces of Antiquity, which were 
the firft Examples of this Art : And, 'tis by this 
means that the mind, and the natural difpofition 65^ 
are to be cultivated ; and that Science perfed:s 
Genius, ^ and alfo moderates that fury of the 
fancy, which cannot contain it felf within the 
bounds of Reafon 5 but often carries a man into 
dangerous extremes : For there is a mean in all 
things 3 and a certain me a fur e^ wherein the good and 
the heautifull conjtji 5 and out of which they ne'Ver 
^an depart. 

This being premised, the next thing is to make ^ ^^•. 

1 • r V r> 1 • A I r 11 1 11 Concernifjg 

choice or "T^ a Subject beautitull and nohie.-^ the SHbjeB 
which being of it felf capable of all the charms. 70. 
and graces, that Colours, and the elegance of 
Defign can poflibly give, fliall afterwards afford, 
to a perfed: and confummate Art, an ample field 
of matter wherein to expatiate it felf5 to exert all 

C 2 its 

12 • The Art of Fainting. 

its power, and to produce fomewhat to the fight 
which is excellent, judicious, ^ and well fea- 
fon d 5 and at the fame time proper to inftrud:, 
and to enlighten the Underftanding. 

Thus at length I enter into the SubjecSl-matter 
of my Difcourfej and at firft find only a bare 
ftrain d Canvafs : ^ on which the whole Machine 
(as it may be call'd) of the Pidure is to be dif- 
pos'd; and the imagination of a powerfull, and 
7 J. cafy Genius 5 ^ which is what we properly call 

JrwentioH the InVention. 

^p!ilV/ ^ INVENTION is a kind of Mufe, 
which being poflefs'd of the other advantages 
common to her Sifters 5 and being warm'd by 
the fire of ApoUo^ is rais'd higher than the reft, 
and fliines with a more glorious, and brighter 

IV. ^ 'Tis the bufinefs of a Painter, in his choice 
tiMorOeca- of Poftures, to forcfcc the effcd, and harmony of 
''T-/ C^^^t ^he Lights and Shadows, with the Colours which 

are to enter into the whole 5 taking rrom each or 
80, them, that which will moft conduce to the pro- 
dudion of a beautifuU EfFed. 

V. ^ Let your Compofitions be conformable to 
ftefsofthc^^^^ Text of Ancient Authours, toCuftoms, and 
M>^. to Times. 

^ Takr 

De Arte Graphics. 


Tandem Gpus a^rediory pr'moejue occurrit in Alho 
X>ifponenda typi concepta potente MinerVa 
Machina, qu^e nojlris Inventio dicitur oris. 


IIU (juidem prius ingenuis inJlruSla Sororum 
Artihus Aonidum^ ^ ^hM fublimior ^ejiu. 

(Mrima Pi^i^^ 
lix pars. 

Qu^rendafque inter ToJitur<iSj luminisy nmhr^, 
Atque futurorum jam prafentire colorum 
^ar erit harmoniamy captando ah utrifque Venujiim. 

^ IV. 

ve operisto- 
tius OecCn(> 


Stt Thematts jrenuma ac VtVa expreffio luxta V. 

Jextum Ant^uorumy propnts cum tempore formts. gumentl ' 


14 De Arte Graphica. 

- ^'' .. , ISlec quod inane, nihil facit ad rem, Iha Videtur 
Inane rejici- ■* . . . , •' ■' ■' 

cndura. Improprtumy mmimeque urgens, potior a temhit 
^J« Ornamenta operis 'j Tragic^ Jed lege Jo'ror is 

Summauhi res agitury Vis fummarequiritur Artis, 

IJlakhore graViy fludioy monitifque Magijiri 
Arduapars nequit addifci rariffima: namque 
7SS prius athereo rapuit quod ah axe ^rohiethem 
5>o, Sit jubar infu/um menti cumflamine "Vit^Cy 

Mortali haucf cuivis diVtna Ihiec munera dantur^ 
Non uti D^daleam Ikec omnibus ire Corinthum. 

JEgypto informis quondam ^iBura reperta, 
Cr^corum fludiis<s* mentis acumine credit: 
•95. Egregtis tandem illujlrata ^ adult a Magijlris 
Naturam vi/a ejl miro fuperare labor e. 

Quos inter Graphfdos gymnajta prima fuire^ 
Tortus Athenarumj Skyon, ^odos^ atque Corinthus^ 
Difparia inter fey modicum ratione Laboris-^ 


The Art of Painting.' r^ ^ 

^ Take care that whatfoever makes nothing ^^ J}- 

O Whatfoever 

to your Subject, and is improper to it, be noi fails the Sub- 
admitted into your Work, or not poflfefs thej^^J. ^^^^ 
chief place in it. But on this occafion , imi- 8j, 
tate the Sifter of Painting, Tragedy : which em- 
ploys the whole forces of her Art in the main 

^ This part of Painting, fo rarely met withy 
and fo difficult to be found, is neither to be ac- 
quired by pains or ftudy, nor by the Precepts or 
Counfels of any Mafter. For they alone who 
have been inlpir'd at their birth with fome por- 
tion of that Heavenly fire ^ which was ftoUen qo»^ 
by TrometheuSj are capable of receiving fo divine • 
a prefent. As the Proverb tells us, ^ that it hap- 
fens not to every one to fee Corinth. 

Painting firft appear'd in Egypt : but wholly 
diflferent from the truth, till having travelled into 
Greece, and being cultivated by the Study, and 
fublime Genius of that Nation, ^ it arriv'd at ? J> - 
length to that height of perfection, that it feem'd 
to furpafs even Original nature. 

Amongft the Academies, which were com-^ 
pos'd by the rare Genius of thofe Great men, 
thefe four are reckoned as the principal : namely, 
the Athenian Schooly that of Sicyon^ that o{(^hodesy 
and tha,t o( Corintk Thefe were little different 


i^ The Art of Painting. 

from each other, onely in the manner of their 
ioo; work 5 as it may be feen by the Ancient Sta- 
tuesy which are the ^le of 'Beauty^ and to which 
fucceeding Ages have nothing that is equal : 
^ Though they are not very much inferiour 
either in Science, or in the manner of their Exe- 


Dejkn^'the ^ ^ Pofture therefore muft be chofen accor- 

fecondfart <?/ <Jing to their gufto : ^ The Parts of it muft be 

great ^ and large, ^ unequal in their pofition, 

lo that thofe which are before muft contraft ( or 

105. oppofe) thofe others which are hindermoft, and 

all of them be equally balanced on their Centre. 

^ The Parts muft have their out-lines in waves 

refembling flames, or the gliding of a Snake up- 

. on the ground; They muft be fmooth, they 

muft be great, they muft be almoft imperceptible 

to the touch, and even, without either Eminen- 

110, ces or Cavities. They muft be drawn from far, 

and without breaks, to avoid the multiplicity of 

lines. Let the Mufcles be well inferted and 

bound together ^ according to the knowledge of 

them which is given us by Anatomy, Let them 

be ^ defign d after the manner of the Grecians ; 

and let them appear but little, according to 

what we fee in the Ancient Figures. In fine, ^ let 

there be a perfed: relation betwixt the parts and 


De Arte Graphica. 1 7 

Ut patetex Veterumjlatuis^ forma atcjue decor is i bo. 
Jrchetypisy quels pojlerior nil protulit <eta4 

Condignum^ <sr non inferius longe Arte^ Modocjue : graphis 

Horum igitur Vera ad normam Pofitura legetur^ feu Pofitura, 

'Grandiuy inaqucdisy formofaque ^artihm amplis ^ur* pars. " 

Anterior a dabit membra^ in contraria motu \ o.j. 
Diverfo VariatUj fuo Uberataque centres 

Membrorumque Sinus ignis fJammantis ad inflar 
Serpenti undantes flexUj fed UVia plana 
Magnaque fignay quafi fine tuber e fubdita taUtt 
Ex longo deducla fluanty non feSia minutinty 1 1 o. 

Infertifque Torts fint nota ligamina juxta 
Compagem Anathomesy <s* membrificatio Grdtco 
T>eformata Modoy paucifque exprejfa lacertisy 
Quails apud Veteres ; totoque Eurithmla partes 

D Cornponat^ 

1 8 De Arte Graphica. 

1 1 J. Componat^ geyiltumcjue fuo gateraiite fequenti 

Sit minus y <sr funHoVideantur cunElafuh uno 5 
(^gula certa licet neqt4eant ^rofpeBica did. 
Jut complementU7?t GraphidoSy Jed in arte juV amen 
Et Modus aecelerans operandi r ut corpora falfo 

1 20. ^^^ ^if^ ^'^ 7nulti5 referens mendofa labafcit: 
Nam Geometralem nunquam funt corpora juxta 
Menjuram depi^a oculisy Jed qualia yifa. 

VIII. ^ Non eadem forma ffeciesj non omnihus t^tas 
Figuris. yEqualiSy Jtmilifque cohr^-crinejque Figuris : 
1 2 y . Nam Variis "Vtlut orta plants Gens diJpare'Vultu. 

Figurafituna Singula memhra fuo capit'i eonforynia fiant 
cum Mem- Unum idemquefimul corpus cum Vefiihusipjis : 
bus. Mutorumque Jilens Tofitura imitabitur aHus, 

Mutorum a- 
ftiones imi» 

F^a Prin- fpy'tma Figurarum, feu ^Princeps Dramatis ultrO' 
1^0, ^roftliat 77iedia in Tabula fuh lumine primo 

9ulchrior ante dias^ reliquis iiec operta Figuris, 


The Art ofVmnthg. 19 

the whole, that they may be entirely of a piece. 

Let the part which produces another part, be 115, 
more ftrong than that which it produces ; and 
let the whole be feen by one point of Sight. 
^ Though Perfpediive cannot be call'd a certain 
rule or a finifliing of the Picture, yet it is a great 
Succour and Relief to Art5and facilitates the means 
of Execution; yet frequently falling into Errors, 120. 
and making us behold things under afalfe Afpedtj 
for Bodies are not always reprefented according 
to the Geometrical Plane, but fuch as they ap- 
pear to the Sight. 

Neither the Shape, of Faces, nor the Age, nor y I li- 
the Colour ought to be alike in all Figures, any ^j'if'^jj^ ^^ 
more than the Hair : becaufe Men are as different 125. 
from each other, as the Regions in which they 
are born, are different. ^ 

^ Let every Member be made for its own 5^ J^^^^, 
head, and agree with it. And let all together w Drapery 
compofe but one Body, with the Draperies which ^^^^^Xy-Jl 
are proper and fuitable to it. And above all, ^^^^^^^"^• 
^ let the Figures to which Art cannot give a voice. The AEtms 
imitate the Mutes in their Adions. tilted!' 

^ Let the principal Figure of the Subjed ap- 1 ^ o. 
pear in the middle of the Piece under the ftrong- xi. . 
eft Light, that it may have fomewhat to make pal Figure of 
it more remarkable than the reft, and that the Fi- ^^'^^^J'^- 

D 2 gures 


«D The Art of Tainting. 

gurcs which accompany it, may not Ileal it from? 

Gur Sight. 

XIL ^ Let the Members be combined in the fame 

Bgm-a! ^-^xnanner as the Figures are, that is to fay, coupled 

and knit together. And let the Grouppes be ft- 

parated by a void fpace , to avoid a confused 

heap J which proceeding from parts that are dif 

^jj. pers'd without any Regularity, and entangled 

one within another, divides the Sight into many 

Rays, and caufes a difagreeable Confufion. 

XIIL ^ The Figures in the Grouppes, ought not to 

cfpffi^(%ht like each other in their Motions, any more 

thcGroHffes. than in their Parts : nor to be all on the fame fide, 

14Q. but let them contraft each other; bearing them»- 

felvefi on the one fide, in Oppofition to thofe which 

are fet againfi: them on the other. 

Amongftmany Figures which fliow their fore- 
parts let there be fome one whofe hinder parts may 
»^ be feen ; oppofing the Shoulders to the Stomachy 

and the right fide to the left. 
14^. ^ One fide of the Pidure mull not be void, 

EfulJtj ,^^hil^ ^l^c other is fiU'd to the Borders ^ but let 
thefUcf. matters be fo well difpos'd, that if one fide of 
the piece be full, the Painter fhall find fome oc- 
1 J o. cafion to fill the other ; fo that they (hall appear 
in fome fort equal wJiether there be many Figures 
ia it, or but few.„ 

^ As 

De Arte Graphics. 


Agglomeratajimul fint membra, ipf^que Figur^t 
Stipentur, clrcumque glohos locus ufque Vacabit 5 
Ne, male difperjis dum Vijus ubique Ftguris 
VrndituTy cunSiifque opemferVente tumultu 
^artibus implicit^ crepitans confujh Jurgat, 


Clobi feu Cu- 

1 3 J. 

tique figurarum cimulis non omnibus idem 
Corporis inflexus, nwtufquey Vel artibus omnes 
Conyerjis pariter non connitantur eodem, 
Sed. qu^dam in diverfa trahant contraria membra 
Tranfverseque edits pungent , <Cr cMera frangant. 

^luribus adverfes aVerfam oppone figurantj 
^eBoribufque burner os, <^ dexter a membra Jmijirk^ 
Sen multis conflabit Opus, paucifye fgurk. 

Altera pars tabuU "Vacuo ne frigida Campo 
Aut defertajtety dum pluribus altera formis. 
FerVida mole fua fuprejnamexurgit ad or^mt: 
Sed tibi fie pofitis refpondeat utraque rebus, 
lit fi aliquid Jurfum fe parte attollat in una. 
Sic aliquid parte ex,alia confurgat, <sr ambas 
JEquiparetj geminas cumukndo aequaliter oras. 



diAerfitas in 




mentunv . 

I Jo- 

22 De Arte Graphica. 

XV. '^lur'ihtis implicitum Terfonis Drama fupremo 

£urSum^ ^^ ^^^ ^c«cre ut rarum eji ; tmltis ka denfa Ftguris 
(l(amr eft Tabula excellens 3 "Vel adhucfere nulla 
1 5 J. ^r^Jlitit in muhis quod Vtx bene pr^Jlat in una : 

Quippe folet rerum yiimio difperfa tumultn 
Majejlatecareregrayi requieque decora 'y 
TSlec fpeciofa nitet "Vacuo niji libera Campo. 

SedJlOpere in magno plures Tl?emagrande reqmrat 
1 60. Ejfe figurarum Cumulosy fpeEiabitur una. 

Machina tota reiy nonfingula quieque feorjtm. 


Intemodia & 

F^es cxhi- (pr^cipua extremis raro Internoc/ia membris 
xvi-L Jiditajint: fed fumma Tedum Vejiigia nunquam, 

*immotuica- ; 

pids jungen- Gratia nulla manet^ motufque^ Vigor que Figuras 
'• ^tro aliis fubter major i ex parte latentes, 
xviii. ^i capitis jnotum manihus comitmtur agendo. 
S^MnbUff Diddles fugito afpeclus, contraBaque Vifu 
oae 8c Com- Membra fub inrrato. motufquCy aBufque coaBoSy 

Tk Art ofPakting: 25 

^ As a Play is very feldom good, in which there ^r ?^' 

^ . . r y • ^ r 1 1 r , Of the nunt- 

are too many Actors, lo tis very leidom ken and ber of Fi- 
almoft impoflible to perform, that a Pidure flhould '^^^'^"^' 
be perfed in which there are too great a number 
of figures. And we cannot wonder that fo few 
Painters have fucceeded who have introduced into i /(-. 
their works many Figures. Becaufe indeed there 
are not many Painters to be found, who have 
fucceeded happily, when even they have intro- 
duced but few. Many difpers'd Objedls breed 
confufion, and take away from the Pidure 
that grave Majefly, that foft filence and repofe, 
which give beauty to the Piece, and fatisfaZtion 
to the fight. But if -you are conftrained by the 
fubjed, to admit of many Figures, you muft then 1 6o» 
conceive the whole together 3, and the cflfed: of 
the work at one view ; and not every thing fepa- 
rately and in particular. xvi. 

^ The extremities of the Joints muft be feldom %fjf"'' 
hidden, and the extremities or end of the Feet ne- ^,^^^' , 

Ver. the hands and 

^ The Figures which are behind others, have^;;^ '"^■^ ^ 
neither Grace nor Vigor, unlefs the Motions of i^j. 
the hands accompany thofe of the Head. 

Avoid the views which are difficult to be found, -J^^'^I*, 
and are not natural, as alfo forced Adions and ^voidedinthc 
Motions. Show no parts which are ungracious tftUFkures, 


Sf The Art of Painting. 

to the Sight, as all fore fliortnings, ufually 

"^ Avoid alfo thofe Lines and Out-lines which 
ar^ equal 5 which make Parallels, or other fliarp 
170. pointed and Geometrical Figures j fuch as are 
Squares and Triangles.: all which by being too 
exad: give to the Eye a certain difpleafing Sym- 
metry, which produces no good efFe<Si:. But as 
I have already told you, the principal Lines ought 
to contraft each other : For which reafon in 
thefe out-lines, you ought to have a fpecial regard 
i^c^ to the whole together; for 'tis from thence that 

the Beauty and Force of the parts proceed. 
XIX. ^ Be not fo ftridly ty-d to Naturey that you 
not 4UoHr^^^^^ nothing to ftudy, and the bent of your 
ff^T^^JtoNA- Q^j^ Genius. But on the other fide, believe not 

^Hre, but AC' ' 

-commodate that yout Geniws alone, and the Remembrance 
niw, ^^^ ^ of thofe things which you have fecn, can afford 
you wherewithal! to furnifli out a beautifull Piece, 
without the Succour of that incomparable School- 
miftrefs, Nature i ^ whom you muft have al- 
ii 8 o. ways prefent as a witnefs to the Truth. We may 
make a thoufand Errors of all kinds 5 they are 
everywhere to be found, and as thick fet as 
Trees in Forefts, and amongft many ways which 
miflead a Traveller, there is but one true one 
which conduits him furely to his Journey's end 4 

De Arte Graphica. z5 

QHodcfHe refert Jtgnis^ reHos cjuodammodo traStu^, 

SiVe Tarallelos plures Jimuly <C^ yel acutas, 

Vel Geomet rales (ut Quadra^ Triangula^) fornix : ijo* 

Ingratamque pari Signorum ex or dine quandam 

Symmetriam : fed pr^cipua in contraria femper 

Signa Volunt ducitranjverfay ut diximus ante. 

Summa igitur ratio Signorum habeatur in omni 

CompoJitO'j dat enim reliquis pretiumy atque vigorem, 175* 

Nbw it a 7iatur£ aflanti jts cuique.reVmBuSy Xix. 

Hanc pr^eter nihil ut Genio Jludioque relinqu^ 3 accommcT*** 

Nee fine tefte rei natura^ Artifque Magi/Ira ^*"^*' 

Quidlibet ingenio memor ut tantummodo rerum 
^ingere pojfe putes 5 errorum eft plurima fyhay 18 a. 

Multiplicejque >/>, bene agendi terminm unuSy 
Line a reSia Velut/ola efty ^ milk recurV^ : 

Sedjuxta Antiquos naturam imitabere pulchramy 
Qjfalem forma reipropriay objeBumque requirit, 

E Kon 

i6 De Arte Graphica. 

185. Now te igkur lateant antlqua'Kumtfmata^ Gemma-^ 
XX. Vafuj Typiy Statute, c^lataque Marmora Stents 5 
qua^Naturjc Quodque refert fpecle Veterum poji facula Mentem y 
Stuunt ^^^' Splendidior quippe ex tills ajfurgit imago^ 

Magnaque fe rerum fades aperit meditanti ; 
150. Tunc mjiri tenuemj^zcli miferebere fortemy 

Cm /pes nulla ftet reditura, ^equalis in ^yum». 

XXI. Exquijita Jiet forma dum fola Ftgura 

quomodo"fa-^%^^«^)^ wukis lariat a Coloribus ejlo. 


Lati ampltque finus Tannorum^ <s* nohilis ordo 
tpy. Membra fequensy fubter latitantia Lumine <(sr Hmbrd^ 

QufcHn Pan- ^^P^^^^^^y ^^^ ^^^^^ tranfverfus fape feratur^ 
nis obfervan- Et clrcumfujos Tan?iorum porrigat extra 

Membra JtnuSy non contlguos^ ipjifque Figure 
^arttbus impreffosy quaji ^annus adh<ereat Hits 3 
200. Sed modice expreffos cum Lumine ferret <^ Umbris : 


The Art of Fainting. 17 

as alfo there are many feveral forts of crooked 
lines 5 but there is one only which is ftraight. 

Our bufincfs is to imitate the Beauties of Na- 
ture, as the Ancients have done before us, and as 1 8 j. 
the Objed: and Nature of the thing require from ^J^^' p^ 
AJis, And for this reafon we muft be careful! ing»resfherf,ies 
the fearch of Ancient Medals^ Statuesy Vajes and Natunf^^"'^ 
(Baffo (I(elieWs : ^ And of all other things which 
dilcover to us the Thoughts and Inventions of 
the Grecians ; becaufe they furnifli us with great I- 
deaSj and make our Produ(5tions wholly beautifull. 1 90, 
And in truth after having well examined them, 
we fliall therein find fo many Charms, that we 
(hall pity the Deftiny of our prefent Age without 
hope of ever arriving at fo high a point of Perfe- 

^ If you have but one fingle Figure to w ork . ?^^' 
upon, you ought to make it perfectly finifli'd purJ"iow ll 
and divcrfify'd with many Colours. treated. 

^ Let the Draperies be nobly fpread upon the xxir. 
Body ; let the Folds be large, '^ and let them fol-^/^v/ ^^' 
low the order of the parts, that they may be feen 1 5)5. 
underneath, by means of the Lights and Shadows, 
'notwithftanding that the parts fhould be often 
travers'd (or crofs'd) by the flowing of the Folds 
which loofely incompa'fs them, ^ without fitting 
too ftraight upon them, but let them mark the 200. 

E 2 parts 

qS Tte Art of Painting. 

parts which are under them, fo as in fome man^ 
ner to diftinguifli them, by the judicious ordering 
of the Lights and Shadows. ^ And if the parts 
be too much diftanc from each other, fo that 
there be void fpaces, which are deeply fhadow'd, 
we are then to take occafion to place in thofe 
voids fome Fold to make a joining of the parts. 
-^ And as the Beauty of the Limbs confifts not in 
the quantity and rifing of the Mufcles, but on the 
contrary, thofe which are lefs eminent have more 
205. of Majefly than the others; in the fame manner 
the beauty of the Draperies, confifts not in the 
multitude of the folds, but in their natural or- 
der, and plain fimplicity. The quality of the 
per{ons is alfo to be confider'd in the Drapery. 
^ As fuppofing them to be Magiftrates, their Dra- 
peries ought to be large and ample : Jf Country 
, Clowns or Slaves they ought to be courfe and 
fhort : ^ If Ladies or Damfels, light and foft. 
'Tis fomecimes requifite to draw out, as it were 
from the hollows and deep ftiadows, fome Fold^ 
and give it a Swelling, that receiving the Light, 
it may contribute to extend the clearnefs to thofe 
places where the Body requires it; and by this 
means, we flhall disburthen the piece of thofe hard 
Shadowings which are always ungracefull. 

^ The 

2 1 o. 

De Arte Graphica. 25^ 

Qut)^(jue intermiffls pajfim funt dijf/ita Vanis 
Copulety inducts fubterVej fuperVe lacernis. 
Et membra ut magnis faucifyue exprejfa lacertis. 

Majefiate aliis pr^Jtant forma atcjue decore 5 

Hand fecm in Iannis cjuos fupraoptaVtmm amplos ZOfi. 

^erpaucos Jinuumflexmy rugafque, flrlafciue^ 

Membra Juper Verfu faciles inducere prteftat^ 

Tiatur^que ret proprlus jit ^ annus ^ ahundans 

^atriciisy fucc'mBus er'tt crafjujque !Bubulcis 

Mancipiifque j leVisy tenerisy gradlifque ^uellis, z i a;. 

Ihque caVts maculifque umbrarmn aliquando tumefcet 
Lumen ut exctpiens operis qua Majfa requ'mt 
Latins extendaty fublatifque aggregetumbris. 


3'o De Arte Graphica. 

215. Nohilia ArmajuVant virtutumy ornantque FtgurtUy 
o^^^'l dn^^^^ Mufammy Belliy Cultufque Dearum : 
turn conferat Necjit opu^ ntmip^m Gemmis Juroaue refertum ^ 
namentum. Af^^^ etenim magno mpretto, Jed plurma Vm. 


tum 'Auri & 

>Prorotypus. Sjf^ demdc ex Fero neqnmnt frttfente ynderiy 

2 2 o. Trototypum prim illorum for mare juVabit. 

"XXVL Cony e?iiat locus atque hahittiSy rltufcjue decufcjut 
^^'"^^"^Seryetur y fit Nobtlit^y Charltumque VemflaSy 

Scena. {(^arum homini munusy Cdoy non Arte petendum.) 

•Charites & 

"X XV nil. 

Res quaeque Naturae Jit uhicjue tenor ratiocjue fe/juenda, 

locum fuum T^on 

The Art ofVahdng: 5T 

^ The Marks or Enfigns of Vertucs contribute 2 i j. 
not little by their noblenefs to the Ornament oi ^^^jj^-^ ^ 
the Figures, Such, for example as are the Deco- conmbnte to 
rations belonging to the Liberal JrtSy to War or ^^^^^ 
Sacrifices, ^ But let not the work be too much J^^^^' 
enrich'd with Gold or Jewels, becaufe the rarefl: Stones md 
are ever the deareft and mofl precious 3 and thofe ^^^^4. '"^" 
which ferve only to increafe the number, are of 
the common fort, and of little value. 

"^ "Tis very expedient to make a Model of xxv. 
thofe things, which we have not in our Sight, and ^^ ^'^'^^^' 
whofe Nature is difficult to be retained in the Me- 220. 

^ We are to confider the places, where we ^^^^^- ^ 

'J he iicetie of 

lay the fcene of the Picture 5 the Countries where the figure, 
they were born whom we reprefent 5 the manner 
of their Adrions, their Laws and Cuftoms, and 
all that is properly belonging to them. 

^ Let a noblenefs and grace be remarkable ^^J^^- 
through all your work. But to confefs the truth, md the Nq- 
this is a mod difficult undertaking 5 and a very •'^* 
rare Prcfent which the Artift receives rather from 
the hand of Heaven, than from his own Induftry 
and Studies. 

In all things you are to follow the order of ^xviii. 

VT r I • 1 r n t r every 

Nature, for which realon you mult beware 01 thing be [et in 
drawing or painting Clouds, Winds and Thun- 'lucT,'^^^ 


32 The Art of Painting. 

2 2 J. der towards the bottom of your Piece 3 and Hell, 
and Waters, in the uppermoft parts of it: You 
are not to place a Stone Column on a foundation 
of Wood} but let every thing be fet in its proper 

2 J o. Befides all this, you are to exprefs the moti- 

XXIX. ons of the Spirits, and the affedtions or Paffions 
ms, " whofe Center is the Heart : In a word^ to make 

the Soul vifible, by the means of fome few Co- 
lours; ^this is that in which the greateft difficulty 
confifts. Few there are whom Jupiter regards 
with a favourable eye in this Undertaking. So 
that it appertains only to thofe few, who parti- 

-2 ? J- cipate fomewhat of Divinity it felf, to work thefe 
mighty Wonders. *Tis the bufinefs of (I(l?etori- 
ciansy to treat the characters of the Paflions : and 
I ihall content my felf with repeating what an 
excellent Mafter has formerly faid on this Subject, 
That the Jtudied motions of the Soul, are neVer fo na- 
tural as thofey which are as itwerejiruck out of it on 
the fudden hy the heat and Violence of a real ^ajfion. 

240. ^e are to have no manner of relifh for Go- 

XXX. thique Ornaments, as being in effe(5l fo many 
wMnentf are Monftcrs, which barbarous Ages have produced : 
u be avoided. Juj-jng which, when Difcord and Ambition caus'd 

by the too large extent of the ^man Empire j had 
produc'd Wars, Plagues and Famine through the 


De Arte Graphica. 3 3 

T^on Vtcina pedum tabulata excel fa tonantis 225. 

AJlra domus depiSia gerent nuhejcpue not of que ; 
Nee mare deprejfum Laquearia fumma "Vel orcum ; 
Marmoreamcjueferet cannis "Vaga pergula molem : 
Congrua fed propria, feinper Jiattone locentur, 

Hdc prdder motus animorum <sr corde repojlos 230. 

Exprimere JjfeElus^ paucfcpue colorihus ipfam AMtus^ 

^ingere pojfe animamj atque oculis pr^ehere Vtdendam^ 
Hoc opus, hie labor eft ; pauci quos aequus amavit 
Juppicer, aut ardens evexic ad aethera vircus : 
Dis flmiles potuere manu mr acuta tanta. 2- j 5.] 

Hos ego (^?etorihus traSlandos defero tantum 
Egregii antiquum memoraho foph'fma Magijlrij 
Verius afFed:us animi vigor exprimit ardens^ 
Solliciti nimiiim quam fedula cura laboris. 

Denique nil fapiat Gotthorum barlara trito 240. 

Ornament a modo. f^clorum <(^ mon/lra malorum t ^^^^' 

/\ ' 1 • 1 11 r n ' r V r Gotthorum 

Queis ubi bella^ jamem <(sr pejiem, Dtjcordia, LuxuSy ornamenta 
Et ^manorum resgrandior intulit Orhiy "^®" *' 

F IngenUiC 

34 15^ Ai'te Graphica; 

Li^enu^ periere Artes^ periere fuperb^ 
2 4 J. Arttficum moles y fua tunc miraculaVtdit 
Ignthus abfumi ^iSlura, latere coaBa 
FornktbuSy j^ortem <^ rel'tcjuam confidere Cyyptis^ 
Marmoribujque diuSculpturajacere fepultis. 

Imperium Inter ea fcelerum gravitate fatifcens^ 
2 JO. Horridamx totum inyajity donocjue fuperni 
Luminis indignuniy errorum caligine merfit^ 
Impiafie ignaris damnaVtt Jd^cU tenebris:: 

• ttnde Coloratum Gratis hue nfque Magijiris 
TsLil fuperefl tantorum Hominum quod Mente Modoqne> 
2^5-5. TSloJlrates juyet Artifices y doceatque Labor em 3 
^^^OMA- 2\J^^ qf^i Chromatices nobis hoc tempore partes 
Tertia ^m^eftituot^ quaks Zeuxis trailaVerat olim. 
^^^"^*- Hujus. 

The Art of Paintrng. 55 

World, then I fay, the (lately Buildings fell to 

Ruin, and the noblenefi of all beautifuU Arts was 

totally extinguifh'd 3 then it was that the admi- 245, 

rable and almoft fupernatural Works of Tamthig 

were made Fuel for the Fire : But that this won- 

derfull Art might not wholly perifh, ^ fome Re- 

Jiques of it took Sanctuary under ground, and 

thereby efcap'd the common Deftiny. And in 

the fame profane age, the noble Sculpture was for 

a long time buried under the fame Ruines, with 

all its beautifuU Productions and admirable Sta- » 

tues. The Empire in the mean time under the 

weight of its proper Crimes and undeferving to 

enjoy the day, was invelop'd with a hideous night, 2 50. 

which plung'd it into an Abyfs of errors, and co- 

ver'd with a thick darknefs of Ignorance thofe 

unhappy Ages, in juft revenge of their Impieties : 

From hence it comes to pafs, that the works of 

thofe great Gvdicians are wanting to us $ nothing 

of their Painting and Colouring now remains to 

aflift our modern Artifts, either in the Invention, 25 j. 

or the manner of thofe Ancienrs5 neither is there 

any man who is able to reftore ^ the CH RO- ^'J'f"^ '^' 

J third part of 

MATIQUE part or COLOURING oiP^mfr^, 
to renew it to that point of excellency to which it 
had been carry'd by Zeuxis : who by this part 
which is fo charming, fo magical, and which fo 

F 2 admi- 

3^ The Art of Painting. 

admirably deceives the fight, made himfelf eqiiar 
2 (Jo. to the great JpeOeSy that Trince of Painters \ and 
deferv'd that height of reputation which he ftill 
poflfefles in the World. 

And as this part which we may call the Soul 
of Painting and^its utmofl; perfedlion, is a deceiv- 
ing Beauty, but withal foothing and pleafing: So 
flie has been accus'd of procuring Lovers for ^ 
her Sifter, and artfully ingaging us to admire 
ber. But fo little have this Proftitution, thefe 
falfe Colours, and this Deceit, diftionour'd Paint- 
2(Jc, ing, that on the contrary, they have only ferv'd 
to fet forth her Praife, and to make her merit far^ 
ther known, and therefore it will be profitable to 
us, to have a more clear undcrftanding of what 
we call Colouring. 

^The light produces all kinds of Colours, and 
the Shadow gives us none. The more a Body 
is nearej to the Eyes, and the more diredlly it is 
opposed to them, the more it is enlightn'd. Be- 
caufe the Light languifhes and leffens the farther 
it removes from its proper Sourfe. 
170. The nearer the Objed: is to the Eyes, and the 

more dired:ly it is opposed to them, the better it 
is fec% becaufethe Sight is weaken d bydiftance. 


De Arte Graphics. 57 

Hujus cjuando magk "Velut Arte aquavit Jpellem 

^iiiorum Jnhigraphum meruitque Colorihus altam 

Nominis dterni famam toto orhe fonantem. 1 6o> 

Hdc<juidem ut in Tahulis fallax fed grata Venujlas^ 

Et complementum Graphidos {mirab'tleVtfu) 

^ulchra yocabatur, fed Juhdola Lena S or oris: 

TSion tamen hoc lenodnium 5 fucufque, dolufque 

Dedecori fuit unquam • illi fed femper honoriy 2d j-» 

Laudihus ^ meritis 5 hanc ergo nojfe juVahit. 

Lux yarium vivumque dahit^ nullum Umhra Colorem^ 
duo magts adverfumefl corpus lucijque propinquuniy 
Clarius efi Lumen -^ nam debilitatur eundo. 

Quo magts efi corpus direBum oculifque propinquum^ 2-70, 
Confpicitur melius j nam Vtfus hehfcit eundo. 


€~l^ .^ '' %f '^f^J«"» 

3B De Arte Graphica. 

XXXI. £jr^Q Iyi corporibus qu^e vifa adverfa rotundis 

Tonorum, r r ir i v r - 

.Luminum & Integra Jtnty extre?na ahjcedant per ait a Jignts 

;rada ""^ Confujts^ non pr^cipiti labentur in Umhram 

27 J. Clara graduy necadumhratain claraalta repente 

^rorumpant 5 feder'n fenflm hinc at que inde meatus 

Lucis O* Umhrarum 3 capitifque unius adinflar 

Totum opus^ ex tnultis quamquam jit partihus unus 

Luminis Umhrarumque globus tantummodo flety 

a&o* SiVe duoVel tres ad fummumy ubigrandius ejfet 

Divi/umTegma i?i partes Jlatione remotes. 

Stntque it a difcreti inter fe ratione coloruniy 

Luminis umhrarumque anteorfum ut corpora clara 

Obfcura umhrarum requies fpeElanda relinquat ; 

x?5« CUroque exiliant umhrata atque affera Canipo* 


The Art of fainting. ^^ 

Tis therefore neceflary that round Bodies^which xxxi. 
are feen one over againft the other in a right An- Jhe'rotefS 
gle, fliould be of a lively and ftrong Colouring;, ^k^f '^^^ 

^ 5 I , . . -^ . P r 1 ^ Shadows,. 

and that the extremities turn, in lolin^ thcm^ 
felves infenfibly and confufedly, without preci- 
pitating the Light all on the fudden into the Sha- 
dow 5 or the Shadow into the Light. But die 
paflage of one into the other muft be commbn 
and imperceptible, that is by degrees of Lights in- 
to Shadows and of Shadows into Lights.And it is in 
conformity to thefe Principles that you ought to 
treat a whole Grouppe of Figures, though it be 
compos'd of feveral parts, in the fame manner as 
you would do a fingle Head : or if your Com- 1 8 oi. 
pofition requires, that you fliould have two 
Grouppes, or even three ( ^ which ought to be 
the moft) in your Piece, take heed that they may 
bedetach'd, that is feparated or diftinguifli'd from 
each other by the Colours, the Lights and the 
Shadows, which are fo dextroufly to be manag'd, 
^ that you may make the Bodies appear en. 
lightened by the Shadows which bound the fight ^ 
which permit it not fuddenly to go farther 5 and 
which caufe it to repofe for fome fpace of time, 
and that reciprocally the Shadows may be made ^8j> 
fenfible by enlightning your ground. 


j^o The Art of Painting. 

The raifing and roundnefs of a Body, oughc 
to be given ic^ in the fame manner as we behold 
it in a Convex Mirrour, in which we view the Fi- 
gures and all other things, which bear out with 

ipo, more Life and ftrengch than Nature it felf. ^ And 
let thofe which turn, be of broken Colours, as 
being lefs diftinguifli'd, and nearer to the borders. 
Thus the Painter and the Sculptor, are to work 
with one and the fame intention, and with one 
and the fame condud. For what the Sculptor 
ftrikes off, and makes round with his inftrument 
of Steel, the Painter performs with his pencil j 
cafting behind, that which he makes lefs vifible 

2p J. by the Diminution, and breaking of his Colours 5 
and drawing forward by his moft lively Colours 
and ftrongefl: Shadows, that which is directly op- 
posed to the Sight, as being more fenfible, and 
more diftinguifh'd, and at laft enriching the naked 
Canvafs, with fuch Colours as are borrow'd from 

300. Nature 5 in the midft of which he feems to fit 5 
and from thence with one glance of an Eye and 
without removing his feat, he takes that part of 
ter which fhe reprefents to his Sight , and turns as 
in a Machine about his work. 

XXXIL When folid Bodies, fenfible to the feeling, and 
%fZ^fl'f^^^K are plac'd on Light, and tranfparent 
^roHftdf, grounds, as for example, The Heavens, the 


De Arte Graphica. 

Acyelutl infpeculis conVexis eminet ante 
Afperior reipfa yigor <(sr Vts auEia colorum 
^artihus adverjis ; magis <(^ fuga rupa retrorfum 
Illorum ejl (ut Vtfa minus Vergentihm oris) 
Corporihus dabimus formas hoc more rotundas^ 
Mente Modocjue igitur ^lajles ^ Ti^or eodem 
Difpojitum traBahit opus 5 qu^ Sculptor in orhem 
Atterit^ haec rupto proeul ahfcedente colore 
Jjfequitur TiBory fugientiaque ilia retrorfnm 
Jamjtgnata minus confufa colorihus aufert : 




Anteriora quidem direSie adverfa, colore 
Integra, ViVaciy fummo cum Lumine O* Urnhm 
Antrorjum diJlinBa refert Velut afpera vifu. 

Sicque fuper planum inducit Leucoma Color es. 
Hos "Velut ex ipfa natura immotui eodem 
Intuitu circum Statuas daret inde rotundas. 


Denfa Figurarum folidis qu^ corpora jormis 


Suhditafunt taBu non tranJJuenty fed opaca fa°'&*%S 

In tranjlucendi fpatio ut fuper Aera, Nubes cum tranQu- 

G Lympida 

41 De Arte Graphica. 

3 o J. Lympida ftagita Undaruniy <tsr inania cetera dehent 
Jfperiora illis prope dnumflantlhus ejfe^ 
Ut diJiinBa magisfirmo cum Lumme <(sr UmbrHy 
Et graVtorihus utfujlenta eolorihuSy inter 
Aer ens /pedes fubjtjient femper opaca : 

2 10. Sed contra procul abfcedant perlucida denjis 

Corpor'thus leVtora-^ uti ISlubeSj Aer ^ Unda. 

No^df^H* ^^^ poterunt diverja locis duo Lumina eadem: 
Ccelo Lumi- In Tabula paria admitti, aut ^qualia pingi : 
lam^aequalia". Majus at in mediam Lumen cadet ufqe TabeUam 
J I y. Latius infufum^ prirm quafumma Figuris 
^s agitur^ circumque or as minuetur eundo : 
Utque in progrejfu Jabar attenuatur ab ortu 
Soils ad occafum paulatim, ^ cejfat eundo j 
Sic Tabulis Lumen, tota in compage Colorumj 
J. 2 a* ^rimo a fonte^ minus fenfim declinat eundo, 


The Art of Painting. ^3 

clouds and Waters, and every other thing which 5 p j. 
is in Motion, and void of different Objc<5l:s5 they 
ought to be more rough and more diftinguifli- 
able than that with which they are incompafs'd, 
that being ftrengthen d by the Lights and Sha- 
dows, or by the more fenfible Colours, they 
may fubfift and preferve their Solidity amongft 
thofe aereal and tranfparent Species, and that on 310. 
the contrary thofe grounds which are, as we have 
faid, the Sky, the clouds and the Waters being 
clearer and more united, may be thrown off from 
the Sight to a farther diftance. wxtttt 

XTrr 1 • t T • I • I XXXIII. 

We are never to admit two equal Lights in the Tij^t there 
fame Pidure ; but the greater Light muft ftrike for- Zf T^ud 
cibly on the middle; and there extend its greateft |#^^ 
clearnefs on thofe places of thePi(5turc, where the ^ , J 
principal Figures of it are, and where the ftrength 
of the a6tion is performed, diminifliing by degrees 
as it comes nearer and nearer to the Borders; 
and after the fame manner that the Light of the 
Sun languifhes infenfibly in its fpreading from 
the Eaft, from whence it begins, towards the 
Weft where it decays and vaniflies ; fo the Light 
of the Picture being diftributed over all the Co- 
lours, will become le(s fenfible the farther it is re- 320. 
mov'd from its Original. 

G 2 The 

tn a, 

44 Ti&^ ^^^ of Painting. 

The experience of this is evident in thofe Sta- 
tues which we fee fet up in the midft of Publique 
Places, whofe upper parts are more enlighten d 
than the lower ; and therefore you are to imitate 
them in the diftjribution of your Lights. 

Avoid ftrong Shadows on the middle of the 
Limbs; lead the great quantity of black which 
compofes thofe Shadows, fhould feem to enter 
325. into them and to cut them : Rather take care to 
place thofe fhadowings round about them, there- 
by to heighten the parts, and take fo advantage- 
ous Lights, that after great Lights, great Sha- 
dows may fucceed. And therefore Titian faid, 
with reafon that he knew no better rule for the 
diftribution of the Lights and (liadows, than his 
Obfervations drawn from a ^ Sunch of Grapes. 
3 J o. ^ Pure or unmix'd white either draws an ob- 

^l^jj^^^jed nearer, or carries it oflF to farther difta nee ; 
£/ack. It draws it nearer with black, and throws it back- 
ward without it. ^ But as for pure black, there 
is nothing which brings the objedt nearer to the 

The light being altered by fome Colour, ne^ 
ver fails to communicate fomewhat of that Co- 
lour to ^he Bodies on which it ftrikes, and the 
fame effect is performed by the Medium of Air, 
through which it pafles. 


De Arte Graphica. 4$ 

Majus ut in Statuis per compita Jlantibus Urhis 
Lumen habent Tartes fuper^e^ minus inferior es^ '■ 

Hem erit in tahulisy major cjue nee umbra Vel ater 
Membra Figurarum intrabit Color atquefecabit t 

Corpora fed circum Umbra caVts latitabit oberran&i 7 % c, 

Atqueita qu^retur Lux opportuna Figurisy 

Ut late infufum Lumen lata Umbra fequatur : 

Unde nee immerito fertur Tttianus ubicjue 

Lucis <^ Umbrarum Normam appellajfe Racemum. 

^urum Album effe potejl propiuff^ magifcj^ remotum : J J ^\ 
Cum Nigro ante'Venit propius^ fugtt abjcjue remotum j Album&Nli 
^urumautemNigrumantrorfum'Venit ufqspropinqmm* grum. 

Lux fucata fuo tingit mijcetcpue Colore 
Corpora^ ficquefuoy per quern Lux funditury aer. 


4^ De Arte Graphica. 

3 ^ y . Corpora junBafimuly circumfufofque Cohres 

XXXV. Excipiunt, propr'mnujm diU radioja refleSlunU 

XXXVI. (plur'ihm in Solidis liquidk fuh Luce propmauk 
Umo CgIo-^ . ^ r 1 1 rf /- i ^ 

Tum. TarttapeSy mtxtolque Jtmul decet ejje Lolores. 

Hanc Normam Venetl TiSlores rite fequutiy 
3 4^* (Quxefuit Anttquis Corruptio diBa Colorum) 
Cum plures opere in magno pofutre Figura^y 
T^e conjunBaJimul Variorum inimica Colorum 
Congeries Formam implicit am <(sr concifa minutis 
Membra daret Iannis y totam unafuquamque Figuram 
3 4 J' Affmi aut um tantum 'Veflire Colore 

Suntfolitiy "Variando Tonis tunicamque togamque 
Carbafeofque Sinus, yel amicum in Lmnine <^ Umbr^ 
Cont'tguis circum tebu^ fociando Color em^ 


^ e^ interpo- ^^ ^^-^^ ejl fpatH aerety aut qua purior Aery 
J 5 o. Cunlia magis SJlin£la patent y fpeciefque refers ant : 


The Art of Painting; 47 

The Bodies which are clofe together, receive 355. 
fiom each other that Colour which is oppofite to ^.^^ J^: 

1 in 111 1-1 • The reflection 

them; and reneo: on each other that which is na- of Colours, 
turally and properly their own. 

'Tis alfo confonant to reafon, that the greateft 'o^^Jcq. 
part of thofe Bodies which are under a Lightjwhich ^of^rs, 
is extended and diftributed equally through all, 
fliould participate of each others Colours. The 
Venetian School\\2Mm^ 2. great regard for that Max- 
im(which the AncientscalFd the breaking of Colours) 340. 
in the quantity of Figures with which they fill their 
Pi<5lures, have always endeavoured the Union of 
Coloursy for fear that being too different, they 
fliould come to incumber the Sight by their con- 
fufion with their quantity of Members feparated 
by their Folds, which arc alio in great number 3 
and for this reafon they have painted their Dra- 3 45. 
peries wich. Colours that are nearly related to 
each other, and have fcarce diftinguifli'd them 
any other way, than by the Diminution of the 
Lights and Shadows joining the contiguous Ob- 
jed:s by the Participation of their Colours, and 
thereby making a kind of Reconciliation or Friend- 
fliip betwixt the Lights and Shadows. 

The lefs aereal fpace which there is betwixt us ^ r^, 
and the Objed, and the more pure the Air is, by fo xxxvii. 
much the more the Species arepreferv'd and A^-foJtil/^fAirl 

ftinguifh'd 5 

4^ The Art of Fainting. 

ftinguidi'd 3 and on the contrary the more fpacc 
of Air there is, and the lefs it is pure, fo much 
the more the Object is confus'd and embroyl'd. 
XXXVIII. Thofc objects which are plac'd foremoft to 

The relation t . ', | t ^ r ri' i i 

afDijtances. the view, ought always to be more hniln d, than 
thofe which are caft behind 5 and ought to have 
dominion over thofe things which are confus'd 
and tranfient. * But let this be done relatively, 
3 5 5* (^^^) one thing greater and ftronger, calling the 
lefs behind and rendring it lefs fenfible by its op- 
XXXIX. Thofe things which arc remov'd to adiftant 

Of Bodies • « i , i i 

^bich are di- view, though they are many, yet ought to make 

Jianced.\ [^^^ ^^^ ^[dik ; as for example the Leaves on 

the Trees, and the Billows in the Sea. 

360. Lgf j^Qj. fj^g Objects which ought to be conti- 

of :5i^;V/guous be feparated, and let thofe which ought 

T^uow^M^^ be feparated be apparently fo to us ; but lee 

thofe which this be done by a fmall and pleafing difference. 

xlT^ ' ^ Let two contrary extremities never touch 
Comrarj ex- ^g^^]^ other, either in Colour or in Light, but let 

tremiues to . ' i • i i r i 

ie avoided, there always be a 'Medtum partaking both of the 

one and of the other. 
^?Lii. Let the Bodies every-where be of different 
Tones andCo- Tones and Colours 5 that thofe which are behind 
'^^**^^' may be ty'd in Friendfliip together, and that thofc 

which arc foremoft may be ftrong and lively. 

* 'Tis 

De Arte Graphica. 

Qudque magis denfas nebulisy aut plurimiis Aer 
jimplum inter fuerit fpatium pomBu^y tn auvds 
Confundet rerum fpecies^ <s* ferdet inanes. 

Anterior ci fnagis femper fintta remotis 
Incertis dominentur <(jr abfcedentibuSy idque 
More relat'tVOj ut majora minoribus extant, . 



tum Relatio. 


CunEia minuta procul Majfam denfantur in unanty xxxix. 
Ut folia arhoribusfyharum^ O* in jE^uore fluSlm. ^'§ifta£ 

Contigua inter fe coeanty fed difflta difienty 
Dijiabuntque tamen^rato (2> difcrimine parVo, 

Contlgua & 

1 60. 

Extrema extremis contraria jungere noli 5 
Sed medio fint ufquegradu/ociata Colons. 


Ck)ntraria ex- 
trema fugi« 

Corporum erit Tonus atque Color yariatus ubique XLii. 
Qu^^rat amicitiam retroy ferns emicet ante. S?oTv«ii 

H SMpre- 

50 De Arte Graphics 

265. Supremum in Tabulis Lumen capture diet 

XLHI; Lifanus labor Jrtificum t cum attmere tantum 
Jedus. rion Tigmenta queant ; auream Jed Vejpere Lucerrty 
Sen modicam mane albentemy Jhe dtheris aFtam 
Toji Hyemem nimbis transfujo Sole caducam, 
370. Sen nebulis fultam accip'ientj tonitruque rubentem. 

XLlv. Lae^a qu^ lucent^ yetuti ChryflaUa^ Metatla^ 

6^?^.Li^riay Ojfa nsr Lapides ; Fillofa, ut Fella-a, belles, 
BarbtZj aqueique Oculiy Crinesy Holoferica, ^luma j 
Et Liqu'tday ut ftagnans Jqua^ reflexoeque fub Undis 
^ *y - Corpored fpeciesy cr Jquis contermina cunBa^ 

Subter ad extremum liquidejtfit piBa, fuperque 
' Luminibus per cuff a fuisy ftgmjque repojiis. 

XIV. ^ea Vel Campus TabuU Vagus ejloj levifque' 

butt!*"^ ^*' Abfcedat latuSy liquideque bene unSi'is amicis 
280. Tota ex mole Coloribusy una five Tatella : 

Qudeque cadunt retro in Campum confinia Campo. 

~~ FiVidus 

The Art of Painting. 5 1 

^ 'Tis labour in vain to paint a High- noon, or j 6 5. 
Mid-day light in your Pid:ure, becaufe we have 7. ^M?^* r 
no Colours which can fufficiently exprels it, but Light. 
'tis better counfel, tochoofe a weaker light; fuch 
as is that of the Evening, with which the Fields 
are gilded by the Sun ; or a Morning-light , 
whofe whitenefs is allay'd : or that which appears 
after a Shower of Rain, which the Sun gives us 
through the breaking of a Cloud: or during 
Thunder, when the Clouds hide him from our ^70. 
view, and make the light appear of a fiery colour. 

Smooth bodies, fuch as Chryftals , polifh'd XLiv. 
Metals, Wood, Bones, and Stones ; thofe which thingsTeL 
arecover'd with Hair, as Skins, the Beard, or ^'^^l^f^^*"^^^ 
the Hair of the Head; as alfo Feathers, Silks, 
and the Eyes, which are of a watery nature ; and 
thofe which are liquid, as Waters, and thofe cor- j/ j. 
poreal fpecies, which we fee reflected by them ; 
and in fine, all that which touches them, or is* 
near them, ought to be much painted and united- « 
ly on their lower parts, buttouch'd boldly above 
by the light and fliadows which are proper to 

^ Let the Field, or Ground of the Pidure, be XLV. 
clean , free , tranfient , light, and well united ground ofth 
with Colours which are of a friendly nature to ^^'^^'■<'- 
each other 5 and of fuch a mixture, as there may 3^°* 

Hz be 

52 The Art of FatJiting. 

be fomething in it of every colour that compofes^ 
your work, as it were the contents of your Pa> 
lette; And let the bodies mutually partake of 
the colour of their ground. 
xLVi. ^. Lgf y^yj- Colours be lively, and yet not 

Of the vivn^ J jJ ^ J - 

titj of Co- look (according to the Painter s Proverb^ as it 
they had been rubb'd or fprinkled with meal : 
that is to fay, let them not Be pale. 

^ Let the parts which are neareft to us, and 
moft rais'd, be ftrongly colour^'d, and as it were 
fparkling ; and let thofe parts which are more re- 
mote from fighc, and towards the borders, be 
more faintly touch'd, 
385. ^ Let there befo much harmony, or confent, 

-nAPi^* in the Mafles of the Pi(5lure, that all the fliadow- 

Of Shadows. . -r 1 1 

ings may appear as it they were but one. 
Th^^a^' ^ ^^^ ^^^ whole Pidture be made of one piece, 
to be of one and avoid as much as poflibly you can, to paint 
f^''' drily. 

XLix. ^ The Looking-glafs will inftruft you in ma- 

gUfsthlpMH- ny Beauties, which you may obferve from Na- 
Ma/^tr^ ture : fo will alfo thofe objeds which are feen in 

an Evening in a large profpe(5l. 

Mhalffi. If you are to paint a half figure or a whole 

iJiW^owV^^^' which is to be fet before the other figures, 

fore others, it muft be plac'd nearer to the view, and next the 

39^* light. And if it is to be painted, in a great place, 



De Arte Graphica. 


flVtdus ejlo Color nimlo no'n pallidus Alhoj 
Jdverjifque has ingeflus plurimus ardens^ 5 
Sed kVtter parceque datus "Ver^entihus oris. 


Color vivi- 
Hien pallidus> 

CmSia Lahore fimul coeanty Velut Umhra ineadem. ^lvit 


Totajtet Tabula ex una depiBa Patella, 

Multa ex Katura Speculum pr^elara docehit ; 
Quii^cjue procul Jero f pains fpeSiantur in amplis. 

Dimidia Bffigies^ qud fola, Vel Integra plures 
Ante alias pojlta ad Luceniy jlet proxmaVtfuy 
Et latis fpeSianda locisy ocuUfcjue remota, 
Luminis Umbrarumque gradufit piUa fupremo, 


Ex una Pa- 
tella fit Ta*; 



Dimidia Fi- 
gura vel In- 
tegra antd; 


54. I^ Arte Graphica. 

I-T. <Parlibus in minimis imitatio jufia iwvahit 

^^iew, akerno/S njerendo tempore eodem 
39S* Cortfimiles Partes J cum Luminis atque Colons 
Compojttis jujlijque Tonis^ tunc parta Lahore 
Si facili 0* yegeto mieat ardensy viVa Videtur. 

Ln. Fi/a loco angujlo ttnere pingantur, amia> 

bulae. *' J^^^^ Colore graduque^ procul cjua p'lBa feroci 
400. Sint <s* tn<ecjuali Van at a Colore ^ Tonoque. 

* -Grandia Jtgna yolunt fpatia ampla ferofjue Color es. 


The Art of Fainting. 55 

aad at a diftance from the Eyes 5 be fure on that 
occafion not to be fparing of great lights, the 
moft lively colours, nor the ftrongeft fhadows. 

^ As for a Portrait:, or Pidures by the Life, ^ p^^- 
you are to work precifely after Nature, and to 
exprefs what fhe fhows you, working at the 
fame time on thofe parts which are refembling ?pc. 
to each other: As for example, the Eyes, the 
Cheeks, the Noftrils and the Lips ; lo that you 
arc to touch the one, as foon as you have given 
a ftroke of the Pencil to the other, left the inter- 
ruption of time caufe you to lofe the Idea of one 
part, which Nature has produc'd to refemble the 
other : and thus imitating Feature for Feature with 
a juft and harmonious Compofition of the lights 
and fliadows, and of the colours, and giving to 
the Pidure that livelinefs which the freedom and 
force of the Pencil make appear, it may feem 
the living hand of Nature. 

The works which are painted to be feen in Lii. 
little or narrow places, muft be very tender and thePiaurL 
well united with tones, and colours 5 the degrees 
of which ought to be more difFerenr, more une- 
qual, and more ftrong and vigorous, as the work 
is more diftant : and if you make great figures, 
let them be ftrongly col(i^ur'd, and in very fpaci- 
ous places, 

^ You 

5-^ The Art of Painting, 

Llir. ^ You are to paint the mofl: tenderly thatpof- 

^^ ^^' fibly you can 5 and endeavour to loie inlenfibly 

the ^ large lights in the fhadows which fucceed 

them, and incompals them about. 

fvh^tli ks ^^^^^ Pi6lure be fet in a place which is enhgh- 

are reciHifite, t^vi dy but wlth a little light, the colours muft 

40 J. be very clear 5 as on the contrary very brown, if 

the place be ftrongly enlighten d, or in the open 


LV. Remember to avoid objeds which are full of 

arevlcioJs^in hollows, brolccn in pieces, little, and which are 

painting to feparated, or in parcels : fliun alfo thofe things 

be avoided, \, . ' . . ^ ni- it- ^i 

which are barbarous, Ihocking to the Eye and 
parry-colour'd, and all which is of an equal force 
of light and ftiadow : as alfo all things which are 

4 1 o. obfcene, impudent, filthy, unfeemly, cruel, fan- 

taftical, poor and wretched; thofe things which 

are (harp and rough to the feeling : In (hort, all 

things which corrupt their natural forms, by a 

confufion of their parts which are intangled in 

each other : For the Eyes have a honour for thofe 

Lyj things which the Hands will not condefcend to touch. 

Tijepruden- But cudeavour toavoid one vice, be 

KtintV. cautious left you fall into another : for Fertue is 

415. flacd hetwixt two extreamsy which are on both Jldes 

equally hlameahk, 


De Arte Graphica. 

Lumina lata unSlas Jtmul undicjue copulet Umhras 
Extremus Labor. In Tabulas demijfa fenejiris 
Si fuerit Lux parVa^ Color clarijjimus ejlo: 
VtVtdus at contra ohfcurufjue in Lumim aperto. 



Lumina lata.^ 

Luminis lod 
in quo Tabu- 
la eft expo- 


Qu^ Vacuis divifa caVis vitare memento : 
Trita, minutay jimul qu^ nmi ftipata dehifcunt j 
Barbara J Cruda oculisy rugisfucata Colorutny 
Luminis Umbrarumque Tonis ^qualia cunBa 5 
Fo^day cruentay cruces , objccenuy ingratay chimerasy 
Sordidaque <sr miferUy <(^ Vel acuta, Vel a/per a taElUy 
Qu^que dabunt jormiX, temere congejla ruinam^ 
Implicitafque aliis confundent mifcua Partes, 


Errores & vi- 
tia Pi^turx* 



Dumque fugis Vttiojay caVe in contraria labi pia^e!'* ^ 

Damna maliy Vitium extremis nam femper inhieret, 415. 

I Tulchra 

58 De Arte Graphica. 

LVIL fPukhra gradu fummo Graphidos Jlabilita Tetufl^. 

IdaeaTabula- NobUihus Signts JuTit Gratidia, Diffita^ Turay 
rum. Terfay Velut minlme confufa^ Lahore Ligata^ 

Tartibus ex magnis paucifque effiSia, Colorutm 
420. Corpor'tbus dijlm3afens, Jed femper amicis... 

Qui bene ccapit, uti faSii jam fertur habere 
WB^r' ^i^i^f^^ 3 ^iBuram ita nil fuh limine primo. 
' Ingrediens ^uer ojfendit damnojtus Artiy 
Quam Varia err or um genera ignorante Magifira* 
425. Ex praVis libare Typis, mentemcjue Veneno 
hficere, in totoquodmnahjlergitur ctyo. 

Kec Graphidos rudis Jrtis, adhuc cito qualiac.umqu&' 
CorporaViVa fuper Jludium meditahitur ante 
lllorum quam Symmetriamj Internodiay Formam 
4 J ©• TSLoy^ertt infpeSlis doHo eVohente Magijiro 

Jrchetypisj dulcefque Volos prdfenferit Artis. 
ArsdeStfer- ^Mv*^ Manu ante ochIos qmm "Voce docehkur ujus^ 

vire Piftori, 
non Piftor. 


The Art of Painting. 59 

Thofe things which are beautifull in the ut- rr^Yj^- r 
moft degree of Perfe<5lion, according to the Axi- abeamifuU 
om of ancient Painters, ^ ought to have fome- ^*^^^' 
what of greamefs in them ; and their out-lines to 
be noble; they muft be difintangled, pure and 
without alteration, clean and knit together 5 com- 
posed of great parts, yet thofe but few in num- 
ber. In fine, diftinguifh'd by bold Colours 3 but 4^^- 
of fuch as are related, and friendly to each other: 
And as it is a common faying, that He who has lviii. 
hemn welL has already perform d half his work ; fo ^'^*<^^J<^.** 
^ there is nothing more pernicious to a Youth, ^er. 
who IS yet in the Elements of Painting, than to 
engage himfelf under the difcipline of an igno- 
rant Mafter3 who depraves his tafte, by an in- 
finite number of miftakes 3 of which his wretched 
works are full, and thereby makes him drink the A'^h 
poyfon, which infe(5ls him through all his future 

Let him who is yet but a Beginner, not make 
fo much hafte to ftudy after Nature, every thing 
which he intends to imitate 3 as not in the mean 
time to learn Proportions, the connexion of the 
parts, and their out-lines : And let him firft have 430* 
well examin d the Excellent Originals, and have 
thoroughly ftudied all the fweet deceipts of his 
Art, which he muft be rather taught by a know- 

I 2 ing 

6o The Art of Tainting. 

kig Matter, than by pradice 5 and by feeing him 

perform, without being contented onely to hear 

him fpeak. 

'^t^^he ^ Search whatfoever is aiding to your Art, and 

• fuifrrvient to con\cnknty and avoid thofe things which are re- 

the Painter, . . „ 

Lx. pugnant to it. 
Diver fity and ^ Bodics of divers natures which are aggroup'd 

facihtyare i • > i i 1111 

f leafing, (or combin d) together, are agreeable and plea- 
43 J* fant to the fight ^ ^ as alfo thofe things which 
appear to be performed with cafe. Becaufe they 
are ever full of Spirit, and feem animated with a 
kind of Cceleftial fire : But we are not able to 
• compafs thefe things with facility,, till we have 
for a long time weigh'd them in our judgment, 
and thoroughly confider'd them : By this means 
the Painter fhall be enabled to conceal the pains, 
andftudy which his Art and work have coft him, 
under a pleafing fort of deceipt ; For the great- 
eft fecret which belongs to Art, is to hide it from 
the difcovery of Spedtatours. 
440. Never give the leaft touch with your Pencil 

Thto^iinai ^^ y^" \\2iyt Well cxamin d your Defign, and 
muftbtinthe\\^yt fettled your out-lines, ^ nor till you have 

cL'o^the^ ^"^titwi in your mind a per fed Idea of your 
Cloth, ^Q^i^, 

LXii. ■¥• Let the Eye be fatisfy'd- in the firft place, 
tJeil'tte even againft and above all other reafons, which 
^J^s. be- 

De Arte Graphica. 



Qu(^re Artem^u<!^cumcjue juymtjfuge cju^ue repug- Qcui^Jecre- 

Corpora diyerfee nature junEf a placebunt -y 
Sic ea quiefacili contempta labore 'Videntur : 
jEthenus cjuippe ignis ineji <^fpiritus iOis, 
Mente diu "Verfata, manu celeranda repentu 
Arfcjue Laborcjue Optris grata fie fraude latehiu 
Maxima deinde erit arsy nihil artis inejfe yiderL 

ant diveriltas 
cilitas, quae 
fpeciadm Ars 

43 J- 

2S&C prius inducas TahuU Vigmenta Colorum, 
Expenfi (puam figna Typi flahilita nitefcanty 
Et menti prajens peris fit ^egmafuturi. 



in mente, A- 
in tela. 

^r^'Vakat finfiis rationi qua offi'cit Jrti VV™' 

Con/picUiCy in(ju^ oculis tantummodo Grcinus efto* ^52."""^°^ 


Cx De Arte Graphica. 

445. Utere DoBormn Monit'tSy nee fperne fuperlus 

Lxiil. f)ifcere qu^e de te fuerit Sententia Vuhi. 
aori nocet ^ ca?c«5 ?ww (juif^uc fu'ts in rehusy O" expers 
plunmdin. jj^Ji^ij^ ^rolcmque fua7n miratur amatque. 
Ajl ubi Conjilium deerit Sapientis Amici^ 
4 JO. Id tempus dabity atque tnora intermi^a labori, 
Non facilis tamen ad nutus <s* mania Vulgi 
J)iBa Wis mutabis Opus, Geniumciue relinques : 
Ham qui pane Jua fperat bene pojfe mereri 
Mukiva^a de Tlebej nocet Jtbiy nee placet uJlL 

45 5. CunKpue Opere in proprto Joleat fepingere TiBofy 

.^^•, (^rokm adeofibiferrefaremNaturafueVit) 



The Art of Painting. 6 3 

beget difficulties in your Art, which of itfelffufFers 
noncj and let thecompafs be rather in your Eyes 
than in your Hands. 

^ Profit your fclfby the Counfels of the know- 445 • 


kig : And do not arrogantly difdain to learn the p„-^^ ^*jp, 
©pinion of every man concerning your work. ^^'^^ f^ W 
All men are blind as to their own produ(5lions j 
and no man is capable of judging in his own 
caufe; * but if you have no knowing friend, to 
affiftyou with his advice, yet length of time will 450.. 
never fail 5 ''i:is but letting fome weeks pafs over 
your Head, or at lead fome days, without looking 
on your work, and that intermiffion will faithful- 
ly difcover to you the faults, and beauties 5 yet 
fliffer not your fclf to be carried away by the opi- 
nions of the Vulgar , who often fpcak without 
knowledge j neither give up your felf altogether 
to them, and abandon wholly your own Genius, 
io as lightly to change that which you have made : 
For he who has a windy Head, and flatters him- 
felf with the empty hope of deferving the praife of 
the common people, whofe opinions are inconfi- 
derate, and changeable, does but injure himfelf 
and pleafes no man. 

Since every Painter paints himfelf in his own 45r5f. 
works (fo much is Nature accuftom'd to produce r^^^^^^ * 
her own. likenefs Jl 'tis advantageous to him^ toM, 


^4- The Art of Painting. 

- know himfelf, ^ to the end that he may cultivate 
thofe Talents which make his Genius, and not 
un profitably lofe his time in endeavouring to 
gain that which flie has refus'd him. As nei- 
4 (Jo. ther Fruits have the tafte, nor Flowers the beauty 
which is natural to them when they are tranfplan- 
ted in a foreign foil, and are forc'd to bear be- 
fore their feafon by an artificial heat; fo "'tis in 
vain for the Painter to fweat over his works in 
fpight of Nature and of Genius 3 for without theni 
'tis impoffible for him to fucceed. 
LXV. ^ While you meditate on thefe truths, and 
p^Aife, and obferve them diUgently, by making neceffary re- 
^;;g^7^t' flexions on them 3 let the labour of the Hand 
€eiv<L accompany the ftudy of the Brain ; let the for- 
mer fecond and fupport the latter ; yet without 
4^ J- blunting the fliarpnefs of your Genius ; and aba- 
ting of its vigour by too much affiduity. 
rh]M>lning * The Morning is the beft, and moft proper 
mofifrofer part of thc day for your bufinefs 5 employ it 
" Lxvii. therefore in the ftudy and exercife of thofe things 
fZ7ihti? ^ which require the greateft pains and application. 

Lxvin. ^ Let no day pafs over you without a line. 
7i>hich arT Obfcrvc as you walk the Streets, the Airs of 
7w^'m"^^'*' Heads j the natural Poftures and ExprelTions 5 
470. which are always the moft free the lefs they feem 
to be obferv'd. 


De Arte Graphica. tf 5 

Troderit imprimis Ti^ori yv-^biaixv-niv ; 

lit data qU(Z genio colat, ahflmeatcjue negatk, 

FruElibus utque fuus nunquam eft fapor atque Venuftas 
Floribws infueto in fundo pmcoce fub anni 460. 

Tempore J quos cultus Vtokntm <sr ignis adegtt 5 
Sic nunquam nimio qutcfunt extort a labor e^ .. 

Et piSia inVito Genioy nunquam ilia placebunt, 


Quod ment© 

Vera fuper meditando, Manu4, Labor improbus adjit : ^obl^^"*^ 

Nee tamen obtundat Geniumy mentifque vigorem, 4^ J* 

Optima mftrorum pars matutina dierum^ 
Vifficili banc igitur potiorem impende Labori. 

Nulla dies abeat quin ImeaduSla fuperjtt, 
Jerque Vias yultus hominum, motufque Jiotabis 
Libert ate fua propriosy pofitafque Ftguras 
Ex fefefacilesy ut inohfer^^atus habebis, 



tempus La- 
bori aptum. 


Singulis die- 
bus aliquid 



Aflre6^us in- 
JV/bx obfervad & 

6f^ De Arte Graphical, 

^, L^K* 2JI0X auoicunume 'Marl, Term <sr in Aire pukhrttfm 

Non dehnt ^ . ^ . ^r • 1 ■ 

PugilUres. Conttgerttj Chartts f roper a mandare parattSy 

Dum prafens animo /pedes t'lbi ferret hlant'u 

475' T^M epulis nimis indulget^iBura, meroqut 

^arcity Amkorum quantum utfermone henignot 
Exhaujium reparet mentem recreatay fedinds 
Litibus <(sr curii in Codibe liber a Vita 
Secijfus procul a turba Jlrepituque remotos 

480, ViUarum rurifcjut beatafilentia qu^rit: 

NamquerecolIeBo tota incumbente Minerlfo, 
Ingenio rerumf pedes prafentior extaty 
Commodiufque Operis compagem ample ftitur omnem, . 

Tnfitmi tibi nonpotiot'rjtt ayara pecuB 
j^tp ^^^^^ ^^^iq^s f^i^esy modica quam forte heatO' 
Wimink ^terni^s* laudis pruritus habend^e, 


The Art of Painting. t*j 

^ Be ready to put into your Table-book Lxix. 
(which you muft always carry about you) what-foc-{r. 
foever you judge worthy of it 5 whether it be up. 
on the Earth, or in the Air, or upon the Waters, 
while the Species of them is yet frefli in your I- 

^ Wine and good Cheer are no great Friends 47 j, 
to painting, they ferve only to recreate the Minc'j 
when 'tis opprcft and fpent with Labour 5 then 
indeed 'tis proper to renew your Vigour by the 
converfation of your Friends : Neither is a true 
Painter naturally pleas'd with the fatigue of bufi- 
ncfs, and particularly of the Law, ^ but delights 
in the liberty which belongs to the Batchelour's 
Eftate. ^ Painting naturally withdraws from 
Noife and Tumult, and pleafes k felf in the en- 
joyment of a Country Retirement : becaufe Si- 48o»' 
lence and Solitude fet an edge upon the Genius, 
and caufe a greater Application to work and flu- 
dy, and alfo ferve to produce the Ideas, which, 
fo conceiv'd, will be always prefent in the Mia J, 
even to the finifhing of the work 3 the whole com- 
pafs of which, the Painter can at that time more 
commodioufly form to himfelf than at any other. 

^ Let not the covetous defign of growing rich, . g ^ j 
induce you to ruin your reputation, but rather fa- 
tisfy your felf with a moderate fortune j and lee 

K 2 your 

^8 The Art of Painting. 

your Thoughts be wholly taken up with acqui- 
ring to your felf a glorious Name, which can ne- 
ver perifli, but with the World, and make that 
the recompence of your worthy Labours. 

•^ The qualities requifite to form an excellent 
Painter, are, a true difcerning Judgment ; a Mind 
which is docible, a noble Heart, a fubhme Senfe 

49 °* of things, and Fervour of Soul; after which fol- 
low, Health of Body, handfomenefs, a conveni- 
ent fliare of Fortune, Youth, Diligence, an afFe- 
d-ion for the Art, and to be bred under the difci- 
pline of a knowing Mafter. 

And remember,that whatfoever your Subjed be, 
whether of your own Choice, or what chance or 
good fortune fliall put into your hand, if you 
have not that Genius or natural Inclination, which 
your Art requires, you fhall never arrive to per- 
fe<5tion in it, even with all thofe great advantages 
which I have mention d; for the Wit, and the 
manual operation are things vaftly diftant from 
each other. 'Tis the Influence of your Stars, and 
the happinefs of your Genius, to which you muft 
beobligM for the greateft Beauties of your Art. 

4py. Nay, even your excellencies fometimes will 

not pafs for fuch in the opinion of the learned, but 
only as things which have le(s of Error in them, 
for no, man fees his own failings j ^ and Life is fo 


. De Arte Graphics. 6$ 

Condignc^ pulchrorum Operum mercedis in ^Vum. 

Judicium, docile Ingenium, Cor nobile, Senfus 
Sublimes, firmum Corpus, florenfque JuVenta, 
Commoda ^s. Labor ^ Artis amor, doEiufciue Magijler ; 4p o. 

Et quamcwnque "Voles occajio porrigat anfamy 
2ii Genius quidam adfuerit Sydujque benignuMy 
Dotibus his tantisy nee adhuc Ars tantaparatur t 

Dijlat ab Ingenio longe Manus, Optima DoBis 

Cenfentur qu^ praVa minus ^ latet omnibus error ^ 495* 

Vitaque tarn longa breVtor nonfufficit Arti-, 

TO De Arte Graphica; 

Vejtnimus nam pojfe fenes cum fcireperiti 
IncipimuSy doHamque Manum graVat ^egra feneBm^ 
Hec^elidis feryet juyenilis in Artuhus ardor. 

500. Quare agite^ oJuVeneSy flacido ifuos Sydere natos 

^acifer^e Jiudia alleSiant tranquilla MtnerViiy 
Quofcjue fuo foVet igne^ Jibique optaVit Alumnos I 
Eja agitCy atcjue animis ingentem ingentibus Artem 
Exercete alacresy dum Jirenua corda JuVentus 

505. Viribus extimulat yegetis^ patiensque labornm ejl^ 
Dum Vacua errorum nullocjue imhuta Japore 
^ura nitet mens, ((sr rerumjttibunda noVarum 
S^rafentes haurit fpecies^ atcjue humidajeryat* 


.rum; ^ Jft Ccometrali prif^s Arte farumper aduki 



Tbe Art ofVainting. jw 

fiiort, that it is not fufficient for fo long an Art. 
Our ftrength fails us in our old Age, when we 
begin to know fomewhat ; Age opprefles us by 
the fame degrees that it infl:ru6ls us, and permits 
not that our mortal Members which are frozen 
with our years, fliould retain the Vigor and Spi- 
ms of our Youth. 

^ Take courage therefore, O ye Noble Youths ! joo. 
you legitimate Offfpring oi Minerva, who are 
born under the influence of a hap0 Planet y and- 
warm'd with a Gelefl:ial Fire, which attra(^s 
you to the Love of Science 5 exercife while you 
are young, your whole forces, and employ them 
with delight in an Art which requires a whok 
fainter. Exercife them I fay, while your boyl- 
ing Youth fupplies you with Strength, and furni- y ojr. 
flies you with Quicknefs and with Vigour 5 while 
your Mind, yet pure and void of Error, has not 
taken any ill habitude to vice, while yet your Spi- 
rits are inflam'd with the Thirft of Novelties, and 
your Mind isfiU'd with the firft Species of things 
which prefent themfelves to a young Imaginati- 
on, which it gives in keeping to your Memory ; 
and which your Memory retains for length of 
time, by reafon of the moifliure wherewith at that Lxx. 
Age the Brain abounds; ^ you will do "wdX sttTicl for a 
^ to begin with Geometry^ and after having made^^''^«? ^^^^^ 



72 Tbe Art of ?ainting. 

fome progrefs ic it, ^ fee your felf on defigning 

J I o. after the Ancient Greeks ^ ^ and ceafe not day or 
night from labour, till by your continual practice 
you have gain'd an cafy habitude of imitating 
them in their invention, and in their manner, 
^And when afterwards your judgment fhall 
grow ftronger, and come to its maturity with 
years, it will be very neceflary to fee and examine 
one after the other, and part by part, thofe works 

5' J« which have given fo great a Reputation to the 
Mafters of the firfl; form in purfuit of chat Me- 
thod, which we have taught you here above, 
and according to the Rules which we have given 
you 5 fuch are the ^manSj the Fenetiaru, the 
TarmefanSy and the Solognefes, Amongft thole 
excellent Perfons, ^phael had the Talent oiln- 

520. Mention for his fliarc, by which he made as ma- 
ny Miracles as he made Pictures. In which is 
obferv'd ^ a certain Grace which was wholly na- 
tural and peculiar to him, and which none fince 
him have been able to appropriate to themfelves. 
Michael Jn^elo poflefs'd powerfully the part of 
Dejiffiy above all others. ^ Julio ^mano (edu- 
cated from his childhood among the Mujes) has 
open'd to us the Treafures of ^arnaffus : and in the 
Poetry of Painting has difcover'd to our Eyes the 

525. moftiacred Myfteries oi Apollo^ and all the rareft 


De Arte Graphica. 73 

Signa Antiqua/uper Grdiorum addi/cite formam j. 510. 

TSLec mora nee requies^ yioBuque diuque labori 
Illorum Menti at que Modoy Vos donee agendi 
Traxis ah ajfpduo faciles aJfueVerit nju. 

Mox ubi Judicium emenfts adokyerit annis 
Singula qua celebrant frim^e Exemplar ia clajjts 5 * J» 

^maniy Venetty Tarmenfes^ atque Sononi 
^artibus in cunElis pedetentim atque or dine reBoy 
Ut monitum fupra eji Vos expendijfe juVabit. 

Hos apudinVenitKsifhsidmir acuta fummor 
T)uBa modoy Venerefque habuitquas nemo deinceps. ^xq, 
Quidquid erat formiC fciyit Bonsitotz potenter. 

Julius a puero Mufarum eduBus inAntris 
Aonias reJeraVit opeSy Graphicaque J^oeji 
Qua non Vifa priuSy fed tantum audita J^oetis 
Ante oculos fpeBarida dedit Sacraria Tho^bi : 5 ^ J* 

L Qunequi 

74" 13e Arte Graphica. 

j2udijue coronatis compleVit bella trmnphis 
Heroilm fortuna potens, cafujque decoros 
Nobilm reipfa aiiticjua pinxljfe Videtur, 


Clarior ante alios Corregius extititj ampla 
Luce fuperfufa circum coeuntllus Umhr'iSy 
Tingendique Modo grandly ^ traHando Colore 
Corpora, Jmicitiamquey gradufque^ dolofque Coloruni, 
Compagemque ita difpo/uit Titianus, ut inde 
J)ivus appellatusj magnisfit honor thus auElns 
5 5 jL. Fortun^que bonis : Quosjtdmlus Anmbal ornnes 
ii^ro^riam mentem atque Modum miraarte coegit. 


Tk Art ofFammg^. 7f 

Ornaments which thgtz God is capable of commu^' 
eating to thofe works that he infpires , which 
wc knew not before, but only by the Recital 
that the ^oets made of them -y he feems to- 
have painted thofe famous Wars which He- 
roes have wag'd, and ended with Victory over, 
crown'd Heads, whom they have led in tri- 
umph $ and thofe other glorious Events whichi 
Fortune has caused in all ages, even with more 
Magnificence and Noblenefs, than when they 
were aded in the "World. Correggio has made 
his Memory immortal by the Strength and Vi- flOi. 
gour he has given to his Figures, and by fweet- 
ning hfe Lights and Shadows^ and melting them 
iiito each other fo haj)pily, that they are even im- 
perceptible. He is alfo almoft fingle in the greats 
manner of his Painting, and the Fadlity he had^ 
in the managing of his Colours. And Titian under- 
ftood fo well the U7im of the M^Jf^Sy and the Bo- 
dies of Colours, the Harmony of the Tones, andi 
the Difpofition of the whole together, that he has 
deferv'd thofe Honours, and that wealth which 
were heap'd upon him, together with that at- 
tribute of being fumam'd the' DiVme Painter,. 
l^heUborious and diligent ^mife/ ficrraccij has 535;- 
taken from all thofe great Perfofls already men- 
tion d, whatfoever excellencies he found in them, , 

Lf 2^ audi 

7^ the Art of Tainting. 

and, as it were, converted their Nouriflimcnt in- 
to his own Subftance. 

LXXL 'Tis a great means of profiting your felf to co- 

E^nietfce fj diligently thofe excellent Pieces, and thofc 

ferfeajirt, beautifull defigns 5 But Nature which is prefent 

before your Eyes, is yet a better Mtftrejs: For 

fhe augments the Force and Vigour of the Geni- 

us, and (he it is from whom Art derives her ulti- 

540. mate perfection by the means of fure Experience 5 
^ I pafs in filence many things which will be more 
amply treated in the cnfuing Commentary. 

And now confidering that all things are fub- 
jedl to the viciflitude of Time, and that they are 
liable to Deftrudion by feveral ways, I thought 
I might reafonably take the boldnefs ^ to intruft 
to the Mufes (thofe lovely and immortal Sifters 
of painting) thefe few Precepts which I have here 
made and colleded of that Art. 

545* I employed my time in the ftudy of this work 

at ^me, while the honour of the 'Bourbon Fami- 
ly, and the juft Avenger of his injured Anceftors, 
the Vi(^orious Lovis ,was darting his Thunder 
on the Jlpesy and caufing his Enemies to feel the 
force of his unconquerable Arms, while he like 
another GaOique Hercuksy born for the benefit 
and Honour of his Country^ was griping the Spa- 

540. nUh Geryon by the Throat, and at the point of 
ftrangling him. O B- 

De Arte Graphica. 


Tlurimus hide labor Tabulas imitando juValit 
EgregiaSy Operumque Typos 5 fedplura docehit 
TSlatura ante oculos prafens j namfirmat <^ auget 
Vim Oeniiy ex illaque Artem Experientia complet. 
Mult a fuperjileo qu<e comment aria dicent. 


Natura & 
Artem pcrfi- 


Hec egOy dum memoror fubitura )^olubilis <cVi 
CunEia Vices j Variifque oUm peritura ruinisy 
^auca Sophi/matafum Graphica immortalibus aufus J4J, 
Credere ^ieriis, ^m^e meditatus: ad Jlpes 
Dujnfuper in/anas moles inimicaque cajlra 
SorboniJum decus <(s* Vmdex Lodoicus Jvorum 
Fulminat ardenti dextruy ^atridque refurgens 
Gallicus Alcides, premit Hifpani or a Leonis. J 49* 

( 75> ) 



Art of Painting 

o F 

"Charles Alphonfe du Frefroy. 


Amting and ^oefy are two Siftersy &c. "'TIS fr , / 
a recciv'd truth, that the Arts have a cer- ne Numher 
tain relation to each other.' « There is tvlrj%t£ 
" no Art (faid Tertullian in his Treatife of Idola- vationferves 
*^ try) tt?/;/c/7 is not either the rather or the near Q^e- Text the par- 
" to'o?2 of another: And C/cero in his Oration for j^^'^^'^^^^^vJt 
" Archias the Poef, fays, 77?^^ fie /^rfj M?i/c/; haVe theObfervati- 
*^ reJpeSl to human life^ haVe a kind of Alliance a- 
" mongfl themfetvesy and hold each other {as we 7)iay 
^^ fay) by the hand. But thofe Arcs which are the 
neareft related, and claim the moil ancient Kin- 
dred with each other, are Tainting and Toetry-^ 


8o Obfervations on the 

and whofoever fliall throughly examine them, will 
find them fo much refembling one another, that 
he cannot take them for lefs than Sijiers. 

They both follow the fame bentjand fufFer them- 
felves rather to be carry'd away, than led by their 
fecret Inclinations, which are fo many feeds of 
the Divinity. " There is a God within us (fays 
'' Ovid in the beginning of his Sixth Book de Fa- 
" Jiisy there fpeaking of the Poets j who by his A- 
^^ gitatton warms us* And Suidas fays, Tl?at the fa- 
" mous Sculptor Phidias, and Zeuxis that incompa- 
*^ rable ^amter^ were both of them tranf ported by the 
" fame Enthufiafm, which gaVe life to all their works. 
They both of them aim at the fame end, which 
is Imitation. Both of them excite our PalTions 5 
and we fufFer our felves willingly .to be deceived, 
both by the one, and by the other ; our Eyes and 
Souls are fo fixt to them, that we are ready to 
perfuade our felves that the painted Bodies breath, 
and that the Fidlions are Truths. Both of them 
are fet on fire by the great Actions of Heroes ; 
and both endeavour to eternize them : Both of 
them in fhort, are fupported by the ftrength of 
their Imagination, and avail themfelves of thofe 
licences, which Jpollo has equally beftow'd on 
them, and with which their Genius has infpir'd 


Art of fainting. ^^ 8 1 

^iSior\bt4^ atque ^oetis 

Quidlibet audendiy fem^er fuit dc^ua fotejlds, 

Painters and Toets free from ferVile awe^ 

May treat their SubjeBs, and their ObjeBs draw. 

As Horace tells us in his Art of Poetry. 
The advantage which Tainting poflefles above 
iPoeJte is this 3 That amongft fb great a Diverfi- 
ty o( Languages^ fhe makes her felf underflood by 
all the Nations of the World -^ and that (he is neceC 
fary to all other Arts, becaufe of the need which 
they have of demonftrative Figures, which often 
give more Light to the Underftanding than the 
cleared: difcourfes we can make. 

Segnim irritant animos demijfa per aureniy 
Quam qUiC funt oculis commiffa fdelibm. 


Hearing excites the Mind by flow degrees y 
The Man is warm d at once by what he fees. 

Horace in the fame Art of Poetry. 
For both of them that they might contribute ^ &c. I([ p. 
Poetry by its Hymns and Anthems^ and Tainting by 
its Statues^ Altar-pieces^ and by all thofe Vecorati- 

M ons 

Si O^fer vat ions on the 

ons which infpire Refpedt and Reverence for our 
Sacred Myjleries, have been ferviceable to <B^ligwn, 
Gregory of TSLke^ after having made a long and 
beautifull Defcription oi Abraham facrificing 
his Son Ijaac^ fays thefe words, " / ha^^e often 
" ca[t viy eyes upo?i a Ticlure, which reprefents this 
*^ moying obje£lj and could ne'Ver withdraw them with- 
*' out Tears, So well did the TiBure refrefent 
" the thing it felf, e'Ven a^ if the JElion were then 
ij[ 24. " p^lf^^^g before my Sight, So much thefe DiVme 
Arts haVe been always honour d. Sec. The greateft 
Lords y whole Cities and their Magijlrates ofOld(i2cys 
^liny hb. 35.) took it for an honour to obtain a "Pr- 
ilure from the Iwids of thofe great Ancient Painters. 
But this Honour is much fallen of late amongft 
the Frejich Nobdity : and if you will underftand 
thecaufe of it, VitruVnu will tell you that it comes 
from their Ignorance of the charming Arts. <Pro- 
fter ignorantiam Artis^ Virtutes obfcurantur : (in the 
Preface to his Fifth Book.) Nay more , we 
fhould fee this admirable Art fall into the laft de- 
gree of Contempt, if our Mighty Monarch, who 
yields in nothing to the Magnanimity of Alexan- 
der the Great) had not fliown as much Love for 
Painting as Valour in the Wars: we daily fee him 
encouraging this noble Art, by the confiderable 
*Mr, Le Prefents which he makes to his ^ chief Painter. 


Art of ? dinting^ 83 

And he has alfo founded an Academy for the 
Progrefs and Perfedionating of Painting, which 
his ^ firft Minifter honours with his Protediion, * A{r. Coi- 
his care, and frequent Viiits : infomuch that we ^^^ 
might fliortly fee the age ofjpelks reviving in our 
Country, together with all the beauteous Arts, if 
our generous Nobility, who follow our incompa- 
rable King with fo much Ardour and Courage ia 
thofe dangers to which he expofes his Sacred Per- 
(bn for the Greatnefs and Glory of his Kingdom, 
would imitate him in that wonderfull AfFedion 
which he bears to all who are excellent in this kind. 
Thofe Perfons who were the moft confiderable 
in Ancient Greece^ either for Birth or Merit, took 
a mod particular care, for many ages, to be inftru- 
ded in the Art of Painting : following that lau- 
dable and profitable cuftom which was begun 
and eftablidi'd by the Great Alexander^ which was 
to learn how to Vejlgn, And Tliny who gives te- 
ftimony to this in the tenth Chapter of his 35 ft. 
Book tells us farther (fpeaking of Tamphilus the 
Mafter of Apelles) That it was by the authority ofAr 
lexander, that firft at Sicyon, and afterwards thro 
^i/ Greece, the young Gentlemen leanid before all 0- 
ther things to deftgn upon Tablets of (Boxen-wood j and 
that the firft place among all the Liberal Arts ivas gi- 
ven to fainting. And that which makes it evident, 

M 2 that 

84, Ohfervations on the 

that they were very knowing in this Art, is the 
love and efteem which they had for Painters. 
Demetrius gave high tcftimonies of this wheirhe- 
befieg d the City of Rhodes : For he was pleas'd 
to employ fome part of that time, which he ow'd 
to the careof his Arms, invifiting'Pro^tg^/iej, who 
was then drawing the Picture oi Jalifus. T7;/f Ja- 
Irfus, (fays ^liny) hinder d I\j?tg Demetrius from 
taking Rhodes, out of fear ^ lejl he p?ould burn the 
^PiElures ; and not being able to fire the Town on anj/i 
other Jidey he was pleas' d rather to /pare the Taint ingj 
than to take the ViHory which was already in his hands* 
Trotogenes at that time had his Workhoufe in a 
Garden out of the Town, and very near the 
Camp of the Enemies, where he was daily fi- 
nilhing thofe Pieces which he had already begun j 
the noife of Soldiers not being capable of inter- 
njpting his ftudies. But Demetrius caufing him 
to bt brought into his Prefence, and asking him 
what made him fo bold as to work in the midft 
of Enemies : Heanfwer'd the King, That he un- 
derjiood the War which he made^ wa6 agamjiihe Rho- 
dians and not againjl the Arts, This oblig'd Deme- 
trius to appoint him Guards for his Security, be- 
ing infinitely pleas'd that he could preferve that 
hand, which by this means he fav'd from the 
barbarity and infolence of Soldiers. Alexandear 


' Jrt of Painting. 8^_ 

fiad no greater pleafure, than when he was in the. 
painting room of y^/?e//w,where he commonly was 
found. And that Painter once received from him a 
fenfible Teftimony of Love andEfteem which thac 
Monarch had for him : for having caus'd him to 
paint naked (by reafonofher admirable beauty) 
one of his Concubines call'd Campafpey who had 
the greateft fliare in his afFedions, and perceiving 
thac JpelleswsLS wounded with the fame fatal dart 
of Beauty , he made a prefent of her to him. In 
that age fo great a deference was pay'd to ^aint^ 
ingy that they who had any Maftery in that Art, 
never painted on any thing but what was porta- 
ble from one place to another, and what could 
be fecur'dfrom burning. They took a particu- 
lar care, fays ^liny^ in the place above- cited, not 
to paint any thing againft a Wall, which could 
onely belong to one Mafter, and muft always 
remain in the fame place 3 and for that rea(bn 
could- not be removed in cafe of an accidental 
Fire. Men were not fufFer'd to keep a Pidure, 
as it were in prifon, on the Walls: It dwelt in 
common in all Cities, and the T,ai?iter himfelf 
was refpcdted, as a Common Good to all the World. 
See this Excellent Author ^ and you fhall find that 
the I or/?. Chapter of his 55^/;. Book is fiU'd with 
the pratjes of this Arty and with the Honours which 


SS dl[ervations on the 

were afcrWd to it. You will there find that it was 
not permitted to any but thofe of noble Blood 
to profefs it. Francis the Firjij tls Fafari tells us, 
was in love wich Painting to that degree, that he 
allur'd out oi Italy all the bed Mafters,that this Arc 
might flourifli in his own Kingdom. Amongft o- 
thers Leonardo da Vinci^ who after having continu- 
ed for fome time in France^ died at Fontainbleau, 
in the Arms of that great King, who could not 
behold his death, without fliedding Tears over 
him. Charles the Fifth has adorn d Sj^^m with the 
nobleft Pictures which are now remaining in the 
World, ^^dolphi in his life of Titian^ fays, that 
Emperor one day took up a Te?jctl, which fell from the 
hand of that Artifiy who was then drawing his ^iBurey 
aud upon the Compliment which Titian made him on 
that occaflon , h faid thefe words, Titian has de- 
fer")?' d to he ferVd hy Caefar. And in the fame life 
'tis remarkable, That the Emperour Valued himfelf 
not fo much in fubjeBmg l^ngdoms and ^roVmceSy 
as that he had been thrice made immortal by the hand of 
Titian. If you will but take the pains to read this 
famous life m^idolphi,you will there fee the relation 
of all thofe honours which hereceiv'd from Charles 
the Fifth. It would rake up too much time here to 
recount all the particulars : I will onely obferve 
that thegreateft Lords who composed the Court 


Art of faulting. 87 

of that Emperour, not being able to refrain 
from fome marks of Jealoufy, upon the preference 
which he made of the Perfon, and Converlation 
of Titiariy to that of all his other Courtiers ; he 
freely told them, That he could iteVer want a Court 
or Courtier 5 y but he could not ha'Ve Titian always with 
him. Accordingly he heap^'d Riches on him, and 
whenfoever he fent him Money, which^ ordi- 
narily fpeaking, was a great Summ, he always did 
it with this obliging Teftimony, That his dejign 
mas not to pay him the Value of his TiBures, becaufe 
they were ahoVe any price. After the example of the 
Worthies of Antiquity^ who bought the rareft 
Pi(5lures with Bufliels of Gold, without counting 
the weight or the number of the pieces, In nummo 
aureoy menfura accepit, non numerOj fays Tli?iy, fpeak- 
ing of Apelles, QuinEiilian inferrs from hence , 
that there is nothing more noble than the Art of faint- 
ing ; becaufe other things for the moft part are 
Merchandice, and bought at certain Rates 3 moft 
things for this very reafon, (fays hej are vile be- 
caufe they have a price, ^leraque hoc ipfo poffunt 
Videriviliay qu9d pretiumhahent : feethe J4f/?. 3 JtA. 
and ^6th. Books oi^liny. Many great perfons 
have lov'd it with aft extream Paffion, and have 
exercised themfelves in it with delight. Amongft 
mhers, Lelius Fabiusy one of thofe famous (^0- 


88 Ohfervations on the 

mansy who, as Cicero relates, after he had tailed 
painting and had pradlis'd it^ would be cali'd 
Fahius^iBor : as 2i\fo Turpilius a, ^man Knight^ 
Laheo J^r^etor <(^ Confuly Quintus Tedius, the Poets 
Enn'ius and ^acuVim j Socrates^ TLttOy Metrodorus^ 
fPbrho, CommoduSyNerOyVeffaJtany Alexander SeVe- 
rusy Antonhiusy and mp.riy other Kings and Empe- 
rours, who thought it not below their Majefty 
to employ fome part of their tintie in this honou- 
rable Art. 
% 37. 77;e principal and mojl important part of (paintin^y 
is to find out and thoroughly to underjl and what Nature 
hath made mofi: beautifull and mojl proper to this Arty 
&c. Obferve here the rock on which the greateft 
part of the Flemip? Painters have fplit: moft of 
that Nation know how to imitate Nature, at leaft 
as well as the Painters of other Countries, but 
they make a bad choice in Nature it felf j whe- 
ther it be, that they have not (een the Ancient 
pieces to find thofe beauties ; or that a happy 
Genius, and the beautifull Nature is not of the 
growth of their Country, And to confefs the 
truth, that which is naturally beautifull is fo very 
rare, that it is difcover'd by few perfons j 'tis 
difficult to make a choice of it, and to form to 
our felves fuch an Idea of it, as may ferve us for a 


Art of Fainting. 8^ 

Jind that a choice of it may be made according to ^ 5 p. 
the guji and manner of the Ancients ^ dec. That is 
to fay, according to the Statues^ the 'Baffo^S^lie^ 
W5,and the other Ancient ^iecesy as well of the Gr^e- 
dans as of the ^mans ; Ancient (ox Antique) is that 
which has been made from the time oi Alexander 
the Greaty till that of ^hocas ; during whofe Em- 
pire the Arts were ruin d by War. Thefe Anci- 
-ent works from their beginning have been the rule 
of beauty 3 and in effe(5l, the Authors of them 
have been fo careful! to give them that perfe<^i- 
on, which is ftill to be obferv'd in them, that 
they made ufe not onely of one fingle Body,where- 
hy they form'd them, but of many, from which 
they took the moft regular parts to compofc 
€rom them a beautifull whole. " Tloe Sculptorsy 
^' fays Maximus Tyrtus in his yth, Diflertation, 
" with admirable Artifice chofe out of many bodies 
" thofe parts which appear d to them the moft beauti- 
^^ full, and out of that diverjity made but one Statue: 
" Sut this mixture is made with fo much prudence 
" and propriety y that they feem to haVe taken but one 
" onely perfeB beauty. And let m not imagine that 
" we can e'Ver find one natural !Beauty which can dif 
" fute with Statues^ that Art which has always fome- 
" what moreperfeSl than Nature. 'Tis alfo to be 
prefum'd, that in the choice which they made of 

N thofo 

^o Obfervations on the 

thofc parts, they foUowM the opinion of the ^hy- 
Jtciansy who at that time were very capable of 
inftrudting them in the rules of Beauty : Since 
Beauty and Health ordinarily follow each other. 
*' For 'Beauty y fays Galeriy is nothing elfe hut a jujt 
^' Accord and mutual Harmony of the Members^ a- 
" nimated hy a healthful! conflitution. And me?ty 
" faid the fame Author, commend a certain Statue 
" of Polycletus, which they call the rule, and which 
^^ deferVes that name for having fo perfeB an agree- 
" ment in all its parts y and a proportion fo exaBy that 
" it is not poffihle to find a fault in it. From what 
I have quoted, we may conclude, that the Anci- 
ent Pieces are truly beautifull, becaufe they re^ 
femble the Beauties of Nature ; and that Nature 
will ever be beautifull which refembles thofe Beau- 
ties of Antiquity. 'Tis now evident upon what 
account none have prefum'd to contcfl the pro- 
portion of thofe Ancient Pieces, and that on the 
contrary, they have always been quoted as Mo- 
dels of the mod perfect Beauty. OVid'm the i ith. 
Book of his MetamorphoftSy where he defcribes CyU 
larusy the mofl beautifull of all the Centaures, fays. 
That he hadfo great a Vivacity in his CountenancCy his 
Necky his ShoulderSy his Hands and Stomach were 
fo fairy that it is certain the manly part of him was 
as beautifull as the mofl celebrated Statues. And 

Art of Painting. 51 

^hilojlratus in his Herolfiesy fpeaking of ^rotejt- 
lam and praifing the beauty of his face, fays, 
" That the form of his Nofe wasfquare, as if it had 
^^ been of a Statue ^ and in another place fpeaking 
of Euphorbus, he fays, " That his beauty had gaind 
" the off eBions of all the Greeks, and that it refem- 
" bled fo nearly the beauty of a Statue y that one might 
*^ haVe taken him for Apollo. Afterwards alfo 
(peaking of "the Beauty of Neoptolemusj and of his 
likencfs to his Father Achilles y he fays, " Tl?at in 
*^ beauty, his Father had the fame advantage oyer 
^' him, as Statues haVe oyer the beauty of Hying 
'' Men. 

This ought to be underftood of the fairefi 
Statues, for amongft the multitude of Sculptors 
which were in Greece and Italy, 'tis impoffible but 
fome of them muft have been bad work-men, or 
rather lefs good : for though their works were 
much inferiour to the Artifts of the firft form, yet 
fomewhat of greatnefs is to be feen in them, and 
fomewhat of harmonious in the diftribution of their 
parts, which makes it evident5 that at this time 
they wrought on Common Principles, and that 
every one of them avail'd himlelf of thofe Princi- 
ples according to his Capacity and Genius. Thofc 
Statues were the greatefl: Ornaments of Greece ; we 
need onely open the Book of Taufanias to find 

N 2 the 

ex Ohfervations on tk 

the prodigious quantity of them, whether within^ 
or without their Temples, or in the cro/fing of 
Streets, or in the Squares and publique Places, or e- 
ven the Fields^or on the Tombs, Statues were ere- 
fted to the Mufesy to the Nymphs y to Heroes^to great 
Captains, to Magiftratesy Thilofophers and Toets : 
In fliort, they were fet up to all thole who had 
made themfelves eminent either in defence of their 
Country, or for any noble adion which deferv'd 
a recompence 5 for it was the moft ordinary and 
moft authentique way, both amongft the Greeks ^ 
and (S^mansy thus to teftifie their gratitude. The 
^mans when they had conquered Gr^ciuy tran- 
(ported from thence, not onely their moft admira- 
ble Statues, but alfo brought along with them the 
moft excellent of their Sculptors, who inftrudted 
others in their Art, and have left to pofterity the 
immortal Examples of their knowledge, which 
we fee confirmed by thofe curious Statues, thofe 
Fafesy thofe SaJfo-^lie'Vo'sy and thofe bcautifull 
Columns call'd by the names of Trajan and /^nto- 
nine : They arc thofe Beauties which out Author 
propofes to us for our Models, And as the true 
Fountains of Science, out of which both Painters ^ 
and Statuaries are bound to draw for their own 
ufe, without amufing themfelves with dipping in 
ftreams which are often muddy, at leaft troubled 5 


Ah of Painting. 55 

Bmean the manner of their Mafters, after whom 
they creep, and from whom they are unwiUing 
to depart, either through negligence, or through 
the meannefs of their Genius. " It belongs onely to 
" heavy minds, fzys Cicero, to fpend their time on 
" JlreamSy without fearching for the Springs from 
^^ whence their materials flow in all manner of abun- 
*' dance. 

Without which all is nothing, but a blind and rap? ^40, 
barbarity, &c. All that has nothing of the An- 
cient guft, is caird a barbarous ox Gothique man- 
ner, which is not conducted by any rule, but 
onely follows a wretched fancy, which has no- 
thing in it that is noble : we are here to obferve, 
that (P^rWerj arenotoblig'd to follow the Antique 
as exadly as the Sculptors, for then their Pidurc 
would favour too ftrongly of the Statue^ and^ 
would feem to be without Motion. Many Pain- 
ters, and fome of the ableft amongft them, be- 
lieving they do well, and taking that Precept 
in too literal a Sence, have fallen thereby into great 
inconveniencies ; it therefore becomes the Painters 
to make ufe of thofe Ancient Patterns with difcre- 
tion, and to accommodate the Nature to them in 
fuch a manner, that their Figures which muft 
feem to live, may rather appear to be Models for 
the Antique, than the Antique a Model for their figures.: . 

^4- Oifervations on the 

It appears that ^phael made a perfed: ufe of 
this condudt, and that, the Lombard School have 
not precifely fearch'd into this Precept, any fur- 
ther than to learn from thence how to make a 
good choice of the Nature, and to give a certain 
grace and noblenefs to all their works, by the ge- 
neral and confus'd Idea, which they had of what 
is beautifuUj as for the reft, they are fufficiently 
licentious, excepting onely Titian^ who, of all 
the Lombards has preferv'd the greateft purity in 
his works. This barbarous manner of which I 
(poke, has been in great vogue from the year 6 \ i 
to 1450. They who have reftor'd Painting in 
Germany^ ("not having feenany of thofe fair Re- 
liques of Antiquity} have retained much of that 
barbarous manner. Amongft others Lucas yan 
Leyderiy a very laborious man, who with his 
Scholars has infected almoft all Europe with his 
deji^ns for Tafeftry^ which by the ignorant are 
caird Ancient Hangings^ ( a greater honour than 
they deferve :) thefe I fay are efteem'd beautiful! 
by the greateft part of the World. I muft acknow- 
ledge that I am amaz'd at fo grofs a ftupidity, 
and that we of the French Nation fliould have fo 
barbarous a Taft, as to take for beautifuU thofe 
flat, childifli and infipid Tapeftrics. Albert Du- 
rery that famous German^ who was contempora- 

Art of Painting. 5^5 • 

ry to that Lucas, has had the like misfortune to 
fall into that ^bfurd manner, becaufe he had ne- 
ver feen any thing that was bcautifuU. Obfcrve 
what Fafari tells us in the life of Marc Antonio (^- 
phael's Graver) having firft commended Albert 
for his skill in graving, and his other Talents : 
" J}id in truth, fays he, if tlm,fo excellent, fo exaB, 
^' ayid fo univerfal a Man, had been born in TuC 
^' cany, as he was in Germany, and had form d his^ 
" fludies according to thofe beautif nil pieces which are 
" feen at Rome, as the reft of us hay e done, he had 
" proVdthe heft fainter of all Italy, as he was the 
" greateft Genius, and the moft accomplifl? d which 
" Germany e^er bore. 

We lo^e what we under ft and. See. This period ^ 4j^ 
informs us, that though our inventions are never 
fo good, though we are furnifli'd by Nature with 
a noble Genius, and though we follow the impulfc 
of it, yet this is not enough, if we learn not to un- 
derftand what isperfed: and beautifuU in Nature, 
to the end that having found it, we may be able 
to imitate it, and by this inftrudlion we may be 
capacitated to obfcrve thofe errors which fhe her 
fclf has made, and to avoid them, fo as not to 
copy her in all forts of fubjedls 5 fuch as flie ap- * 
pears to us without choice or diftinftion. 


'^ 'Obfervations on the 

^^ ,50. As being the Sovereign Judge of lyk own Arty &c. 
This word of Sovereign Judge or Arbiter of his own 
Arty prefuppofes a painter to be fully inftrudled 
in all the parts of Painting ; fo that being {^ 
as it were above his Art, he may be the Mafler 
and Sovereign of it, which is no eafie matter. 
Thofe of that profeffion are fo fcldom endowed 
with that fupreme Capacity, that few of them 
arrive to be good Judges of Painting: and I 
fhould many times make more account of their 
judgment, who are men of Sence, and yet have 
never touched a Pencil, than of the opinion which 
is given by the greateft part of Painters. All 
Painters therefore may be call'd Arbiters of their 
own Arty but to be Sovereign Arbiters belongs one- 
ly to knowing Painters, 

^ -52. And permit no tranjtent beauties to efcape hi^ 

obferVationy &c. Thofe fugitive or tranfient Beau- 
tics arc no other than fuch as weobferve in Nature 
with a fhort and tranfient view, and which remain 
not long in their fubje<5ls. Such are the Paffions 
of the Soul. There are of thefe fort of Beauties 
which laft but for a moment ; as the different 
Aires of an Affembly, upon the Sight of an un- 
cxpedted and uncommon Object, fome particu- 
larity of a violent Paffion, fomc gracefull Action, 
«a Smile, a Glance of an Eye, a difdainfuU Look, 

Art of Painting. 57 

a Look of Gravity, and a thoufand other fuch 
like things 5 we may alfo place in the Catalogue 
of thefe flying Beauties, fine Clouds, fuch as or- 
dinarily follow Thunder or a Shower of Rain, 

In the fame 7nanner that bare praBice deflitute of ^ 
the Lights of Arty Sec. We find in QuinBiliarty 
that Pythagoras faid, " The TI?eory is nothing with- 
" out the praHice, And what means (fays the young- 
" er ^Itny) haVe we to retain what has been taugi?t 
" us J if we put it not in praElice : we would not 
allow that Man to be an Orator \^ho had the 
beft thoughts imaginable, and who knew all the 
rules of Rhetorique if he had not acquir'd by cx- 
ercife the Art of ufing them, and of compofing 
an excellent Difcourfe. Painting is a long Pil- 
grimage 5 what avails it to make all the necefla- 
ry preparatives for our Voyage, or to inform our 
felves of all the difficulties in the rode, if we do 
not actually begin the journey, and travel at a 
round rate, we fliall never arrive at the end of it. 
And as it would be ridiculous to grow old in the 
ftudy of every neceflary thing, in an Art which 
comprehends fo many feveral parts 3 fo on the 
other hand to begin the pradice without knowing 
the rules, or at leafl: with a light Tin<5lure of them 
is to expofe our felves to the fcorn of thofe who 
can judge of Painting, and to make it apparent 

O to 

^8 Oifervations on the 

to the World that we have no care of our repu- 
tation. Many are of opinion, that we need one- 
ly work and mind the pra6lical part to become 
skilful! and able Painters 5 and that the Theory 
onely incumbers the mind, and tyes the hand : Such 
Men do juft like the S^t^irrely who is perpetually 
turning the Wheel in her Cage j fhe runs apace 
and wearies her felf with her continual Motion, 
and yet gets no ground. ^Tis not enough for doing 
well to walk apace, fays Quindlilian, hut it is enough 
for walking apace to do well Tis a bad excufe to fay,. 
I was but a little while about it: That graceful! 
Eafinelsj^that celeftial Fire which animates the 
work, proceeds not fo much from having often 
done the like, as from having well underftood 
what we have done. See what I dial! farther 
fay, in the 5 \fl, ^ule, which concerns eafinefs. 
Others there are who believe the Precepts and Spe- 
culation, to be of abfolute neceflity, but as they 
were ill inftruded, and what they knew rather en^- 
tangrd than clear'd their underftanding, fo they 
oftentimes ftop fhort ; and if they perform a work,, 
"'tis not without Anxiety and Pain. And in truth,^ 
they are fo much the more worthy of Compaffi- 
on becaufc their intentions are right^ and if they 
advance not in knowledge as far as others, and * 
are fometimes caft behind, yet they are ground- 

zArt of Paintmg.j 5^ 

ed upon fome fort of reafoh 5 for 'tis belonging to 
good fence, not to go over faft when we appre- 
hend our felves to be out of the way, or even 
•where we doubt which way we ought to take. 
Others on the contrary, being well inftruded in 
good Maximes,and in the rules of Art, after having 
done fine things yet fpoil them all by endeavou- 
ring to make them better, which is a kind of o- 
ver-doing, and are fo intoxicated with their work 
and with an earneft defire of being above all o- 
thers, that they fuffer themfelves to be deceiv'd 
with the appearance of an imaginary good. A- 
pelles one day admiring the prodigious Labour which pijny 35. i, 
he faw in a TiBure of Protogenes, and knowing 
how muchjweat it mufl have cojl him, faid, That Pro- 
togenes and himfelf were of equal flrength j nay, that 
he yielded to him in fome parts of Painting, but in this 
he furpafs'd him, t/^^t- Protogenes neVer knew when 
he had dom well, and could neVer hold his hand; he 
alfo added in the nature of a precept, that he wifl/d all 
Painters would imprint this leffon deeply in their Me- 
mory, that with oyer 'fir aining and earneflnefs of finifh- 
ing their Pieces they often did the?n more harm than 
good. There are fome '{fays Quind:ilian^ who ne- ,q ,^ 
Ver fatisfie themfehes, neVer are contented with their 
firfi Notions and Expreffions, but are continually chang- 
ing all^ till nothing remains of their firfi Ideas, Others 

O 2 there 

100 Obfervatms on the 

there are (continues he J who dare ne'Ver truft thertr- 
felveSy nor refobe on any things and who being as i> 
were mtangfd in their own GeniuSy imagine it to be a- 
laudable correBnefsy when they form dij^culties to them- 
felves in their own work- Jnd to /peak the truths 'tis 
hard to difcern whether of the two is in thegreatejl Err or ^ 
he who is enamour d of alt lit does, or he whom no- 
thmg of his own can fleafe. For it has happen d tor 
young Men, and often eyen t(y thofe of the great eft 
Wit, to wafie their Spirits, and to confufne themjehes^ 
with Anxiety and ^ain of their own giving, fo far as- 
eyen to doz^ upon their work with too ynuch eagernefs 
of doi7ig well', I will now tell you how a reafonahle man. 
ought to carry himfelf on this occajton : 'Tis certain 
that we ought to ufe our beji endeavour to give the 
laji TerfeBion to our works j yet it is always to be un- 
derjiood, that we atteinpt no more than what is in the- 
oompafs of eur G&nius, and according to ourVem : for 
t'Omake a true ^rogrefs-, I grant that ddigcnce and ft u^ 
dy ares both requtfite, but this Jhudy ou^?t to haVe no' 
niiy^ure, either of Self opnio7i, Qbflinacy, or Anxiety, 
fm which reafon, fit blows a happy Gale we mufl fet up* 
all our Sails, though info doing it fomefunes happens that 
we follow thofe Motions where, our jiatural heat is 7nore 
power full than our care and our correElnejs, provided 
we abufe not this licence, andfuffer not our Jelves tOs 
ke deceiVd. by,, it, for all our produBio?is cmnot fail to- 


ArtofVainting, loi 

fltafe m at the moment of their Sirthy as being new 
to us, 

SecaufethegreateJlSeauties cannot always be exprefs'd gr ^j^ 
for want of terms j&cc. I have learn'dfrom the mouth 
of Monfieur dti Frefmy, that he had oftentimes 
heard Guido fay, That no man could give a^ rule of 
the greateft SeautieSj and that the knowledge of them 
was fo abflrufe, that there was no manner ofjpeaking 
which could exprefs them. This comes juft to what 
QuinBilian fays, That things^ incredible wanted words Dedam. i^^. 
to exprefs them ; for fome of them are too great and 
too much elevated to be comprehended by human difcourfe. 
From hence it proceeds that the beft Judges when 
they admire a noble Pidure, feem to befaften d 
to it 5 and when they come to themfelves- you 
would fay they had loft the ufe of Speech. 

^aufiaca torpesy infane, Tabella^ fays ^ Horace; *Uh.2SiiU-!: 
and 'fSymma(J)Hs fays, that the greatnefs of aflomfh- M^^^'^^^'^v* 
ment hinders-, men from giVmg a jufl applaufe* The L 
talians fay Opera daflupire, when.a thing is wonder- 
fully good. 

Thofe MaJIer- pieces of Jntiquity^ which were thefirfl lj[ 62* 
Examples of this Art ^ See. He means the moft 
knowings and beft Painters of Antiquity, that is 
to fay, from the laft two Ages to our times* 

Jnd alfo moderates that fury of the Fancy ^ &c ^ 66. 
There is in the Latinc Text, which produces onely 


1 01 Olfervations on tie 

Monjlers , that is to fay , things out of all proba- 
ble refemblance. Such things as are often found 
in the works of Tietro Tejla : It often happens^ fays 
Dionyfiiis Longmus^ a grave Author, Thatfome men 
imagining themf elves to he pojfefs'd with a diVine Fu- 
ry ; far from being carry d into the rage of Baccha- 
nalians, often fall into toys and tribes which are only 
^^ 6^* A fuhjeSh heautifull and nohkj &c. Painting is 
not onely pleafing and divertifing, but is alfo a 
kind of Memorial of thofe things which Antiqui- 
ty has had the moft beautifuU and noble in their* 
kinds, re-placing the Hiftory before our Eyes 3 
as if the thing at that time were efFed:ually in A- 
^ion, even fo far that beholding the Pi<5lures 
wherein thofe noble deeds are reprefented, we 
find our felves ftung with a defire of endeavour- 
ing fomewhat which is like that Adlion there ex- 
prefs'd, as if we were reading it in the Hiftory. 
The Beauty of the fubje<5t infpires us with Love 
and Admiration for the Pidures. As the fair 
mixture caufes us to enter into the fubje<51: which 
it imitates and imprints it the more deeply into 
our Imagination and our Memory : thefe are two 
Chains which are interlinked , which contain , 
and are ^t the fame time contain'd, and whofe 
matter is equally precious and eftimablc. 


Art ofPamtmg. 105 

Jnd well feafondy Sec. Jliquid falis^ fomewhat ^72. 
that is ingenious, fine and picquant^ extraordina- 
ry of a high reHfh, proper to inftrud: and to clear 
the Underftanding. The Painters ought to do 
like the Orators^ fays Cicero. Let them inftrud, ^^ Opt.Gcn. 
let them divertife, and let them move us ; this is 
what is properly meant by the word Salt. 

On which the whole Machine (as it maybecall'd} |J[ 74, 
of the ^iElure is to be diffos'd, Sec. 'Tis not with- 
out reafon^ nor by chance, that our Author ufes 
the word Machine. A Machine is a juft aflfembling 
or Combination of many pieces to produce one 
and the fame effect. And the Difpojition in a Ti- 
Bure is nothing elfe but an Aflfembling of many 
parts, of which we are to forefee the agreement 
with each other; And the juftnefs to produce a 
beautifull efFed, as you fliall fee in the fourth • 
Precept, which is concerning the Oeconomy, This 
is alfo call'd the Compofition^ by which is meant 
the diftribution and orderly placing of things,, 
both in general and in particular. 

Which is what we properly call Invention, dec. Our gr ^^^ 
Author eftabliflies three parts of Painting, 
which in fome places he alfo calls the C R O- 
MAT J Qjl E. Many Authors who have writ- 

IQ^ Ohfervations on the 

ten of Painting, multiply the parts according to 
their pleafure 5 and without giving you or my 
felf the trouble of difcuffing this matterj I will 
onely tell you, that all the parts of Painting which 
others have nam'd, are reducible into thefe three 
which are mentioned by our Author. 

For which reafon, I efteem this divifion to 
be the jufteft: and as thefe three parts are Efjenttal 
to fainting y fo no nun can be truly called a 
fainter who does not poiTefs them all together : In 
the fame manner that we cannot give the name 
of Man to any Creature which is not compos'd 
of Sodyy Soul and ^afoHy which are the three 
parts neceflarily conftituent of a Man. How there- 
fore can they pretend to the Quality of Painters, 
who can onely copy and purloyn the works of 
others who therein employ their whole induftry, 
and with that onely Talent would pafs for able 
Painters. And do not tell me that many great Ar- 
tiils have done this ; for I can eafily anfwer you that 
it had been their better courfe, to have abftain'd 
from/o doing j that they have not thereby done 
themfelves much honour, and that copying was 
not the befl: part of their reputation. Lee us then 
conclude that all Painters ought to acquire this 
part of Excellence j not to do it, is to want cou- 
rage and not dare to fliew themfelves. 'Tis to 


Art ofPaintmg. 105 

creep and grovel on the ground, 'tis to defcrve 
this juft reproach, imkatores ferVum pecm: "Tis 
with Painters, in reference to their productions, 
as it is with Orators^ A good beginning is al- 
ways coftly to both : much fweat and labour is 
required, but *tis better to expofe our works and 
leave them liable to cenfurc for fifteen years, than 
to blufh for them at the end of fifty. On this ^ 
account 'tis neceffary for a Painter to begin early 
to do fomewhat of his own, and to accuftom him- 
fclf to it by continual exercife 5 for fo long as endea- 
vouring to raife himfelf, he fears falling, he (hall 
be always on the ground. See the following ob- 

Invention is a kind of Muje^ which being fojfefs'd ^76* 
of the other advantages common to her Sijlersy &c. 
The Attributes of the Mufes are often taken for 
the Mufes themfelves ; and it is in this fence, that 
Invention is here called a Mufe, Authors afcribe 
to each of them in particular the Sciences which 
they have (fay they^ invented ; and in general 
the belie lettere^ becaufe they contain almoft all the 
others. Thefe Sciences are thofe advantages of 
which our Author fpeaks, and with which he 
would have a Painter furnifli himfelf Itifficiently : 
and in truth, there is no man, though his under- 
ftanding be very mean who knows not and who 

P finds 

jo6 Obfervations on the 

finds not of himfelf how much Learning is nece& 
lary to animate his Genius, and to compleat it*. 
And the reafon of this is, that they who haveftu- 
died, have not onely fecn and learn'd many ex-^ 
cellent things in their courfe of ftudies, but that? 
alfo they have acquk'd by that exercife a great 
Facility of profiting themfelves by reading good 
Authors. They who will make profeffion of 
Painting, muft heap up treafures out of their read- 
ing and there will find many wonderfuU means 
of raifing themfelves above others, who can onely 
creep upon the ground, or if they elevate them- 
felves,. 'tis onely to fall from a higher place, be- 
caufe they ferve themfelves of other Men's Wings, 
neither underftanding their Ufe nor Vertue : 'Tis 
true that it is not the prefent Mode for a Painter 
to be fo knowing : and if any of them in thefe 
times be found to have either a great Wit or much 
Learning, the multitude would not fail to fay, 
that it was great pity, and that the Youth might 
have come to fomewhat in the pra(5tica! parr, or 
it may be. in the Exchequer ^ or in the Families of 
fome Noble-men. So wretch'd is the Deftiny of 
Painting in thefe later ages. By Learning 'tis 
not fo much the knowledge of the Greek and Latin& 
Tongue, which is here to be underftood as the 
reading of good Author Sy and underftanding thofe 


Art of Painting. ' 1 07 

chings of which they treat: for Tranjlutions being 
made of the heji Author s^ there is not any Painter 
who is not capable in fome fort of underftand- 
ing thofe Books of Humanity, which are com- 
prehended under the name of the belle lettere. In 
my opinion the Books which are of the moft ad- 
vantage to thofe of the Profeflion, arc thefe which 


The Hiftory oijoje^hm. 

The ^man Hiftory of Coejfeteau^ (for thofe 
who underftand the French^) and that oiTitm Li- 
Vmsy tranflatcd by Vigenerej with the Notes which , 
are both curious and profitable. They are in two 

Homer y whom ^liny calls the Fountain-head of 
Invention and noble thoughts. 

Vtrgily and in him, particularly his JEneids, 

The Ecclefiaftical Hiftory of Godeau, or the 
Abridgement of S^rowmj. 

OVtd's Met amor phofes^ tranflated into French by 
Du (2^/er, and in Englifh by Sandys, 

^ The P'ldiuresoi ¥hiloJiratus. * Tableaux. 

Plutarch's LiVeSy tranflated from the Greek by 
feveral hands, in 5 Volumes. 

Taufanm^ though I doubt whether that Author 
be tranjlated* He is wonderful! for giving of 

P 2 great 

io8 Objervntions m the 

great Ideas ; and chiefly, for fuch as are to be plac d 
at 2. diftance. Cor caft behind) and for the com- 
bining of Figures, This Aitthor in conjunction 
with Horner^ make a good mingle of what is plea- 
fing and what is perfect 

The Religion of the Ancknt ^mansy by T>u 
Cheul^ and in Englip)y Godwin's ^man Antiqm- 

Trajan s Hillary with the difcourfc which ex- 
plains the Figures on it, and inftruds a Painter 
in thofe things with which he is undifpenfibly 
to be acquainted. This is one of the moft prin- 
. ctpal and mofl: learned Books, whkh we have for 
the Modesy the Cujtomsy the Arms, and the ^If- 
^ion of the (I(omans.] Julio ^mano made his chief 
ftudies on the Marble it felf. 

The Books of Medals. 

The !BaJf'(I{eliefs of terrier and others, with 
their Explan^ions at the bottom of the Pages, 
which give a perfect underftanding of them. 

Horace's Art of ^oetijy by the Earl of ^fco- 
mony becaufe of the relation which there is betwixt 
the Rules of Poetry and thofe of fainting. 

And other Books of the Hke Nature, the read- 
ing of which are profitable to warm the Imaginati- 
on : fuch as m Englifhy are Spencer s Fairy Queen ; 
The ^aradife lofi of Mkon j Ta0o tranflaced by 

Fairfax j 

Art of Fainting. 

Fairfax ; and the Hiftory of ^olyhitiSy by Sir Hem 
ry Shen. 

Some Romances alfo are very capable of en- 
rcrt^ing the Genius, and of ftrengthening k by 
the nci>le Ideas which they give of things 5 buc 
there is this danger in them, that they almoft aU 
ways corrupt the truth of Hiftory. 
♦ There aie alfo other Books which a Paintejf 
may ufe upon foinc particular occafions and 
onely when he wants them : Such are. 

The Mytholo^ of the Gods. 

The Images of the Gods, 

The Icondogy, 

The Tables of Hjiginus. 

The pra6lical Perfpe6livc. 

And fome others not here mentioned. 

Thus it is necefl^ry, that they who are defirous^ 
of a name in Painting, fliould read at leifure times 
thefe Books with diligence, and make their obfer- 
vations of fuch things i^ they find for their pur- 
poft in them, and of which they believe they may 
fometime or other have occafion 5 let the Imagi- 
nation be employed in this reading, and let them* 
make Sketches and light Touches of thofe Ideas 
which that reading forms in their ImaginatioiL 
^inBilian^ Tacitusy or whoever was the Author 
of that Dialogue which iseall'd iti Latine DecaU" 


110 Obfervations on the 

Jls vorrupu eloquentU, fays, Tl?at Tainting re/em- 
hies Fire which is fed by the Fuel, inflamd by Moti- 
OHy and gathers Jirength by burning : For the pow- 
er of the GeniurS is onely augmented by the abundunce 
of matter to fupply it ; and 'tis impofflble to make a 
great and magnificent worky if that matter be wanting 
or not difposd rightly. And therefore a Painter 
who has a Genius, gets nothing by long think- 
ing and taking all imaginable care to make 
a noble Compofition if he be not aflifted by 
thofe ftudies which I have mention d. All that 
he can gain by it, is onely to weary his Imagina- 
tion, and to travel over many vaft Countries 
without dwelHng on any one thing, which can 
give him fatisfa6lion. 

All the Books which I have named may be fer- 
viceable to all fortsofPerfonsas well as to Pain- 
ters. As for thofe Books which were of particu- 
lar ufe to them, they were unfortunately loft in 
thofe Ages which wereUbfore the Invention of 
Printing. Neglecting the Copyers probably out 
of ignorance to tranfcribe them, as not finding 
*That u ^0 them felves capable of making the ^ demonftrative 
Diagrams ^ f igures. In the mean time, 'tis evidently known by 
^skftc}ies,^^ rcltaion of Authors, that we have loft fifty Vo- 
lumes of them at the leaft. See Tlmy in his 3 jti. 
Book 5 and Franc. Junius in his 3^. Chapter of 


Art of Vainting. ^ 1 1 1 

the id. Book oi tht fainting of the Ancients, Ma- 
ny Moderns have written of it with fmall fuc- 
cefs, taking a large compafs without coming di- 
rectly to the point, and talking much without 
faying any thing : yet fome of them have acquit- 
ted themfelves (ucccfsfully enough. Amongft o- 
thers Leonardo da Vinc't (though without method 5) 
^aulo Loma;^^Oy whofe Book is good for the great- 
eft part, but whofe difcourfe is too difFufive and 
very tirefome. John 'Baptijl /Irmeniniy Francifcm 
JuniuSj Monjieur de Cambray^ to whofe Preface I 
rather invite you than to his Book 5 we are not to 
forget what Monfieur Felehien has written of the 
Pi(5ture of Alexander by the hand of Monfieur 
Le 'Brun : befides that the work it felf is very elo- 
quent, the Foundations which he eftabliflies for 
the making of a good Picture are wonderfully fo- 
lid. Thus I have given you very near the Libra- 
ry of a ^aintery and a Catalogue of fuch Books as 
he ought either to read himfelf or have read to 
him, at Icaft if he will not fatisfie himfelf with 
pofle/fing Painting as the moft fordid of all Trades 
and not as the nobleft of all Arts. 

'Tis the bufinefs of a Taint er in^ns choice of T^- i|[ yy\, 
fluresy &c. See here the mojl important precept of 
all thofe which relate to Tainting, It belongs pro- 
perly to a Tainter alone y and all. the reft are bor- 


tiz Olfervatioiis on the 

row'd either from Learnings or from ^hyjlck^ or 
from the Mathematicks , or in fliort, from other 
JrtSy for it is fufficient to have a natural Wit and 
Learning to make that which we call in Painting 
a good Invention, for the defign we muft have 
fome infight into Anatomy ^ to make Buildings, and 
other things' in Ter/peBiVey we muft have know- 
ledge in the Mathematicks yZnd other ArtSj will bring 
in their Quota's to furnifli out the matter of a good 
Pi^^urej but for the Oeconomy or ordering of the 
whole together, none but onely the Painter can 
underftand it, becaufe the end of the Artift is plea- 
fingly to deceive the Eyes, which he can never 
accomplifli if this part be wanting to him. A 
Pifture may make an ill efFeft, though the LiVen- 
tion of it be truly underftood, the Deji^n of it cor- 
real and the Colours of it the moft beautifull and 
fine that can be employ^ in it. And on the con- 
trary we may behold other Pi(ftures ill invented, 
ill defign d and painted with the moft common 
Colours, which fliall make a very good effeft, 
and which (hall more pleafingly deceive ; No- 
thing pleafes a man jo much as order, fays Xenophon: 
And Horace, in his Art offoetry. 

Singula qutet^ue locum teneant fortita decenter. 


In Oeceno- 

Art of Fainting. 113 

Set all things in their own peculiar place. 
And know that Order is the greatefl Grace* 

This Precept is properly the ufe and applica- 
tion of all the reft j for which rcafon it requires 
much judgment. You are therefore, in fuch 
manner to forefee things, that your Picture may 
be painted in your Head : i. e. before it come up- 
on the Canvas. When Menander (fays a cele- 
brated Authour) had order d the Scenes of his Co- Comm.vetiis. 
medy^ he held it to be, in a manner, already made 5 
though he had not begun the firjl Verfe of it, 'Tis an 
undoubted truth, that they who are endu d with 
this forefight, work with incredible pleafure and 
facility 5 others on the contrary are perpetually 
changing and rechanging their work, which when 
it is ended leaves them but anxiety for all their 
pains. It feems to me that thefe forts of Pidures 
remind us of thofe old Gothique Caftles, made at 
feveral times, and which hold together onely as 
it were by Rags and Patches. 

It maybeinferrM from that which I havcfaid, 
that the Indention 3Lnd the Difpojttion are two feveral 
and diftind: parts in effe^, though the laft of 
them depends upon the fir ft, and that common- 
ly 'tis comprehended under it : yet we are to 

Q^ rake 

xi^^. Ohfervations on the 

take great care that we do not confound them. 
T\itlnvent'ton fimply finds out the fubjeds, and 
makes a choice of them fuitabic to the Hiftory 
which we treat; and the Vifpofition diftributes 
thofe things which are thus found each to its pro- 
per place, and accommodates the Figures and the 
Grouppes in particular, and the Tout Enfembk 
(or whole together) of the Picture in general : 
fo that this Oeconomy produces the fame effed: in 
relation to the Eyes, as a Confort of Mujick to the 

There is one thing of great confequence to be 
obferv'd in the Oeconomy of the whole work, which 
is, that at the firft Sight we may be given to un- 
derftand the quality of the fubjed: : and that the 
Picture at the firft Glance of the Eye, may in- 
(pire us with the principal paiTion of it : for Ex- 
ampky if the fubje(5l which you have undertaken 
to treat be of joy, 'tis neceflary that every thing 
which enters into your Picture fliould contribute 
to that Paffion, fo that the Beholders fhall im- 
mediately be mov'd with it. If the Subjedl be 
mournfuU, let every thing in it have a ftroke of 
fadnefs 5 and fo of the other Paffions and Quali- 
ties of the Subjects. 
If 81. Let your Compojitions he conformable to the Text of 
Ancient Authors ^ ^c. Take care that the Licences 


".."i.JHIW ^'J^'.'PH-I. J^.*^jp 

Art of Painting. 115 

of Painters be rather "to adorn the Hiftory, than 
to corrupt it. And though Horace gives permif- 
fion to Tainters and Toets to dare every thing, yet ^rtof Poetry. 
he encourages neither of them, to make things out 
of nature or verifimiHty 5 for he adds immediate- 
ly after, ' 

!But let the Sounds of Licences he fix'd, 

N,ot things of dif agreeing Natures mix'd 5 

Not Sweet with Sowre, nor Sirds with Serpents joynd, 

Nor the fierce Lyon with the fear full Hmd. 

The Thoughts of a Man endued with good 
Sence are not of kin to vifionary madnefs; 
Men in Feavers are onely capable of fuch Dreams. 
Treat then the Subjects of your Pictures with all 
poflible faithfulnefs, and ufe your Licences with 
a becoming boldnefs, provided they be ingeni- 
ous, and not immoderate and extravagant. 

Take care that whatfoeVer makes nothing to your ^ 82. 
SubjeB, See, Nothing deadens fo much the Com- 
poficion of a Picture, as Figures which are not 
appertaining to the Subjed : We may call them 
pleafantly enough, Figures to be let. 

This part of fainting fo rarely met with, and fo % 87. 
difficult to he founds &c. That is to fay. Indention. 

CI 2 ^'l^ich 

11^ O^fervatms on th 

i([ 80. Which WiisfloUen by Prometheus, <s*c. The Po> 
CCS feign that Prometheus form'd out of Clay, fo 
fair a Statue, that Minerva one day having long 
admir'd it, faid to the workman, that if he 
thought there was any thing in Heaven which 
could add to its perfedlion, he might ask it of 
her i but he being ignorant of what might be 
moftbeautifuUin the Habitation of the Gods, de- 
fir'd leave that he might be carry 'd thither, and 
being there to make his choice. The Goddefs 
bore him thither upon her Shield, and fo foon 
as he had perceiv'd that all Celeftial things were 
animated with Fire, he dole a Parcel of it, which 
he carry^'d down to Earth, and applying it to 
the ftomach of his Statue enliven'd the whole Bo» 

^92. That it happens not to eyery one to fee Corinth,., 
&c. This is an Ancient Proverb which fignifies, 
that every man has not the Genius nor the Difpo- 
fition that is neccffary for the Sciences, neither 
yet a Capacity fit for the undertaking of things- 
which are great and difficult. Corinth was hereto- 
fore the Centre of all Arts, and the place whither 
they fent all thofe whom they would render ca- 
*Pro lege pable of any thing. ^ Gc^ro calls it the Light 
of all Grma^ 


Art of Fainting. 117 

It arriVd at length to that height of ferfeBionyScc, •([ pj* 
This was in the time of Alexander the Great, and 
lafted even to Auguflus ; under whofe reign Paint- 
ing fell to great decay. But under the Emperors^ 
Domitiany NerVa and Trajan^ it appeared in its- 
primitive luftre, which lafted to the time of *P^o- 
ca^ the Emperor, when vices prevailing over the 
Arts, and War being kindled through all Europe^ 
and efpecially in Lombardyy (occafionM by the 
irruption of the Hunns^) Painting was totally ex- 
tinguifli'd. And if fome few in the fucceeding 
Ages ftrain'd themfelvcs to revive it, it was ra- 
ther in finding out the moft glaring, gawdy and 
Goftly Colours, than in imitating the harmont 
0US Simplicity of thofe illuftrious Painters who- 
preceded them. At length, in the fourteenth 
Century, fome there were who began to fet it 
again on foot. And it may truly be faid, that 
about the end of the fifteenth Age, and the be- 
ginning of our Sixteenth it appeared in much 
Splendor by means of many knowing Men in all 
parts of Ital}^ who were in perfect poffeffion of it. 
Since thofe happy times which were fo fruitfuU of 
the noble Arts, we have alfo had fome knowing 
Painters but very few in number, becaufe of the 
little inclination which Sovereign Princes have 
had for Painting: but thanks to the zeal of our 


11 8 Obfervations on the 

Great Monarch, and to the care of his firfl: Mi- 
nifter, Monfieur Colbert^ we may fliortly behold 
it more flourifliing than ever. 

C 102. Tlooughthey are not yery much inferior , ^c. Our 
Author means this of Michael Angelo^ and other 
able Sculptors of that time. 

C 1 o 2 . -^ ^ojlure therefore mujl be chofen according to their 
gufio, &CC. This is the fecond part of Painting, 
which is caird Dejtgn or Drawing ; as the Ancients 
have Tought as much as poffible whatfoever con- 
tributes to the making of a perfed: Body, fo they 
have diligently examin'd in what confifts the beau- 
ty of good poftures, as their works fufficicntly in- 
form .us. 

ff 104. T/^e parts of it mujl be great ^ Sec, Yet not fo 
great as to exceed a juft proportion. But he means 
that in a noble pofture, the greatcft parts of the 
Body ought to appear foremoft rather than the 
lefs, for which reafon in another paflage he vehe- 
mently forbids the forefliortnings, becaufe they 
oiake the parts appear little, though of themfelves 
they are great. 

^ 1 04. Large or amfky &c. To avoid the dry man- 
ner, fuch as is moft commonly the N^/^wr^ which 
Lucas yon Leyden and Albert Durer have imi- 


Art of Painting. ii^ 

Unequal in their ^ojltion, fo that thofe which are ^(f 1 05- 
before mufl contrajl or oppofe thofe others which are hin- 
dermoji, and all of them be equally halancd on their 
Centre^ Sec, The Motions are never natural, 
when the Members are not equally balanc'd on 
their Centre : and thefe Members cannot be ba- 
lanced on their Centre in an equality of weight, 
but they mufl: contraft each other. A Man who 
dances on the Rope, makes a manifeft Demon- 
ftration of this Truth. The Body is a weight 
balanc'd on its Feet, as upon two Tivots. And 
though one of the Feet mofl: commonly bears the 
weight, yet we fee that the whole weight refts 
Centrally upon it. Infomuch, that if, for Exam- 
ple, one Arm is fl:retched out, it mufl: of neceffity 
be either that the other Arm^ or the Leg be caft 
backward, or the Body fomewhat bow'd on the 
oppofite Side, fo as to make an Equilibrium^ and 
be in a Situation which is unforc'd. It may be, 
though feldom (if it be not in old Men} that 
the Feet bear equally 3 and for that time half the 
weight is equally diftributed on each Foot. You^ 
ought to make ufe of the fame Prudence, if one 
Foot bears three parts in four of the Burthen, and 
that the other Foot bore the remaining part. This 
in general is what may be faidof the Balance, and 
theLibration of the Body. In particular, there 


no Obfervations on the 

may many things be faid which are very ufefull 
and curious, of which you may facisfie your 
felves in Leonardo da Vinci, He has done wonder - 
fully well on that fubje(5t, and one may truly fay 
that the ^onderation, is the bed and foundefl: part 
of all his Sook of fainting. It begins at the i 8 \ft. 
Chapter, and concludes at the 27 3 ii. I would alfo 
advife you to read ^Paulo Loma;^^ in his 6th, Booky 
Chapter ^th, Del moto del Corpo humanoj that is, the 
motion of a human Body. You will there find 
many things of great profit ; for what concerns 
the Contraft, I will onely fay in general, that no- 
thing gives fo much grace and life to Figures. See 
the 43^. Precej>ty and what I fay upon it in the 
^ 107. Tlje parts mufl haVe their outlines in Waves re- 
femhling Flames ^ or the gliding of a Snake upon the 
ground, &cc. The reafon of this proceeds from 
the aftion of the Mufcles, which are as fo many 
Well-buckets ; when one of them a6ts and draws, 
'tis neceflary that the other muft obey ; fo that the 
Mufcles which ad:, drawing always towards their 
principle, and thofe which obey ftretching in 
length and on the fide of their infertion, it muft 
needs follow that the parts muft be defign'd in 
Waves : but beware left in giving this form to 
the parts you do not break the Bones which fu- 


Art of Painting. m 

ftain them, and which always muft make them 
appear firm. 

This Maxim is not altogether (o general, but 
that adlions may be found where the mafles of the 
Mufcles are fituate one over againft another^ but 
this is not very common. The out-lines which 
are in waves, give not only a grace to the Parts, 
but alfo to the whole Body, when it is only fup- 
ported on one Leg. As we fee in the Figures of 
AntinouSy Meleager^ the Venus of Medices, that of 
the Vatican^ the two others of Borghefe^ and'that 
oiFloruy of the Goddefs Vefluy the t wo Sacc/^w^'s of 
!Borghefey and that oiLudoViJioy and in fine of the 
greateft number of the Jncient Figures y which are 
ftandingj and which always reft more upon one 
Foot than the other. Befides, that the Figures and 
their Parts, ought almoft always to have a fer- 
pentine and flaming form naturally, thefe forts of 
out-lines have, I know not what of life and fee- 
ming motion in them, which very much refem- 
bles the activity of the Flame, and of the Serpent. 

According to the knowledge oftheniy which isgiyen% 112. 
us by Jnatomy, Sec. This part is nothing known 
at prefent amongft our modern Painters. I have 
fliewn the profit and even the neceffity of it in the 
Preface of a little Epitome which I have made, 
and which Monfieur Torrebat has publiflh'd. I 

R know 


Ohfervattons on the 

know there arefome who think this Science a kind 
of Monfter, and beHeve it to be of no Advan- 
tage, either becaufe they are mean fpirited, or 
that they have not confider'd the want which they 
have of it 5 nor refle<5ted as they ought, on its 
importance ; contenting themfelves with a certain 
track, to which they have been us'd. But cer- 
tain it is , that whoever is capable of fuch a 
thought, will never be capable of becoming a 
great Defigner. ^ 

€" \\\, 7)ejignd after time manner of the Graeciansy &c^ 
that is to lay, according to the Ancient Statues^ 
which for the moft part come from Greece. 
^ 114. Let there he aferfeB relation hetwixt the farts and: 
,^\ the whoky Sec. or let them agree well together, 

which is the fame thing. His meaning in this 
place, is to fpeak of the juftnefs of proportions 5 
and of the harmony which they make with one 
another. Many famous Authours have thorough- 
ly treated this matter. Amongft others Tauh 
Lomai^j whofe firft Book fpeaks of nothing elfe : 
But there are fo many (ubdivifions, that a Reader 
muft have a good Brain, not to be turn d with 
them. See thofe which our Author has remarked 
in general, on the moft beautifuU Statues of the 
Ancients. I believe them to be fo much the bet- 
tor, as they are more conformable to thofe, 



An of Painting. 125 

which Fitruvius gives us, in tht fir ft Chapter of his 
third Sook : And which he tells us, that he Icarn'd 
from the Artifts themfelves : becaufe in the Pre- 
face to his feVenth Sooky he makes his boaft to have 
had them from others, and particularly from 
JrchiteSis and Painters, 

The Meafures of a Humane Sody, 

The Ancients have commonly allow'd eight 
Heads to their Figures ; though fome of them 
have but feven. But we ordinarily divide the Fi- 
gure into ^ten Faces : that is to fay, from tht*This depends 
Crown of the Head to the Sole of the Foot in ^^aUtpfthe 
the following manner. a n'ald^ 

From the Crown of the Head to the Forehead, venuso/Me- 
is the third part of a Face. f J^ ,\Zen 

The Face begins, at the root of the lowed ^^^^^' 
Hairs, which are upon the Forehead j and ends 
at the bottom of the Chin. 

The Face is divided into three proportionable 
parts 5 the firfl: contains the Forehead, the fecond 
theNofe, and the third the Mouth and the Chin. 

From the Chin, to the pit betwixt the Collar- 
bones are two lengths of a Nofe. 

From the pit betwixt the Collar-bones, to the 
bottom of the Breaft one Face. 

R 2 ^ From 

12^ Ohjervations on the 

*rheA^VLo ^ From the bottom of the Breaftsj-to the Na- 

more, vcl one Face. ^ ■ 

*r/^^ Apollo ^ From the Navel to the Genitories, one Face. 

Nofewore: From the Genitories to the upper part of the 

Zlfo/thlvt^^^^' two Faces. 

nus de Medi- The Knee contains half a Face. 

TJlryanof f ro"^ f^ie lower part of the Knee to the Anckle, 

the Belly, and l^^0 '^2iQ^^^ 

Zpms,^ ^*' From the Anckle to the Sole of the Foot, half 
a Face. 

A Man, when his Arms are ftretch'd out, iSy 
from the longeft Finger of his Right hand, to the 
longeft of his left, as broad as he is long. 

From one fide of the Breads to the other, 
two Faces. 

The bone of the Arm call'd Humerus is the 
length of two Faces, from the Shoulder to the 

From the end ofthe Elbow to the rxDotof the 
little Finger, the bone call'd Cubitus^ with part of 
the Handj contains two Faces. 

From the box of the Shoulder-blade, to the 
pit betwixt the Collar-bones, one Face. 

If you would be fatisfy'd in the Meafures of 
breadth, from the extremity of one Finger to the 
other; fo that this breadth flioud be equal to the 
length of the Body, you muft obferve that the 


Art of Painting. < ^29 

boxes of the Elbows with the Humerus^ and of 
the Humerus with the Shoulder-blade, bear the 
proportion of half a Face, when the Arms are 
ftretch'd out. 

The Sole of the Foot is the fixth part of the 

The Hand is the length of a Face. 

The Thumb contains a Nofe. 

The infide of the Arm, from the place where 
the Mufcle difappears, which makes the Breaft, 
caird the Perioral Mufcle, to the middle of the 
Arm, four Nofes. 

From the middle of the Arm to the beginning 
of the Hand, five Nofes. 

The longeft Toe, is a Nofe long. 

The two utmoft parts of the Teats, and the 
pit betwixt the Collar-bones of a Woman make 
an equilateral triangle. 

For the breadth of the Limbs no precife mea- 
furcs can be given 5, becaufe the meafures them^ 
felves are changeable according to the quality of 
the perfons 5 and according to the movement of 
the Mufcles. 

If you wouM know the Proportions more par- 
ticularly, you may fee them in Tatdo Loma:^^ : 
"'tis good to read them, once at leaft, and to make 
Remarks on them 5 every man according to his 


"12^ O^fer vat ions on the 

own judgment, and according to the occafion 
which he has for them. 

^fl" 417. Though TerfpeBiVe cannot be calf d a certain (I(iiley 
Sec. That is to fay, purely of it felf, without pru- 
dence, and difcretion. The greateft part ofthofc, 
who underftand it, defiring to pracStife it too re- 
gularly, often make fuch things as (hock the fight, 
though they are within the Rules. If all thofe 
great Painters, who have left us fuch fair Plat- 
forms, had rigoroufly obferv'd it in their Figures, 
they had not wholly found their account in it^ 
They had indeed made things more regularly 
true, but withall very unpleafing. There is great 
appearance that the ArchiteBs^ and Statuaries of 
former times, have not found it to their purpofe 
always 3 nor have foUow'd the Geometrical part 
fo exadlly as Perfpe6tive ordains. For He who 
'wou'd imitate the Frontifpiece of the ^tunda ac- 
cording to Perfpe<5tive, wou'd be grofly deceiv'd 5 
fince the Columns which are at the extremities 
have more diameter, than thofe which are in the 
middle. The Cornifh of the Tala:^^ Farne/e, 
which makes fo beautifuU an effect TdcIow, when 
viewed more nearly, will be found not to have 
its juft meafures. In the fillar oi Trajan^ we fee 
that thehigheft Figures are greater than thofe be- 
low ; and make an efFeft quite contrary to Per- 


Art of Tainting. ' wrj: 

Ipecftivc, increafing according to the meafure of 
their diftance. I know there is a Rule which 
teaches a way of making them in that manner 5 
and which though 'tis to be found in fome Books 
of Perfpedive, yet notwithftanding is no rule of 
^erffeEicve. Becaufe 'tis never made ufe of, but 
oncly when we find it for our purpofe 5 for if 
(for example ) the Figures which are at the top of 
Trajaris ^PilUr^ were but as great as thofe which 
are at the bottom , they wou'd not be for all 
that againft Perfpedive ; and thus we may fay, 
with more rea(bn, that it is a rule of Decorum in- 
Pcrfpedive to eafe the fight, and to render ob- 
jedsmorc agreeable: 'Tison this general obfer- 
vation, that we may eftabliflh in Perfpedive, the 
rules of Decortm (or convenience) whenfoever 
occafion fhall offer. We may alfo fee another 
Example in the bafe of the Farmfian Hercules y, 
which is not upon the level^ bur on an eafie de- 
clivity on the advanced part, that the feet of the 
Figure may not be hidden from the fight, to the 
end- that it may appear more pleafing: which the 
noble Authors of thefe things have done, not in^ 
contempt of Geometry and Perfpedive, but for 
the fatisfadion of the Eyes, which was the end 
they proposed to themfelves in all their works. 


® 2B Ohfervations on the 

We muft therefore underftand ^erfpeBive^ as 
a Science which is abfolutely neceffaryj and 
which a Painter muft not want : Yet without fub- 
jeding our felves fo wholly to it,as to become flaves 
of it. We are to follow it, when it leads us in a 
pleafing way, and that it (hows us plcafing things 5 
but for fome time to forfake it, if it lead us 
through mire, or to a precipice. Endeavour af- 
ter that which is aiding to your Art, and conve- 
nient, but avoid whatfoever is repugnant to it 5 
as the 59th rule teaches. 

% \i6, Let eVery Member be made for its own Heady See, 
That is to fay, you ought not to fet the Head of 
a Young man on the Body of an Old onej nor 
make a white Hand for a withered Body. Not 
to habit a Hercules in TafFeta 5 nor an Apollo in 
courfe ftufF: Queens and perfons of the firft qua- 
lity, whom you wou'd make appear Majeftical, 
are not to be too negligently drefs'd, or indiflha- 
bile, no more than Old men : The Nymphs are 
ijot to be overcharged with drapery : In fine, let 
all that which accompanies your Figures, make 
them known for what effectively they are. 

C 128. Let the Figures to which Art cannot give a Voice ^ 
imitate the Mutes in their ABionSy Sec, 

Mutes having no other way of fpeaking ( or 
^xprefSng their thoughts^ but onely by their ge- 


Art of Painting. 12^ 

ftures and their adions, 'tis certain that they do 
it in a manner more expreflive than thofe who 
have the ufc of Speech, for which reafon the Pi- 
d:ure which is mute ought to imitate them, fo 
as to make it felf underftood. 

Let the principal Figure oftheSuhje&y &c. 'Tis iT no. 
one of the greateft blemiflies of a Pidurc, not to 
give knowledge at the firft Sight of the Subject 
which it reprefents. And truly norfiing is more 
perplexing, than to extinguifli as it were, the prin- 
cipal Figure by the oppoficion of fome others, 
which prefent themfelves to us at the firft view, 
and which carry a greater luftre. An Orator, who 
had undertaken to make a ^anegyrick on Alexan- 
der the Great y and who had employ'd the ftrong- 
eft Figures of his (^oetorique in the praifc o^'Buce- 
phalusy would do quite the contrary to that which 
was expeded from him ; Becaufe it would be be- 
lieved that he rather took the Horfe for his Sub- 
jed than the Mafter. A fainter is like an Orator 
in this. He muft difpofe his matter in fuch fort, 
that all things may give place to his principal 
Subjed. And if the other Figures, which accom- 
pany it, and are onely as Acceflaries there, take 
up the chief place, and make themfelves moft 
remarkable, either by the Beauty of their Colours, 
or by the Splendour of the Light,- which ftrikes 
upon them, they will catch the Sight, they will 

S ftop 

i^Q. Olffervations on the 

flop it fliorc, and not fuffer it to go further than 
themfelves, till after fome confiderable fpace of 
time to find out that which was not difcern^d at 
firft. The principal Figure in a Pidlure is like 
a King among his Courtiers, whom we ought 
to know at the firft Glance, and who ought to 
dim the Luftre of all his Attendants. Thofe 
Painters who proceed otherwife, do juftlikc thofe 
who in the relation of a ftory ingage themfelves 
fb fooliflily in long digreffions, that they are forc'd 
to conclude quite another way than they began. 
^ 132* Let the Members he comhind in the fame rrianneras^ 
the Figures are^ &c. I cannot better compare a 
GroHppe of Figures^ than to a Confort of Voices, 
which fupporting themfelves all together by their 
different parts make a Harmony y which pleafing- 
ly fills the Ears and flatters them ; but if you 
come to feparate them, and that all the parts are 
equally heard as loud as one another, they will , 
ftunyoutothat degree, that you would fancy 
your Ears were torn in pieces. 'Tis the fame of 
Figures; if you fo aflemble them, that fome of 
ihem fuftain the others, and make them appear 5 
and that all together they make but one entire 
Whole, then your Eyes will be fully fatisfied: 
But if on the contrary, you divide them, your 
Eyes will fuffer by feeing them all together diA 


Art of Tainting. 151 

pcrs'd, ox Q2ic\ioithtm'm particular. All together y 
bccaufe the vifual Rays are mulciply'd by the 
Multiplicity of Objc<5ls. Each of them in particular ; 
becaufe, if you fix your Sight on one, thofe 
which are about it will ftrike you and attrad: 
your Eyes to them, which extremely Pains them 
in this fort of Separation and Diverfity of Ob- 
jeds. The Eye, for example, is fatisfied with 
the Sight of one fingle Grape, and is diftraded, if 
it carries it felfatone view, to look upon many fe- 
veral Grapes which lie fcatter'd on a Table, we 
muft have the fame regard for the Members 5^ 
they aggrouppe and contraft each other in the 
fame manner as the Figures do. Few Painters 
have obferv'd this Precept as they ought, which 
is a moft folid Foundation for the Harmony of a 

The Figures in the Grouppes ought not to he like each gr , ^ -^ 
other in their Motions ^ 8cc. Take heed in this con- 
traft to do nothing that is extravagant, and let 
your Poftures be always natural. The Draperies, 
and all things that accompany the Figures, may 
enter into the contraft with the Members, and 
with the Figures themfelves : And this is what our 
Poet means in thefe words of his Yerfes, detera 

S 2 Om 

1^2 Obfervations onthe 

•5* 1 4 J. One fide of the ^iHure jnujl not be Voidy while the 
other is fill' d, See. This fort of Symmetry, when 
> it appears not affected, fills the Pidure pleafing- 
lyj keeps it in a kind of balance j and infinitely 
delights the Eyes, which thereby contemplate the 
Work with more repofe. 

^152. ^s a Tlay is feldom good^ in which there are too 
many JBorSy &c. Annihal Caracci did not be- 
lieve that a Pi(5ture cou d be good, in which there 
were above twelve Figures. It was Albano who 
lold our Authour this, and from his mouth I had 
it. The Reafons which he gave were, firft. That 
ne believ'd there ought not be above three great 
Grouppes of Figures in any Pid:ure : And fecond- 
ly, That Silence and Majefty were of nece/Iity to be 
there, to render it beautifull ; and neither the one 
nor the other cou'^d poflibly be in a multitude and 
crowd of Figures. But neverthelefs, if you are 
conftrain'd by the Subje(5l 5 {As for Exampky If you 
painted the I)ay of fudgmenty the Majfacre of the 
Innocents^ a Battel^ Sec) On fuch occafions you 
are to difpofe things by great mafles of Lights and 
Shadows, and union of Colours, without trou- 
bling your felf to finifli every thing in particular, 
independently one of the other, as is ufual with 
Painters of a little Genius 5 and whofe Souls are 
uncapablc of embracing a great Defign, or a great 
Compolltion. jEmy; 

Art of Painting. 153= 

jEmylium circa ludurriy Faber imus is^ Unguei 
Exprimetj <(^ molles imitahitur ^re capillosy 
Infelix Of em Summa^ (juia fonere totum. 

The meaneji Sculptor in tF Emylian Square, 
Can imitate in Srafs^ the Nails and Hair j 
Expert in 'Triflesy and a cunning Fool, 
Able t' exprefs the Tarts, but not difpofe the whola 
Says Horace in his Art of Poetry;. 

77?^ Extremities of the Joints mujl Be feldom hidderty €* 162. 
and the Extremities or End of the Feet neyer^ dec. 
Thefe Extremities of the Joints are as it were the 
Hafts or Handles of the Members. For example^ 
the Shoulders, the Elbows, the Thighs^ and the 
Knees. And if a Drapery fliould be found on 
thefe ends of the Joints, 'tis the duty of Science 
and of Decorum^ to mark them by Folds, bm 
with great difcretion 5 for what concerns the Feet, 
though they fliould be hidden by fome part of 
the Drapery 5 neverthelefs^ if they are mark'd by 
Folds, and their fliape be diftinguifh'd, they 
are fuppos'd to be feen. The word never, is not 
here to be taken in the ftrideft Senfe 5 he means 
hut thisy fg rarelj/y that it may feem.we fliould 


1 34 Vijervations on the 

avoid all occafions of difpenfing with the Rule. 

if 1 64. T7;e Figures which are behind others^ haVe neither 
Grace mr V^our^ &c. Raphael and Julio ^ma- 
nOy have perfectly obferv'd this Maxime, and 3(d- 
/>W/efpeciaIlyin hislaft Works. 

C 1 6^» Avoid alfo tho/e Lines and Contours which are e- 
qual, which make ^Parallels y Sec. He means prin- 
cipally to fpeak of the Poftures fo order'd, that 
they make together thofe Geometrical Figures 
which he condemns. 

ij(|f 476. ®^ not fo JlriBly tied to Nature, Sec. This 
S^recept is againft two forts of Painters 5 firft a- 
gainft thofe who are fo fcrupuloufly tied to Na- 
ture, that they can do nothing without her, who 
copy her juft as they believe they fee her, without 
adding or retrenching any thing, though never fo 
little, either for the Nudities or for the Drape- 
ries. And fecondly, againft thofe who Paint e- 
very thing by Pradice, without being able to 
fubjedt themfelvcs to retouch any thing, or to 
examine by the Nature. Thefe laft, properly 
/peaking, arc the Libertines of J^ainti?igj as there 
are Libertines of^ligion ; who have no other Law 
but the vehemence of their Inclinations which they 
are refolv'd not to overcome : and in the fame man- 
ner the Libertines of fainting, have no other Mo- 
del but di,1If^odomontado Genius y and very irregu- 



Aft of Painting. i^^, 

lar, which violently hurries them away. Though 
thcfe two forts of Painters, are both of them ia. 
')^idom ExtroneSy yet neverthelefs the former fore 
feems to be the more fupportabkj becaufe though . 
they do not imitate Nature as (he is accompa- 
ny'd by all her Beauties, and her Graces, yet at 
leaft they imitate that Nature, which we know 
and daily fee. Inftead of which the others fhow 
us a wild or falvage Nature, which is not of our ' 
acquaintance, and which fcems to be of a quite 
new Creation. 

Whom you muji haVe always prefent as a witnefs ^1/8. 
to the truth) dec. This paffagc teems to be won- 
derfully well faid. The nearer a PiiSture ap- 
proaches to the truth, the better it is j and though 
the Painter, who is its Author, be the firft Judge of 
the Beauties which are in it, he is neverthelefs ob- 
lig d not to pronounce it, till he has firft confult- 
ed Nature, who is an irreproachable evidence, 
and who will frankly, but withall truly tell you 
its Defedls and Beauties, if you compare it with 
her Work. 

And of all other things which difcoyer to us the % \2 8. 
Thoughts and Inventions of the Graecians, 0*c. As 
good Books, fuch as are Homer and J^aufaniasy. 
the prints which we fee of the Antiquities, may 
extremely contribute to form our Genius, and to 



13^ Obfervations on the 

give us great Ideas ; in the fame manner as the 
Writings of good Authors, are capable of form- 
ing a good Style in thofe who are defirous of 
writing well. 

^ 102. If you have hut one jingle Figure to work upon. Sec, 
The reafon of this is. That there being nothing to 
attra6t the Sight but this onely Figure, the vifual 
Rays will not be too much divided by the Diver- 
fity of Colours and Draperies 5 but onely take 
heed to put in nothing, which fliall appear too 
fliarp or too hard 5 and be mindfuU of the ^tL 
Precept, which fays, that two Extremities are ne- 
ver to touch each other either in Colour or in 
Light 5 but that there muft be a mean, partaking 
of the one and of the other. 

V 1 9 J. Let the Drapery be yiohly Jpread upon the 'Body 5 
let the Folds he large, &cc. As Raphael pradis'd, 
after he had forfaken the. manner of Tietro Terugi- 
nOy and principally in his latter Wotks. 

^ ip(J. And let them follow the order of the parts, dec. As 
the faireft pieces of Antiquity will fliow us. And 
take heed, that the folds do not only follow the 
order of the parts, but that they alfo mark the 
moft confiderable Mufcles 5 becaufe that thofe Fi- 
gures, where the drapery and the naked part are 
feen both together, are much more gracefuU than 
the other. 


Art of fainting. 137 

Without fitting too ftr eight uj^on theMy 8cc. Paint- §^ 200. 
ers ought not to imitate the Ancients in this cir- 
cumftance ; the ancient Statuaries macic their 
Draperies of wet Linen^ on purpofe to make them 
fit clofe and ftreight to the parts of their Figures, 
for doing which they had great reafon 5 and ia 
following which the Painters w^ould be much in 
the wrong : and you fliall fee upon what grounds 
thofe great Genius's of Antiquity, finding that it 
was impoffible to imitate with Marble the fineneis 
of fluffs or garments which is not to be difcern d 
but by the Colours, the Reflexes, and more efpe- 
cially by the Lights and Shadows, finding it I 
fay out of their power to difpofe of thofe things, 
thought they could not do better nor more pru- 
dentially, than to make ufe of fuch Draperies as 
hinder'd not from feeing through their Folds, the 
delicacy of the Flefli, and the purity of the Out- 
lines 3 things which truly fpeaking they pofleft in 
the laft perfection, and which in all appearance 
were the fubjedof their chief ftudy. But Painters, 
on the contrary, who are to deceive the Sight, 
quite otherwife than Statuaries, are bound to imi- 
tate the different forts of Garments, fuch as they 
naturally feem ; and fuch as Colours, Reflexes, 
Lights and Shadows (of all which they are Ma- 
tters) can make them appear : Thus we fee that 

T thofe 

Obfervations on the 

thofe who have made the ncareft imitations of 
Nature, have made ufe of fuch Stuflfs (or Gar- 
ments) which are familiar to our Sight, and 
thefe they have imitated with fo much Art that 
in beholding them we are pleas'd that they de* 
ceive us; fuch were Tttian^ Taul Veronefe^ Tin- 
torety ^hensj Fan Vyck^ and the reft of the good 
Colourifts, who have come neareft to the truth of 
Nature : Inftead of which, others who have fcru- 
puloufly tied themfelves to the pradice of the An- 
cients, in their Draperies, have made their works 
crude and dry ; ^nd by this means have found 
out the lamentable fccret how to make their Fi- 
gures harder than even the Marble it felf. As Jht 
drea Mantegna, and Tietro ^erugmo have done, 
and Raphael alfo had much of that way in his firft 
Works, in which we behold many fmall foldings 
often repleited, which look like fo many Whip-. 
cords. ^Ti5 true thefe repetitions are feen in the 
Jncient Statues j and they are very proper there.. 
Becaufe they who made ufe of wet Linen, and 
clofe Draperies, to make their Figures look more 
tender, rcafonably forefaw that the Members 
would be too naked, if they left not more than* 
two or three Folds, fcarce appearing fuch as thofe 
Ibrts of Draperies afford the Sight, and therefore 
have us'd thofe Repetitions of many Folds, yet 


Art of Painting. 13^ 

in fiich a manner that the Figures are always 
fofi and tender, and thereby feem oppofiteto the 
'hardnefs of Marble. Add to this, that in Scul- 
pture, 'tis almofl: inipolTible that a Figure cloath'd 
with courfe Draperies, can make a good efFed: on 
all the fides; and that in Painting the Draperies • 
of what kindfoever they be, are of great advan- 
tage, either to unite the Colours and the Grouppes, 
or to give fuch a ground as one would wifh to 
unite or to feparate, or farther, to produce fuch 
ireflcdrions as fet off, or for filling void fpaces, or 
infliort for many other advantages, which help 
to deceive the Sight, and which are no ways ne- 
ceffary to Sculptors, fince their Work is always 
of ^lieVo. 

Three things may be inferred from what I have 
faid concerning the rule of Draperies. Firft, 
that the Ancient Sculptors had reafon to cloath 
their Figures as we fee them. Secondly, that 
^^ainters ought to imitate them in the order of their 
Folds, but not in their quality nor in their num- 
"ber. Thirdly, That Sculptors are oblig'd to 
follow them as much as they can, without defi- 
ring to imitate unprofitably or improperly the 
manners of the Painters, and to make many 
ample Folds, which are infufferable hardneffes, 
and more like a Rock than a natural Garment. 

T 2 X Sec 

i^o Ohjervations on the 

See the iwtk (B^mark about the middle of it. 

ff 202. ^^^ ^/^'-^^ f^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ diflant from each ^ 
thery Sec. "Tis with intent to hinder (as we 
have faid in the rule of Grouppes) the vifual 
Rays, from being too much divided, and that 
the Eyes may not fufFer by looking on fo many 
obje<5ls, which are feparated. Guido was very 
cxad in this obfcrvation. See in the Text the 
end of the (^«/e which relates to Draperies. 

C 204. And 06 the ^Beauty of the Limhs confifis not in the 
quantity and riftng of the Mufcksj 3cc. Raphael m 
the beginning of his Painting, has fomewhat too 
much mukiply'd the Folds 5 becaufe being with 
reafon charmM with the graces of the Ancients, he 
imitated their Beauties fomewhat too regularly 3 
but having afterwards found that this quantity of 
Folds glitter'd too much upon the Limbs, arid 
took off that Repofe and Silence which in Paint- 
ing are fo friendly to the Eyes ; he made ufe of a 
contrary condudl in the works which he painted 
afterwards, which was at that time when he began 
to underftand the efFe(5t of Lights, of Grouppes, 
and the oppofitions of the Lights and Shadows, 
fo that he wholly chang'd his manner, (this was 
about eight years before his death) and though he 
always gave a Grace to whatfoever he painted, 
yet he made appear in his latter works, a Grcat- 


An of Painting. 14' 

nefs, a Majefty, and a Harmony quite other 
than what we fee in his firft manner : And this 
he did by leflfening the number of his Folds, 
making them more large and more oppofing 
them, and by making the Maffes of the Lights 
and Shadowsj greater and more difentangl'd. Hk 
Take the pains to examine thefe his different man- 
ners in the Prints which we fee of that Great Mam 

As fuppofing iheni to be MdgiJlrateSj their Drafe- Ijf 1\&1 
Ties ought to be largey Sec. Yet make not your 
Draperies fo large that they nuy be big enough 
to cloath four or five Figures^ as fome there are 
who follow that method. And take heed that 
the folding be natural and fodifpos'd,that the Eye 
may be dircded to difeover the Folds from the 
beginning of them to the end. By M^giftrates, 
he means all great and grave Perfons, and fuch 
as are advanced in age. 

If Ladies or Dam/els^ light and fofi^ 3cc, By If 2 1 ll 
this name ofLadiesy Maids, or Samfeky he means 
all young 'perfons, flender, finely fliap'd, aery 
and delicate. Such as are Nymphs, and Naiades, 
and Fduntains. Angels are alfo comprehended 
under this head, whofe Drapery fhould be of 
pleafing Colours, and refembling rhofe which 
are feen in the Heavens-, and chiefly when^ they 
are fufpended in the Air. They are on-ly fuch 


f 4^ ^Ohfervations on th' 

•forts of light liabics as are fubje(5l to be ruffl'd by 
the Winds,, which can bear nnany Folds j yet fo 
that they may be freed from any hardnefles. 'Tis 
eafie for every one to judge that betwixt the Dra- 
peries of Magijlrate^y and thofe o( youn^ Maids -^ 
there muft be fome mediocrity of Folds, fuch as 
are moft commonly feen and obferv'd, as in the 
Draperies of a Chrijly of a MadonnUy of a ^ng^ 
a Queeriy oi a Vutchefsy and of other perfons of 
Confideration and Majefty j and thofe alfo who 
are of a middle age with this diftiniftion, that the 
Habits mufl be made more or lefs rich, accor- 
ding to the dignity of the Perfons ; and that Cloth 
'Garments may be diftinguifli'd from thofe of Silky 
Satt'm from FehetSy (Brocard from Embroidefjiy and 
that in one word the Eye may be deceived by tl^ 
-truth and the difference of the Stuffs. Take no- 
tice if you pleafe, that the light and tender Drape- 
ries having been onely given to the Female Sex, 
the Amient Sculptors have avoided as much as they 
xould to cloath the Figures of Men, becaufe they 
thought, (as we have formerly faid) that in Scul- 
pture Garments could not be well imitated, and 
chat great Folds inade a very bad effe(5t. There 
are almoft as many examples of this truth, as a- 
mongftthe Ancients there are Statues of na- 
iced men. I will name only that of Laocooii, which 


Art of Tainting. 14.3 

according to all probability ought to have beea 
eloath'd: And in effe(5l what likelihood can 
there be, that the Son of a King, and the Prieft 
of Apollo flhould appear naked in the a<5lual Cere- 
mony of Sacrifice. For the Serpents pafs'd from 
the Ifle of Tenedos to the Trojan Shore, and fur- 
prizM Laocoon and his Sons while they were la- 
crificing to Neptune on the Sea Shore, as Vir^ii 
witnefles in the fecond of his Eneids, Notwith- 
fianding which^ the ^ Sculptors who were Au- * Po^y^^orusj 
thors of this noble work had well confidcr'd, that rus,^^Age- 
they could not give Veftments fuitable to the qua* Rh^aianf 
lity of the Perfons reprefented, without making 
as it were a heap of Stones, whofe Mafs would 
rather belike a Rock, than thofe three admirable: 
Figures, which will ever be the Admiration of; 
all Ages. And for this reafon of two inconveni- 
ences, they judg'd that of Draperies to be great- 
er, than that which was againft the truth it^ 

This obfervation well confirms what I have 
faid in the looth. ^marh It feems to me, that it 
defer ves you fhould make fome refledlion on it y. 
and to eftablidi it the better in your mind, I wilL 
tell you, that Mtchael Angelo, following this Ma- 
x'tMy has given the Prophets which he painted in.^ 
the Chappel of the ^ope^ fuch Draperies whofe 


144^ Obfervations on the 

Fold^ arc large, and whofe Garments arc courfe, 
ihftead of which the Mojes^ which he has made 
in Sculpturey is habited with a Drapery much 
more clofe to the parts and holding more of the 
Ancients, Neverthelefs he is a ^rofhet as well as 
thofe in the Chappel, a man of the fame quality, 
and to whom Michael Angela ought to have given 
the fame Draperies, if he had not been hindered 
by thofe very reafons which have been given 

% "2 1 5". 77;e Marks or Enjigns ofFertueSy Sec. That is 
to fay of the Sciences and Arts. The Italians 
call a man a Vertuofo^ who loves the noble Arts, 
and is a Critick in them. And amongft our 
Frewffc Painters, the word'K^rt«e«x, is underftood 
in the fame Signification. 

% l\y. 'But let not the work he too muclj enrich' d with 
Gold or Jewelsy &Lc, Clemens Jlexandrinus relates, 

Ub.2.Paedag. That Jpelles having feen a Helena, which a young 
^^' "* Scholar of his had ynade and adorn d with a great quan- 
tity of Golden Ornaments and Jewels ^ faid to him, My 
good ¥rie7id, though thou couldjl not make her beauti- 
ful!, at teajl thou haji )nade her rich. Befides that, 
thefe glittering things in Painting, as precious 
Stones prodigally ftrew'd over the habits are de- 
fl:ru6tive to each other, becaufe they draw the 
Sight to feveral places at the fame time, and that 


An of Vainting. 1^5 

they hinder round Bodies from turning and ma- 
king their due efFe<5l 3 'tis the very quantity which 
often makes us judge that they are falfc. And be- 
fides it is to be prefum'd, that precious things are 
always rare. Corinna, that learned TI)ebanL2.dyy'^^^^^^^^- 
reproached TMar^ whom flie had five times 
overcome in Poetry, that he fcatter'd through 
all his works the Flowers of ^amajfus too pror 
digally, faying to him, That men fowd with the 
Handy and not with the Sack : for which reafon 
a Painter ought to adorn his Veftments with great 
difcretion. And precious Stones look exceed- 
ingly well, when they are fet in thofe places which 
we would make to come out of the Picture ; as 
for example, on a Shoulder, or an Arm to tie 
fome Drapery, which of itfelfisofno flrong co- 
louring. They do alfo perfectly well with white 
and other light Colours, which are us'd in bring- 
ing the Parts or Bodies forward, bccaufe Jewels 
make a (how and glitter through the oppofition 
, of the great Lights in the deep brown, which 
meet together. 

'Tis Very expedient to make a model of thofe things fT 
which we haVe not in our Sight, and whofe nature is 
difficult to he retain d in the Memory, 6cc, As for 
example, the Grouppes of many Figures, the Po- 
ftures difficult to be long kept , the Figures in 

U the 


1^5 Oifermtions on the 

the Atr; -in Ceilings, or much rais'd above the 
Sighf ; and even of Animals, which are not ea- 
fily to be difposM. 

By this rule we plainly fee how neceffary it is 

for a Painter to know how to mddel^ and to have 

maiiy Models of foft Wax. faulFeronefe had 

fo good ftore of them, with fo great a quantity of 

different forts, that he would paint a whole hiftori- 

cal Compofition on a perfpedive Plan, how 

great and how diverfified Ibever it were. 77«^a- 

ret pradis'd the fame, and Michael Jngelo (as 

GioVan. !Bapt, Armen'ml relates) made ufe of it, 

for all the Figures of his day of Judgment, 'Tis 

not that I would advife any one who would 

make any very confidcirable work, to finifli after 

thefe forts of Models, but they will beof vaft ufe 

and advantage to fee the Maffes of great Lights, 

and great Shadows, and the effed: of the whole 

together. For what remains, you are to have a 

*AFtgHre ^ Layman almofl as big as the life, for every 

^rtri7i^n-^W^^ in particular, befides the natural Figure 

i»gir;o»>/»^/. before you, on which you muft alfo look, and 

'"' call it for a witnefs, w hich muft firft confirm the 

thing to you, and afterwards to the Spectators as 

^it i^ in reality. 

-**'' You may make ufe of thefe Models with de- 
light, if you fet them on a Ter/peftiVe flan^ which 


Art of Painting. ■ 1^7 

will be in the manner of a Table made on purpofe. 
You may .eith^i| oife or let it down according to 
yourjjEomfiqnieiijCe ; an4 iflYfOU Iqolf on your'Fi- 
gure§ .through a hole fo contrived, that it may be 
mov'd up and down, it will ferve you for a 
point of Sight and a point of Diftance, when 
you have once fix'd it. 

.The fame hole wiir further ferve you to fet 
your Figures in the Ceiling and difpos'd upon a 
Grate of Iron- wire, or fupported ivi the Air by 
little Strings rais'd at difcrction, or by both ways 

. You may joyn to your Figures what you fee 
fitting, provided that the whole be proportioned 
to them J and in fhort what you your .felf may 
judge to be of no greater bignefs than theirs. Thus, 
in whatfoever you do there will be more of truth 
feen, your work it felf will give you infinite de- 
light, and you will avoid many doubts and dif- 
ficulties which often hinder you, and chiefly foe. 
what relates to lineal perfpeBi'Ve, which you will 
there infallibly find, provided that you remember 
to proportion all things to the greatnefs of your 
Figures and efpecially the points of Sight and of 
Diftance ; but for what belongs to aerial per fpe- ^s.i^\MJ. 
Bi'Ve, that not being found, the judgment muft 
fupply it. Tmtorety as ^dolphi tells us jp hi^-life,' 

U 2 '' ' had 


14-8 Obfervations on the 

had made Chambers of Board and Paft board, 
proportion d to his Models with Doors and Win- 
dows, through which he diftributed on his Fi- 
gures artificial Lights, as much as he thought 
reafonable, and often pafs'd fomepart of the night 
to confider and obferve the effed of his Compo- 
fitions. His Models were of two Foot high. 

^221* We are to confider the places where we lay the Scene 
of the ^iSiurey &c. This is what Monfieur de 
Chamhrayy calls, to do things according to Decorum. 
See what he (ays of it, in the Interpretation of that 
word in his ^ook of the ^erfeBton of fainting, 'Tis 
not fufficient that in the Pidure there be nothing 
found which is contrary to the place, where the 
aftion which is reprefented, pafles ; but we ought 
befides, to mark out the place and make it known 
to the Spedator by fome particular Addrels, 
that his mind may not be put to the pains of 
difcovering it, as whether it be Italy ^ or Spain^ or 
Greece J or France '^ whether it be near the Sea 
fliore, or the Banks of fome River, whether it be 
the fl^fciwe, or the Loyre 5 the (Po, or the Tyber ; 
and foof other things, if they are eflential to the 
Hiftory. " Nealces, a man of Wit and an inge- 

L8r«25.i2: " nious Taintery as ?\my tells uSy he'mg to faint a 
" Ka^al Fight hetwixt the Egyptians and the Pcr- 
" fians, and being willing to make it known that the 

" (Battle 

Art of Fainting. 14^ 

^^ !Battle was given upon the Nile, whofe waters are 
" of the fame Colour with the Sea, drew an Afs drink- 
^^ ing on the !Banks of the 5(iVer, and a Crocodile en- 
" deaVouring to furprt:^ him. 

Let a Nohlenefs and Grace, dec. It is difficult If 222, 
enough to fay what this Grace of Tainting is 5 'tis 
to be conceivM atid underftood much more eafi- 
ly than to be explain d by words. It proceeds 
from the illuminations of an excellent Mind, 
which cannot be acquird, by which we give a 
certain turn to things which makes them pleafing* 
A Figure may be defignd with all its proporti- 
ons, and have all its parts regular, which not- 
withftanding all this, fliall not be pleafing, if 
all thofe parts are not put together in a certain 
manner, which attracts the Eye to them, and 
holds it fix'd upon them : For which reafon 
there is a difference to be made betwixt Grace 
and Beauty. And it feems that OVtd had a mind 
to diftinguifh them, when he faid (fpeaking oi . 

Multaque cum forma gratia mijla fuit.r . 

A matchlefs Grace was mth her beauty mxd. ' 

And Suetonius fpeaking of Nero, fays, he was 
rather beautiful! than gracefirfl. Vultu fulohro, 


150 Olfervations on the 

magis quam Venujlo. How many fair women do 
we fee, who pleafe us much lefs than others, who 
have not fuch beaucifulj Peatures ? 'Tis by this 
grace that Raphael has .made himfelf the mod re- 
nown d of all the Italians J as tjpelles by the fame 
means carry'd it above all the Greeks- 
Ijf 2 2 2. This is that in which the great eft difficulty conjtjls, 
Sec, For two reafons, both becaufe great ftudy 
is to be made as well upon the ancient Beauties and 
on noble Pictures, as upon nature it felf : and 
alfo becaufe that part depends entirely on the Ge- 
niusy and fcems to be purely the gift of Heaven, 
which we have receiv'd at our Birth, upon which 
account our Author adds. Undoubtedly we fee hut 
fewy whom in this particular ^ Jupiter ha^ regarded 
with a gracious Eye^ Jo that it belongs only to thofe 
elevated Souls, who fartah fomewhat of DiVinity to 
work fuch mighty wonders. Though they who 
have not altogether received from Heaven this pre- 
cious Gift, cannot acquire it without gr^at La- 
bour, neverthelefs 'tis needfuU in my opinion, 
that both the one and the other fhould perfcd:ly 
learn the charader of every Paflion. 

All the Actions of the fenfitive Appetite arc in 
Painting call'd TaJ/ions, becaufe the Soul is agi- 
tated by them, and becaufe the Body fuffers 
through them, and is fenfibly alter'd. They are 


Art of Painting. 151 

thofe divers Agitations and different Motions of 
the Body in general, and of every one of its parts 
in particular, that our excellent Painter ought to 
underftand, on which he ought to make his ftii- 
dy, and to form to himfelfa perfed Idea of them. 
But it will be proper for us to know in the firft 
• place, that the Philofophers admit eleven, Loye^ 
Hatred y Dejlre ^ Shunning , Joy y Sadnefs y Hope ^ 
Defpairy 'Soldnefsy Fear and Jnger, The Painters 
have multiply'd theni nop onely by theif different 
T>egreesy but alfo by tlieir, different Specks y for 
they will make, for' exampky fix perfons in the 
fame degree of Feary who ftiall expref^^that Paf- 
fion all of them differently. And "'tis that diver- 
fity of Species which diftinguifhes thofe Painters 
who are able Artijls , from thofe whom we 
may call Mannerijisy and who repeat five or fix 
times over in the fame Pidure the fame Hairs 
of a Head. There are a vaft number of other 
Paflions, which are as the Branches of thofe which 
we have nam'd : we might for example, under 
the Notion of Love, comprehend GracCy Gentle- 
nefs and Civility 5 CarejfeSy Embraces y and KjJfeSy 
Tranquillity and Sweetnefs 3 and without exami- 
ning whether all thefc things which Painters com- 
prize under the name of ^affionsy can be reduc'd 
to thofe of the fhilofophersj I am of opinion that 


1 52 Ol^fervations on the 

every one may ufe them at his plcafure, andtha^ 
he may ftudy rhcm after his own manner j the 
name makes nothing. One may even 'make Paf- 
fionsofMajeJiy^ fiercenefsy VijfatisfaSiion^ Care ^ J- 
Varice, S loath fulneff, EnVy, and many other things 
l)kcthe/e. Thefe Taffions (as I have faid,) ought 
to be learnt from the life it felf, or to be ftudied on 
the Ancient Statues and excellent TiBures : we ought 
to fee, for example, all things which belong to 
Sadnefs^ or ferve to exprefs it to defign them 
carefully, and to imprint in our Memories after 
fuch a manner, as we may diftindtly underftand 
feven or eight kinds of them more or lefs, and im- 
mediately after draw them upon Paper without 
-any other Original than the hiage which we have 
conceived of them. We muft be perfedl Mafters of 
them: but above all, we muft make fureofpof- 
feffing them throughly. We are to know that it is 
fuch or fuch a ftroke, or fuch a Shadow ftronger 
or weaker^ which make fuch or fuch a Taffion in 
this or that degree. And thus, if any one (hould 
ask you, what makes in Painting the Majejly of 
a I^in^, the GraVity of a Hero, the Lo've of a 
Chriji, the Grief oi a Madonnuy the Hope of the 
good TInefy the Defpair of the bad One, the Grace 
and Seauty of a Fent^y and in fine the CharaBe?^ 
of any Tajpon whatfoever, you may anfwer pofi- 

• tively, 

Art of Painting. 153 

tively, on the fpot, and with afllirance, chat it is 
ft^h a Tojlure or fuch lines in the parts of the Face^ 
form d oi fuch or fuch a fap?ion, or even the one 
and the other both together : for the parts of the 
Body feparately, make known the Taffions of 
the Soul or elfe conjoyntly one with the other. 
But of all the parts the Head is that which gives 
the moft of Life^ and the mod of Grace to the 
^ajfpon, and which alone contributes more to it, 
than all the reft together. The others feparately 
can onely exprefs fome certain Tafftonsj but the 
Head cx^rtfks all of them y neverthelefs there arc 
fome which are more particular to it j as, for ex- 
ampky Humility^ which it exprcfles by the ftoop- 
ing or bending of the Head. Arrogance^ when it 
is lifted, or as we fay, tofs'd up. Langulfhment^ 
when we hang it on one fide, or lean it upon one 
Shoulder. Ohfiinacy (or as the French calls it Or 
piniatrete,) with a certain ftubborn, unruly, bar- 
barous Humour, when 'tis held upright, ftifF, and 
poiz'd betwixt the Shoulders. And of the reft, 
there are many marks more eafily conceived than 
they canbeexprefs*d; as, Sa/hfulnefs, Admiration^ 
Indignation^ and Vouht, 'Tis by the Head that 
we make known more vifibly our Supplications^ 
our ThreatningSy our Mildnefsy our Haughtinefsy 
out LoVey out Hatred, our Joy, our Sadnefsy our 

X Humi^ 

154- Ohfervatlons on the 

Humility -J in fine, 'cis enough to kcthcFacey and 
CO underftand the Mind ac half a word. Slup?ing 
and Talenefs fpeak to us, as alfo the mixture of 
them both. 

The parts of the Face do all of them contri- 
bute CO expofe the Thoughts of our Hearts 5 but 
above the reft, the Eyesy which are as it were the 
two Windows through which the Soul looks 
out and (liows it felf. The Tafftons which they 
more particularly exprefs, are IPleafurey Languifl)- 
mentj Difdairiy Se'Verityy Sweetnefsy Admiration and 
ji72^er. Joy and Sadnefs may bear their parts, if 
they did not more efpecially proceed from the 
Eyebrows and the Mouth. And the two parts 
laft nam'd agree more particularly in the expref- 
fionof chofccwo iP^^OMJj neverthelefs if you joyn 
the Eyes as a third, you will have the Product of 
a wonderful! Harmony for all the Taffions of the 

The Kofe has no Paffion which is particular 
to it, it onely lends its affiftance to the others 
before nam'd, by the ftretching of the Nojlrilsy 
M'hich is as much markM in Joj, as it is in Sad- 
nefs, And yet it feems that Scorn makes us wrin- 
kle up the Nofe and ftretch the Nojtrils alfo, at 
the fame time, drawing up the upper Lip to the 
place which is near the corners of the Mouth. The 


Art dfVatntlng. - 155 

Jncknts made the Nofe the feat of Verifion ; eum 
fuhdoU irriJioyudicaVemnt J [^ysf liny *j that is, they 
dedicated the Nofe to a cunning fort of Mockery. 
We read in the 3 d, Satyre of TerJiuSy Difccy fed ira 
cadat Nafoj rugofac^ue fanm ; Learn, but let your 
Anger fall from your Nofe and the fneering 
Wrinkles be difmounted. And fhilojlratus in 
the Pi<Sture of Tan whom the Nymphs had bound, 
and ftornfully infulted over, fays of that God; 
^^ that before th^^ he was decujiem d to fleep mth 
'^ a peaceabk Tiofe', f (fining in his /lumbers the 
^^ Wrinkles of it, and tlye Anger which commonly 
*^ mounted to that part 5 but now his Nojtrils were 
^' widen d to the laji degree of Fury. For my own 
'•^art, I fhould rather believe that the Nofe was the 
feat of Wrath in Beafts than in Mankind, and 
that it was unbecoming of any God but onely 
Tan, who had very much of the Bcaft in him, 
-to wrinkle up his Nofe in Anger, like other Ani- 
mals. The moving of the Lips ought to be but 
moderate, if it be in Con'\>erfation , becaufe we 
Ipeak much more by the Tongue than by the Lips : 
And if you make the Mouth very open, 'tis one- 
ly when you are to exprefs the violence of TaJftoUy 
and more properly oi Anger, 

For what concerns the Handsy they are the Ser- 
vants of the Heady they are his Weapons and his 

X 2 Auxili- 

1 1^6 Objervations on the 

Auxiliaries; without them the a6lion is weak, 
languifhing, and half dead, their Motions which 
are almoft infinite, make innumerable expreffi- 
ons : Is it not by theniy that we dejtre^ that we 
hafQy that we promifej that we call towards us, and 
that we rejeB f befides, they are the inftruments 
of our TIjreatSy of our ^etitiansj of the Honor 
which we fliow for things, and of the Traifes 
which we give them ; By them we fear, we ask 
Queft'tonsy we approycj and we refufcy we (how 
our Joy and our Sadne/sy our VouhtSy and our 
Lament at'tonsy our Concernments of Tityy and our 
Admirations. In fliort, it may be faid, that they 
are the Language of the l>miby that they contri- 
bute not a little to the fpeaking of the miverfal 
Tongucy common to all the World, which is that 
of fainting. 

Now to tell you how thefe parts are to be diC 
pos'd, fo as to exprefs the different ^ajfionsy is im- 
pofllble; no precife (!^«/ej can be given of it, 
both becaufe the task it felf is infinite, and alfo be- 
cau(e every one is left to the Condud: of his own 
GeniuSy and to the Fruit of his former Studies ; 
onely remember to be carefuU, that all the adli- 
ons of your Figures muft be natural. " It feems^ 
** to mcy lays QuinSiiliany fpeaking of the Paffions, 
^* That this part which is fo noble and fo great y is 

" not 

Art of Painting. 157 

" not altogether unacceffible^ and that an eajte way 
" may he found to it 5 'tis to conjider nature and to 
" copy hery for the SpeElators are fatisfiedy when in 
" artificial things they can dtfcern that nature which 
" they are accuflornd to behold. This paffage of 
QuinMian is perfectly explain'd by the words of 
an excellent Mafter which our Author propofes 
to us for a rule: they are thefe which follow. That 
the fludied Motions of the Soul, are ne'Ver fo natural 
as thofe which we fee in the tranffort of a true paffion. 
Thefe Motions will better be exprefs'd, and be * 
much more natural, if we enter into the fame 
thoughts, become of the fame piece, and imagine 
our felves to be in the fame circumftances with 
thofe whom we would rcprefent. " For Nature^ 
*' fays Horace in his Art of Poetry, difpofes the in- 
" ftde of Mankind to all forts of Fortunes y fometimes 
** p?e makes us contentedy fometimes jhe dri'Ves us in- 
" to Cholery and fometimes fbe fo oppreffes us with 
^^ Grief y that fhe feems to tread us down and plunge us 
** into mortal Anxieties ; and on all thefe occajionsy 
" fhe drives outwards the Motions of the Heart fy 
" the Tongue which is her Interpreter. Now in- 
ftead of the Tongue y let the Painter fay by the ^Si- 
onsy which are her Interpreters. " What means 
" haVe wey (fays Quin^diany) to give a Colour to 
" a thing if we haVe not the fame Colour ; 'tis m- 

« cejfary 

158 Ohfervations on the 

cejfary that we our felves pwuld frji be tmch*d 
with a ¥(tJJion before we endeavour to mo'Ve others 
" with it. And how y continues he, can we be 
" touch dy face the ^ajjlons are not in our power ? 
" This is the way in my opinion -^ We mujt form to our 
*^ f elves the Ft/tons and Images of ahfent things ^ as if 
** they were in reality before our Eyes 5 and he who 
** conceives thefe Images with the greatefl flrength of 
*' Imagination^ fhallpoffefs that part of the ^ajjlons 
*^ with th mofi advantage and the greatefl e-afe. But 
we muft take care, as I have already faid, that 
in thefe vifions, the Motions may be natural, for 
there are fome who imagine they have given abun- 
dance of Light to their Figures, when they have 
made them do violeyit and extravagant AUions^ 
which we may more reafonably call the ConVulfi- 
ens or Cojitorfions of the !Bodyy than the Taffiojis of 
theMmd'^ and by this means often put themfclves 
Co much pains, to find a ftrong Paflion, where 
no Paflion is required. Add to all that I have 
faid concerning the Paflions, that we are to have 
a very fcrious regard to the quality ofthePerforrs 
who are to be exprefs'd in Taffimts, The Joy of a 
l^ing ought not to refcmble that of a SerVing-man. 
And the Fiercenefs of a private Soldier muft not be 
like that of an Officer, la thefe differences con- 
fifts all the Fmentfs and Delicacy of the Ta/fwns. 


Art of Painting. 1 5 5> 

^aulo Loma:^ has written at large on every 
^ajjion in particular, in his jecond Sooky but be- 
ware you dwell not too long upon it, and endea- 
vour not to force your Genius, 

Some Cliques of it took SanEiuary under ground^ if ijLy^ 
Sec. All the ancient Painting that was in Italy 
perifli'd in the Invafionofthe Hunns and Goths^ 
excepting thofe works which were hidden under 
ground or there painted, which by reafon they 
had not been much expos'd to view , were pre- 
ferv'd from the infolence of thofe barbarians. 

The Cromatique part or Colourings Sec The ^ 2ji* 
third and laft part of Painting, is calfd the Oo- 
matique ot Colouring. Its object is Colour y for 
which reafon. Lights and Shadows are therein al- 
fo comprehended, which are nothing elfe but 
white and brown (or dark,) and by confequence 
have their place among the Colours, ^htlojlnttm 
fays in his life oiAfolloniwSy " That it may he truly 
*' caltd fainting which is made only with two Cohurs^ 
^^ provided tJ^e Lights and Shadows he ohferVdin it: for 
^* there we behold the true- refemhlance of things mth 
*^ their Seauties ; we alfo fee the ^ajjtonsy thou^ 
*^ without other Colours : fo much of life may he at/a 
*' exprejs'd in itj that we may perceive eVen the Very 
" ^loud: the Colour of the Hair and of the SearJy 
^^ are likewife to be difcerndj and we can diflingui^ 

'' mthaui 

i^p Ohfervations on the 

*^^ 4t>ithout confuftoriy the fair from the black, and the 
*' young from the old ^ the differences betwixt theivhite 
" and the flaxen hair j we dijiinguip? witheafe betwixt 
" the Moors and the Indians j not onely by the Ca- 
" . ^ T^ " "^"s No/ex of the Slacks, their woolly Hair and 
" their high Jaws, but alfo by that black Colour which 
" is natural to them* We may add to what ^hi- 
lojlratus has faid, that with two onely Colours, 
the Light and the Dark, there is no fort of Stuff 
or Habit but may be imitated 5 we fay then, 
that the colouring makes its obfervations on the 
Maffes or Bodies of the Colours, accompany'd 
with Lights and Shadows more or lefs evident by 
degrees of diminution, according to the Acci- 
dents. Firft of a luminous Body 5 as for exam- 
ple, the Sun or a Torch. Secondly, of a diapha- 
nous or tranfparent Body, which is betwixt us 
and the objedt, as the Air either pure or thick, or 
a red Glafs, &c. Thirdly, of a folid Body illu- 
minated, as a Scatue of white Marble, a green 
Tree, a black Horfe, &c. Fourthly, from his 
part, who regards the Body illuminated, as be- 
holding it either near or at a diftance, diredly 
in a right Angle, or afide in an obtufe Angle, from 
the top to the bottom, or from the bottom to the 
top. This part in the knowledge which it has 
of the vcrtuc of Colours, and the Friendfhip 


Art of Painting. i6i 

which they have with each other, and alfo their 
Antipathies, it comprehends the Strength, the Re- 
lievo, theBrisknefs, and the Delicacy which are ob- 
ferv*d in good Pictures, the management of Colours y 
and the labour depend alfo on this laft parr. 

Her Sijler, &c. That is to Jay, theD^nor gr 2.6u 
.Drawing, which is the fecond -fart of S^ainting j 
which confiding onely of Lines, (lands altoge- 
ther in need of the Colouring to appear. ''Tis for * 
this reafon, that our Author calls this part her Si- 
fters Procurer, that is, the Colouring fhows us the 
. Defign, and makes us fall in love with it. 

The Light produces all kinds of Colours, dec. Here |j[ 2 67. 
arc three TI?eorems fucceiTively following, which 
our Author propofes to us, that from thence wc 
may draw fome conclufions. You may like- 
wife find others, which are in the nature of fo ma- 
ny Tropojttions to which we ought to agree, that 
from thence we may draw the Trecepts contained 
in the following part of this Treati/e j they are 
all founded on the Senfe of Seeing, 

Which ought to he the mojl, 6cc. See the ^mark ^ 280. 
of nuynher i J2. 

TJ^at you may make the bodies appear enlightned lj[ 282,. 
iy the fhadows which hound your Sight, dec. That 
is properly to fay, that after the great Lights, there 
muft be great Shadows, which wc call repofes : 

Y becaufe 

1^2) OFfervations on tJ)e 

becaufe in reality the Sight would be tired, if it 
were attracted by a Continuity of glittering ob- 
k^s. The Lights may ferve for a repofe to the 
Darks, and the Darks to the Lights. I have faid in- 
another place, that a Groupie of Figures ought to 
be confider*d, as a Choir of Mujicky in which the 
Safes fupport the Trebles, and make them to be 
heard with greater pleafure. Thefe repofes are 
4 made two feveral ways, one of which is Naturaly 
the other Jrtipcial The Naturd is made by an. 
extent of Lights or of Shadows ; which naturally 
and neceffarily follow folid Bodies, or the Mafles 
of folid Bodies aggroupp'd when the Light ftrikes 
upon them. And the Atifickl confifts in the Bo- 
dies of Colours^ which the Painter gives to cer- 
tain things, fuch as pleafes him; and compofes 
them infuch a manner, that they do no injury 
to the objeds which are near them* A Drapery, 
fir example, which is made yellow or red on, 
fome certain place, in another place may be 
brown, and will be more fuitable to it, to pro- 
duce the effecSt required. We are to takeocca- 
fion as much as poflibly we can, to make ufe of 
the firft manner, and to find the repofe of which 
we fpeak, by the Light and by the Shadow, 
which naturally accompany folid Bodies. But 
fince the Subje<3:s on which we work arc not al- 

r-> . Art of fainting. 1^3 

Ways favourable to difpofe the Bodies as we de- 
fire> a Painter in fuch a cafe may take his ad van- 
tage by the Bodies of Colours, and put into fuch 
places as ought to be darkened , Draperies or d- 
ther things which we may fuppofe to be natural- 
ly brown and fuUy'd, which will produce the 
fame effect and give him the fame repofes as the 
Shadows would which could not becaus'd by the 
difpofeion of the objects. 5 .t 

Thus, an undcrftanding Painter will make his 
advantages both of the one manner and the other. 
And if he makes a defign to be grav'd, lie is to 
remember that the Oraye)^ difpofe not their Co- 
lours as the Painters do 3 and that by confequencc 
he muft take occafion to find the reafon of his 
Defi^Hy in the natural Shadows of the Figures, 
which he has difpos'd to caulc the effedl. (2(«- 
hens has given us a full information of this in thofe 
prints of his which he causM to be engrav'd 3 and 
I beheve that nothing was ever feen more beau- 
tifuU in that kind: the whole knowledge of 
Grouppes, of the Lights and Shadows, and of 
thofe Maffes which Titian calls a (Bu7ich of Grapes^ 
is there expos'd fo clearly to the Sight, that the 
view of thofe Prints and the carcfull obfervation 
of them^ might very much contribute to the 
{ormin^^of ^n able Tainter, The bcft and faireft 

Y 2 of 

Ohfervations on the 

of them are graven by Vorflermariy Pontius , and 
Solfverty all of them admirable Gravers^ whofe 
works ^bens himfclf took care to overfee, and 
which without doubt you will find to be excel- 
lent if you examine them. But expert not there 
the Elegance oi 'Beftgn^ nor the CorreSinejs of the' 

'Tis not but the Gravers can, and ought to 
imitate the Bodies of the Colours by th€ degrees of ^ 
the Lights and Shadows, as much as they fliall ■■ 
judge that this imitation may produce a good ef-' 
f€(5t : on the contrary, 'tis impoflTible in my opi- 
nion to give much flrength to what they grave, 
after the works of the School, and of all thofe 
who have had the knowledge of Colours and of 
the Contrafl of the Lights and Shadows, without 
imitating in fome fort the Colour of the Objecfts, 
according to the relation which they have to the 
degrees of white and black. We fee certain Prints 
of good Gravers different in their kinds, where 
diefe things are obferv'd, and which have a won- 
derfull flrength. And there appears in publick 
of late^ yearsi^.a Galkry of Arch-duke Leopold y 
which though very ill graven, yet fliows fome 
part of the Beauty of its Originals y becaufe the 
Gravers who have executed it, though other wife 
they were fufficiendy ignorant, have obferv'd in 


Art of Painting. * 1^5 

almofl: the greateft parts of their Prints, the Bo- 
dies of Colours in the relation which they have 
to the degrees of the Lights and Shadows- I 
could wifli the OraVers would make fomc refle(^i- 
on upon this whole ^maf-ky 'tis of wonderful! 
^onfequence to them 5 for when they have at- 
tained to the knowledge of thefe repofes, they 
will eafily refolvc thofe difficulties which many 
rimes perplex them : And then chiefly when 
t^iey are to engrave after a Pidure, where neither 
the Lights and Shadows, nor the Bodies of the 
Colours are skilfully obferv'd, though in its o* 
cher parts the Pi<5lure may be well performed. 

In the fame manner as we behold it in a Convex if 28<J^ 
Mirror^ &c. A CmVex Mirror alters the objects 
which are in the middle, fo that it feems to make 
them come out from the Superficies. The Pain- 
ter muftdo in the fame manner in refpe^t of the 
Lights and Shadows of his Figures, to give them* 
more Relievo and more Strength. 

^nd let thofe which turn he of broken Colour Sy <^ IT lob^ 
being lefs diflinguip)' d and nearer to the borders^ 6cc. ^ 

'Tis the duty of a Tainter^ even in this alfo, to 
imitate the Convex Af/rror, and to place nothing 
which glares either in Colour or in Light at the 
borders of his Picture ; for which, there are two 
i^afons, the firft is, that the Ejc at the firil view 


I'^S Vhfervations on the 

direds it felf to the midft of the objed:, whieh 
is prefented to it, and by confequence, mufl: there 
neceflarily find the principal objecfl, in order to 
its fatisfadtion. And the other reafon is, that the 
iides or borders being overcharged with a ftrong 
and glittering work attra<5t the Eyes thither, which 
are in a kind of Pain, not to behold a continuity 
of that work, which is on the fudden interrupted, 
by the borders of the Pidure; inftead of which 
the borders being lightened and eas'd of (b much 
work, the Eye continues fixt on the Center of the 
Pidlure, and beholds it with greater pleafure. 'Ti5 
for the fame reafon, that in a great compofition 
^f Figures, thofe which coming mofl: forward, 
arex:ut ofFby the bottom of the Picture, will al- 
ways make an ill effed. 
% 3 ^9* -^ bunch of Grapes, 8cc. 'Tis fufficiently ma- 
nifeft, that TTttian by this judicious and familiar 
comparifon, means that a Painter ought to coi- 
led the objeds, and to difpofe them in fuch a 
manner, as to compofe one whole j the feveral 
ront^uous parts of which, may be enlighten d ; 
many fbadow'd and others of broken Colours to 
be in the turoings, as on a Bunch of Grapes, ma- 
ny Grapes, which are the parts of it, arc in the 
Light, many in the Shadow, and the reft faintly 
i:olour'd co make them go farther bacL Tttian 


Art of Vaulting. 

once told Tmtorety TiMt in his greateji works, a 
Zurich of Grapes had been his principal rule and his Ju- 
rejl guiie. 

^ure or unmix d white, either draws an olkSt tJC 2 2 o, 
nearer or carries it off, to farther dljlance. It draws 
it nearer with black, and throws it backward without 
it, 3cc. All agree that white can fubfift on the 
fore-ground of the Picture, and there be us'd 
without mixture ; the queftion therefore is to 
know, if it can equally fubfift and be plac'd in? 
the fame manner, upon that which is backward, 
the Light being univerfal and the Figures fuppos'di 
in a Campaign and open Field. 

Our Author concludes affirmatively, and the- 
reafon on which he eftabliflies his rule is this, Thar 
there being nothing which partakes more of the 
Light than Whitenefs, and the Light being capa- 
ble of fubfifting well in remotenefs (or at a long, 
diftance, as we daily fee in the rifing and fetting. 
of the Sun) it follows that white may fubfift in ^ 
the fame manner. In Paintings the Light and a . 
white Colour are but one and the fame thing. 
Add to this, that we have no Colour j which, 
more refembles the Air than white, and by con- - 
fequence no Colour which is lighter, from tvhencc : 
it comes that we commonly fay, the Air is hea- 
vy, when- we fee the Heavens coverd with black ^ 


1^8 Obfervatwis on the 

Clouds, or when a thick fog takes from us that 
clearnefi, which makes the Lightnefs or Serenity 
of the Air. Titian^ Ttntorety Taul Veronejey and 
all thofe who bed underftood Lights, have ob- 
jfetv^d it in this manner, and no man can go a- 
gainft this Precept, at leaft without renouncing 
any skill in Landtfchape, which is an undoubted 
confirmation of this truth. And we fee that all 
the great Maflers of Landtfchape^ have followed 
Tttian in this, who has always employ'd brown 
and earthly Colours upon the fore-part, and has 
referv'd his greateft Lights for remoteneflfes and 
the h2ic\i^zxisoi\\\s Landtf chapes. 

It may be objeded againft this opinion, that 
white cannot maintain it felf in remoteneflfes, bc- 
caufe it is ordinarily us'd to bring the Objeds 
nearer, on the advanced part. ""Tis true, that fo 
it is us'd, and that to very good purpofe, to ren- 
der the Objeds more fenfible, by the oppofition of 
the Park, which muft accompany it ; and which 
retains it, as it were by force, whether the Dark 
ferves it for a ground, or whether it be combined 
to it. For example^ If you wou'd make a white 
Horfe "on the fore-ground of your Picture, 'tis 
of abfolute N.eceflSty, chat the ground muft be 
of a mixt brown, and large enough, or that the 
Furniture muft be of very fenfible Colours 5 or 


Art of Painting. i ^^ 

laftly, that fome Figure muft be ftt upon it 
whofe Shadows and the Colour may bring it for- 

But it feems (fay you) that blue is the moft 
flying or tranfient Colour, becaufe the Heavens 
and Mountains, which are at the greatcft diftance, 
are of that Colour. 'Tis very true that blue is one 
of thelighteftand fweeteft Colours; But it is al- 
fb true, that it pofTeflfes . thefe qualities fo much 
the more, becaufe the white is mingled in it, as 
the example of the diftances demonftrate to us. 
But if the Light of your Pidure be not univerfal, 
and that you fuppofe your Figures in a Chamber, 
then recall to your Memory that Tl^eorem which 
tells you that the nearer a Body is to the Light, 
and the more directly 'tis oppos'd to us, fo much 
the more it is enlighten'd, becaufe the Lighc 
grows languifliing, the farther it removes from 
its original. 

You may alfo extinguifli your white, if you 
fuppofe the Air to be fomewhat thicker, and if 
you forefee that this fuppofition will make a good 
cStdi in the Oeconomy of the whole work j but 
let noc this proceed fo far, as to make your Fi- 
gures fo brown, that they may feem as it were 
in a filthy Fog, or that they may appear to be 
part of the ground. Seethe following Remark. 

Z S«r 

170 Observations m the 

€" 2 2 2. ©«f ^ fa' p^^^ blacky there is nothing that brings 
the OhjeB nearer to the Sight y '&cc. Becaufe black 
k the heavieft of all Colours, the moft earthly, 
and the moft fenfible. This is clearly underftood 
by the qualities of white which is oppos'd to it, 
and which is, as we have faid, the lighteft of all 
Colours. There are few who are not of this opi- 
nion 5 and yet I have known fome, who have 
cold me, that the black being on the advanc'd 
part, makes nothing but holes. To this there 
is litde elfe to be aniwer'd, but that black always 
makes a good effed, being (et forward, provi- 
ded it be plac'd there with Prudence. You arc 
therefore fo to difpofe the Bodies of your Pictures 
which you intend to be on the fore- ground, that 
thofe forts of holes may not be perceiv'd, and 
that the blacks may be there by Maffes, and in- 
fcnfibly confus'd. See the 47f/;.Rule. 

That which gives the Relievo to a Bowl, (may 
fome fay to me) is the quick Light, or the white, 
which appears to be on the fide, which is near- 
eft to us, and the black by confcquence diftances 
the Objedl : we are here to beware, not to con- 
found the turnings with the diftxinces: the quefti- 
on is onely in refped: of Bodies, which are fepa- 
ratcd by fome diftance of a backward Poficion, 
and not of round Bodies, which are of the fame 


Art of Painting. 171 

Continuity : the brown which is mingled in the 
turnings of the Sow?/, makes them go off, rather 
in confounding them, as we may iay, than in 
blackning them. And do you not fee, that the 
refleds are an Artifice of the Painter, to make 
the turnings feem more Light, and that by this 
means the greateft blacknefs remains towards the 
middle of the SoiW, to fuftain the white, and make 
it deceive us with more pleafure. 

This (^le of White and [Black is of fo great con- 
fequence, that unlefs it be exadlly pradiis'd, 'tis 
impoifible for a Picture to make any great efFedl, 
that the Maffes can be difentangFd, and the dif- 
ferent diftances may be obferv'd at the firfl; Glance 
of the Eye without trouble. 

It may be inferr'd from this ^recefty that the 
Mafles of other Colours, will be fo much the 
more fenfible, and approach fo much the nearer 
to the Sight the more brown they bear ; provi- 
ded this be amongft other Colours which are of 
the fame Species. For example, A yellow brown 
fhall draw nearer to the Sight, than another 
which is lefs yellow. I faid provided it be a- 
mongft other Colours, which are of the fame 
Species, becaufc there are fimple Colours, which 
naturally are flrong and fenfible, though they 
^re clear, as p'ermillion •, there are others alfo, 

Z 1 which 

172 Ohjervations on the 

which nocwichftanding that they are brown, yet 
ceafe not to be foft and faint, as the blue of UU 
tramat me. The effe(5t of a pi6lure comes not one- 
ly therefore fronn the Lights and Shadows, but 
alfo from the nature of the Colours. I thought 
it was not from the purpofe in this place to give 
you the qualities of thofe Colours which are moft 
in ufe, and which are call'd Capital, becaufe they 
ferve to make the compofirion of all the reft, 
whofe number is almoft infinite. 

^d Ohr is one of the moft heavy Colours. 
. Yellow Oker is not fo heavy, becaufe 'tis clearer. 

And the Majlicot is very Light, becaufe it is a 
very clear yellow, and very near to white. 

Ultramarine or A^rey is very light and a very 
fweet Colour. 

Vermillion is wholly oppofite to Ultramarine, 

Lake is a middle Colour betwixt Ultramarine 
and Vermillion^ yet it is rather more fweet than 

^rown (I(ed is one of the moft earthy and moft 
fenfible Colours. 

Tinck is in its nature an indifferent Colour, 
(that is) very fufceptible of the other Colours 
by the mixture : if you mix brown red with it, you 
will make it a very earthy Colour j but on the 
contrary, if you joyn it with white or hluey you 


ArtofVainting. 173 

fliall have one of the mod faint and tender Co- 

Tern Verte (or green Earth) is hghtj 'tis a mean 
betwixt jei/oM? Oker and Ultramarine, 

Umhre is very fenfible and earthy ; there is no- 
thing but j?«r^ WrfcA which can difpute with it. 

Of all Wacksy that is the moft earthly, which 
is moft remote from &ue. According to the 
Principle which we have eftablifh'd of iphite and 
hiackj you will make every one of thefe Colours 
before-nam'd more earthy and more heavy, the 
more black you mingle with them, and they will 
be light the more white you joyn with them. 

For what concerns broken or compound Colours^ we 
are to make a judgment of their ftrengch by the 
Force of thofe Colours which compofe them. All 
who have thoroughly underftood the agreement 
of Colours, have not employed them wholly pure 
and fimple in their Draperies, unlefs in fome Fi- 
gure upon the fore-ground of the Picture j but they 
Jiave us'd broken and compound Colours, of which 
they made a Harmony for the Eyes, by mixing 
thofe which have fome kind of Sympathy with each 
other, to make a Whole, which has an Union with 
the Colours which are neighbouring to it. The 
Painter who perfectly underftands the force and 
power of his Colours, will ufe them moft fuitably 


^1-^ Vi^fervatiofis on the 

to his prefenc purpofe, and according to his own 

'% i55' ^^^^ ^^^ ^'^^ ^^ ^^'^^ re/^^iVe/y, Sec, One Body 
mud make another Body fly off in fuch a man- 
ner that it felf may be chas'd by thofe Bodies 
which are advanced before it. " We are to take 
" care and nfe great attention^ fays Quin^tihan, jiot 
^' onely of one fe far ate things but of jnany which fol 
'^ low each other : and by a certain relation which they 
, •*' ha'Ve with each other ^ are as it were continued in the 
^' fatne manner ^ as if in aflraght Street, we caft our 
^' Eyes from one end of it to the other , we df coyer 
*^ at o?ice thofe different things which are prefented to 
^' the Sight, fo that tpe not onely fee the lafl, but 
^^ whatfoeVer is relating to the lafl, 

^ \6i» Let two contrary extremities never touch each o- 
ther. Sec. The Senfe of feeing has this in com- 
mon with all the rert: of the Senfes, that it ab- 
horrs the contrary Extremities. And in the fame 
manner as our hands, when they are very cold 
feel a grievous pain, when on the fudden wehold 
them near the Fire, fo the Eyes which find an 
extreme white, next to an extreme black, or a 
fair cool Azure next to a hot Vermillion, cannot 
behold thefe extremities without Pain, though 
they arealuays attraded by the Gbreing of two 


Art of Painting: 1.75 

This rule obliges us to know thofe Colours 
which have a Friendfliip with each other, and 
thofe which are incompatible, which we may 
eafily difcover in mixing together thofe Colours 
of which we would make trial. 

And if by this mixture, they make a gracious 
and fvveet Colour, which is pleafing to the Sight, 
*tis a Sign that there is an Union and a Sympathy 
betwixt them : but if, on the contrary, that Colour 
which is produc'd by the mixture of the two be 
harfli to the Sight, we are to conclude, that there 
is 'a Contrariety and Antipathy betwixt thefe two ^ 
Colours. Grmj, for example, is a pleafing Colour, 
which may come from a blue and 3.yeIlow mix'd to- 
gether, and by confequence blue and yellow are two ■- 
Colours which fympatbi:^ : and on the contrary, 
the mixture of Blue with Vermillion^ produces 
a (harp, harfh, and unpleafant Colour; con« 
elude then that &ue and Vermllmn are of a con- 
trary Nature. And the fame may be faid of o- 
ther Colours of which yqu make the experiment. 
And to clear Aat matter once for all, (fee the 
Conclufion of the 3 5 iL %emarkj where I have 
taken occafion to fpeak of the force and <jualtty of 
every Capital Colour,) yet you may negled this 
Precept, when your Piece confifts but of one or 
two Figures, and when amongft a great number 

you :: 

1 7^ Obfervations on the 

you would make feme one Figure more remark- 
able than the reft. Oiie I fay, which is one of the 
moft confiderable of the Subject, which otherwife 
you cannot diftinguifh from the reft. Titian in 
his triumph oi'Bacchm^ having plac'd Ariadne on 
one of the Borders of the Picture, and not being 
able for that reafon to make her remarkable by 
the brightnefs of Light, which he was to keep in 
the middle of his Pidiure, gave her a Scarf of a 
Vermillion Colour, upon a hlue Drapery, as well 
to loofen her from his ground, which was a blue 
Seay as becaufe flie is one of the principal Figures 
of his Subjed:, upon which he defir'd to attract 
the Eye. Taulo Ferone/e, in his Marriage of Canaa, 
becaufe Chriji who is the principal Figure of the 
Subject , is carry 'd fomewhat into the depth of 
the Pidture , and that he cou'd not make him 
diftinguifliable by the ftrength of the Lights and 
Shadows, has cloath'd him with Vermillion and 
!8/«e, thereby to condud the Sight to that Fi- 

The hojlile Colours may be fo much the more 
ally'd to each other, the more you mix them 
with other Colours, which mutually fympathize 5 
and which agree with thofe Colours, which you 
Jefire to reconcile. 


Art of Painting. I77 

'Tis labour in Vain to paint a High-mon^ 6cc. ^ ^6y 
He faid in another place, Endeavour after that 
which aids your Art, and is fuitable to it, and 
fliun whatfoever is repugnant: 'tis the 59th. Tre- 
cej)t. If the Painter wou d arrive to the end he 
has proposed, which is to deceive the fight, he 
mufl; make choice of fuch a Nature, as agrees with 
the weaknefs of his Colours 5 becaufe his Colours 
cannot accommodate themfelves to every fort of 
Nature. This Rule is particularly to be obferv d, 
and well confider'd , by thofe who paint Landt- 

Let the Field or Ground of the TiBurey &c. The Ijf j 7 8. 
reafon of it is, that we are to avoid the meeting 
of thofe Colours, which have an Antipathy to 
each other, becaufe they offend the Sight, fothat 
this Rule is prov'd fufficiently by the 4 \ft, which 
tells us, that two contrary Extremities are never 
to touch each other, whether it be in Colour, or 
in Light, but that there ought to be a mean be- 
twixt them, which partakes of both. 

Let your Colours he lively ^ and yet yiot lookiaccor- gr ^gx. 
iing to the Painters TroVerb) as if they had been 
fprinkled with Mealy Sec, Vonner dans la farine^ is 
a Phrafe amongft Painters, which perfedly ex- 
preffes what it means, which is to paint with 
clear, or bright Colours, and dull Colours to- 

A A getherj 

178 Obfervations on the 

gether ; for being fo mingled, they give no more 
life to the Figures, than if they had been rubbed 
with Meal. They who make their fledi Colours 
very white, and their Shadows grey or inclining 
to green, fall into this inconvenience. Red Co- 
lours in the Shadows of the moft delicate or fineft 
Flefli, contribute wonderfully to make them live- 
ly, fhining and natural ; but they are to be us^d 
with the fame difcretion, that Titian^ Taul Vero- 
nefcy ^bens and Van Dycky have taught us by their 

To prefer ve the Colours frefih, we muft paint 
by putting in more Colours, and not by rubbing 
them in, after they are once laid 5 and if it could 
be done, they fliould belaid juft in their proper 
places, and not be any more touched, when they 
are once fo placed 5 it tvould be yet better, be* 
caufetheFreflinefs of the Colours is tarniflh'd and 
loft, by vexing them with the continual Drudge- 
ry of Daubing. 

All they who have coloured well, have had 
yet another Maxim to maintain their Colours 
frefli and flourifhing, which was to make ufe of 
"white Grounds J upon which they painted, and of- 
tentimes at the firft Stroke, without retouching 
any thing, and without employing new Colours. 


Art of Painting. 17^ 

^hens always us'd this way 5 and I have feen 
Pidures from the hand of that great Perfon paint- 
ed up at once, which were of a wonderful! Viva- 

The reafon why they made ufe of thofe kind 
of Grounds, is, becaufe white as well preferves 
a Brightnefs, under the Tranfparency of Colours, 
which hinders the Air from altering the white- 
ned of the Ground, as that it likewife repairs 
the injuries which they receive from the Air, fo 
that the Ground and the Colours aflift and pre- 
ferve each other. 'Tis for this reafon that glaz'd 
Colours have a Vivacity which can never be imi- 
tated by the mod lively and moft brillant Co- 
lours, becaufe according to the common way, 
the different Teints are fimply laid on each in its 
place one after another. So true it is, that white 
with other ftrong Colours, with which we paint 
at once that which we intend to glaze, are as it 
were, the Life, the Spirit, and the Luftre of it. 
The Ancients moft certainly have, found, that 
white Grounds were much the beft, becaufe, not- 
withftanding that inconvenience, which their 
Eyes received from that Colour, yet they did not 
forbear the ufe of it ; as Galen teftifies in his tenth 
!Book of the ufe of the parts, " Painters, fays he, 
" when they work upon their white Groundsy place he- 

A a 2 " fore 

i8o Oifervations on the 

" fore them dark Colours^ and others mixt with hint 
" and green y to recreate their Eyes^ becaufe white k 
^^ aglareing Colour^ which wearies and fains the Sight 
" more than any other, I know not the reafon 
why the ufe of it is left off at prefenr, if it be not 
chat in our days there are few Painters who are 
curious in their Colouring, or that the firft Strokes 
which are begun upon white, are not feen foon 
enough, and that a more than French Patience is 
required to wait till it be accomplifli'd 5 and the 
Ground, which by its whitcnefs tarniflies the Lu- 
ftre of the other Colours, muft be entirely covered 
to make the whole work appear pleafingly. 
.383* Let the parts which are nearejl to us and moft rats' dy 
&C. The reafon of this is, that upon a flat fu- 
perficies, and as much united as a Cloth can be, 
when ijc is ftrain d, the leafl Body is very appear- 
ing, and gives a heightning to the place which it 
pofiTeffes ; do not therefore load thofe places with 
Colours, which you would make to turn ; but 
let thofe be well loaded, which you would have 
come out of the Canvafs. 
^ 2 8 J. Let there he fo much Harmony or Conjent in the 
Majfes of the ^iElures^ that all the fhadowings may- 
appear as if they were but one. Sec. He has faidin 
another place, that after great Lights, great Sha- 
dows arc neceffary, which he calls ^pofes. What 


Art of VainWig. 1 8 1 

he means by the prefent ^k is this, That whatfo- 
ever is found in thofe great Shadows, fhould par- 
take of the Colours of one another, fo that the 
different Colours which are well diftin^uifli'd in 
the Lights feem to be but one in the Shadows, 
by their great Union. 

Let the whole TiBure he maie of one ^iece. See* €[" ^g^j^ 
That is- to fay, of one and the fame Continuity 
of Work, and as if the Picture had been painted 
up all at once ; the Latin fays all of one Pallet. 

77;e Looking Glafs mill injiruft youj Sec, The jr 287^. 
Painter muft have a principal Refped: to the MaC 
(cSy and to the Effed of the whole together. TItc 
Looking-Glafs diftances the Objects, and by confc* 
quence gives us onely to fee the Mafles, in which 
all the little parts are confounded. The Evening, 
when the Night approaches, will make you bet-^ 
ter underftand this obfervation , but not fo 
commodioufly, for the proper time to make it, 
lafts but a quarter of an hour, and the Looking^ 
Cla/s may be ufefull all the day. 

Since the Mirror is the rule and Mafter of all 
Painters, as flhowing them their faults by diftan- : 

cing the Objeds, we may conclude that the Pi- 
cture which makes not a eood effect at a diftance 
cannot be well done 5 and a Painter muft never 
finiCh his Pifture, before he has cxamin d k as 


^'§2. Vhfervations on the 

Tome reafonabie diftance, or with a Looking- Gla/sy 
whether the Maifes of the Lights and Shadows, 
and the Bodies of the Colours be well diftribu- 
tcd. Giorgione and Corre^io have made ufe of 
this method. 
^ -iQi, As for a portrait y or TiBures hy the Life, Sec. 
The end of Portraits is not fo precifely as fome 
have imagin'd, to give a fmiling and pleafing Air 
together with the refemblance^ this is indeed 
fome what 5 but not enough. It confifts in expref. 
ling the true temper of thofe perfons which it re- 
prefents, and to make known their ^hyjiognomy. 
If the Perfon whom you draw, for example, be na- 
turally fad, you are to beware of giving him any 
Gayety, which would always be a thing which 
is foreign to his Countenance. If he or fhe be 
merry, you are to make that good Humour appear 
by the expreflfing of thofe parts where it ads, and 
where it (hows it felf If the Perfon be grave 
and majeftical, the Smiles or Laughing, which 
is too fenfible, will take offfrom that Majefty and 
make it look childifh and undecent. In fhorr, 
the Painter, who has a good Genius vtm^ make a 
true Difcernment of all thefe things, and if he un- 
derftands ^hyftognomy, it will be more eafie to 
him, and he will fucceed better than another. 
^liny tells us, "^ V^at Apellcs 7nade his figures fo 

An of Painting, • 183 

" yitry lih-i that a artdxn ^I))JtognomiJl and Fortune- 
" teller^ (as it is related by A^pion the Gramma- 
^^ rian) foretold hy looking on them the Very time of 
^' their Deaths, whom thofe TiBures reprefentedy or 
" at what tone their Death happen d, if fuch perfons. 
" were already dead. 

Ton are to paint the mofl tenderly that pojfihly yon €[" 40 ?^ 
can, 8cc, Not fo as to make your Colours die 
by force of tormenting them, but that you ftiould 
mix them as haftily as you can, and not retoucb 
the fame place, if conveniently you can avoid 

Large Lights y Sec. 'Tis in vain to take pains ^ 40?; 
if you cannot preferve large Lights, becaufe 
without them, your work will never make z 
good efFe(5l at a diftance ; and alfo becaufe lit- 
tle Lights are confus^'d and effac'^d, proportiona- 
bly, as you are at a diftance from the Pidure.^ 
This was the perpetual Maxim of Correggto. 

Ought to haVefomewhat of Greatnefs in them, and i[[ 41;?^.- 
their Out- lines to he noble , &c. As the Pieces of 
Jntiquity will evidently (how us. 

There is nothing more pernicious to a Youth, &c. % 422,. 
^Tis common to place our felves under the Dif- 
ciplinc of a Majler of whom we have a good opi- 
nion, and whofe manner vvc are apt to embrace 
with eafe, which takes root more deeply in us, 


184- Obfervations on the 

and augments the more we fee him work, and 
the more we copy after him. This happens of- 
tentimes to that degree, and makes fo great an 
Impreffion in the Mind of the Scholar, that he can- 
not give his approbation to any other manner 
whatfoever, and beUeves there is no man under 
the Cope of Heaven, who is fo knowing as hit 

But what is moft remarakble in this point is, 
that nature appears tons always like that manner 
which we love, and in which we have been taught, 
which is juft like a Glafs through which we behold 
Objects, and which communicates its Colour to 
them without our perceiving it. After I have 
. iaid thk, you may fee erf what confequencc is the 
choice of a ^ood Mafler, and of following in our 
beginning the manner of thofe who have come 
neareft to Nature. And how much injury do 
you think have the ill manners which have been 
in France^ done to the Painters of that Nation, and 
what hindrance have they been to the knowledge 
of what is well done, or of arriving to what is fo 
when once we know it. The Italians fay to thofe 
whom they fee infeded with an ill manner, which 
they are not able to forfake , " If you knew 
•*' jujl nothingy you rt?oM foon karn fometh'mg. 


Art of ? dinting. 185 

' Search whatfoel^er is aiding to your Art and con'Ve- Cj[ 42 2. 
ment, and ayoidthofe things which are repugnant tatty 
6cc. This is an admirable ^le 5 a Painter 
ought to have it perpetually prefent in his Mind 
and Memory. It refolves thofe difficulties which 
the ^les beget ; it loofens his hands, and affifts 
his underftanding. In iliart, this is the S(«fe 
which fets the Painter at liberty, becaufe it teaches 
him that he ought not to fubje6t himfelf fervilely, 
and be bound like an Apprentice to the ^les of 
his Art ; but that the (^les of his Art ought to be 
Subjed: to him, and not hinder him from follow- 
ing the Dictates of his Genius^ which is fuperior 
to them. 

iBodies of diverfe Natures which are aggroupfdor m: aia, 
combind together are agreeable and pleafant to tht 
Sight J dec. As Flowers y Fruits j Animals ^ SkinSy 
SattinSy VebetSy beautiful! Flefhy Works of Stiver, 
ArmorSy Inflruments of Mujicky Ornaments of Anci- 
ent Sacrificesy and many other pleafing Diverfi- 
ties which may prefent themfelves to the Painters 
imagination. 'Tis moft certain that the diverfi- 
ty of Objeds recreates the Sight, when they are 
without confufion 3 and when they diminifh no- 
thing of the Subjed on which we work. Expe- 
rience teaches us, that the Eye grows weary with 
poring perpetually on the fame thing, not one- 

Bb ly 

1 8'^ Ohfirvations m the 

ly on Pidlures, but even on Nature it felf. For 
who is he who would not be tir'd in the Walks 
of a long Foreft, or with beholding" a large plain- 
which is naked of Trees, or in the Sight of a Ridge 
of Mountains, which inftead of Pleafure, give us 
onely the view of Heights and Bottoms. Thus 
to content and fill the Eye of the Underftanding, 
the bed Authors have had the Addrefs to fprin- 
kle their Works with pleafing Digreffions, with 
which they recreate the Minds of Readers. Dif- 
cretion, in this as in all other things is the fureft 
Guide: and as tedious Digreffions, which wander 
from their Subjed:, are impertinent, fo the Pain- 
ter who under Pretence of diverting the Eyes, 
would fill his Pi6hire with fuch varieties as alter 
the truth of the Hijioty, would make a ridiculous 
Piece of Painting, and a mere Gallimaufry of 
his Work. 
A2f, As alfo thofe things which appear to he perform d; 
with eaje^ &c. This eafe attrads our Eyes, and 
Spirits fo much the more, becaufe it is to be pre- 
fum'd that a noble work, which appears fo eafie 
to us, is the produd of a skilfull Hand which is 
Mafter of its Art. k was in this part, that An 
pelles found himfelf fuperior to ^rotogetiesj when 
. he blam'd him, for not knowing when to lay 
down his Pencil (and as I may almoftfay) to make 


Art of Painting. 187 

an end of finifhing his Piece. And it was on 
this account he plainly faid, " That nothing wot 
" more prejudicial to Painters than too much exaSl- 
" nejs ; and that the great ejl fart of them knew not 
^ when they had done enough : as we have likewifc 
a Proverb, which fays, Jn Englip?man ne'Ver knows 
mhen he is well. 'Tis true, that the word enough 
is very difficult to underftand. What you have 
to do, is to <:onfider your Subject thoroughly, 
and in what manner you intend to treat it accor- 
<ling to your rules, and the Force of your Genius; 
after this you are to work with all the eafe and 
all the fpecd you can, without breaking your 
liead fo very much, and being fo very induftri- 
ous in fta^rting Scruples to your fe!f, and creating 
difficulties in your work. But 'tis impoffible to 
have this Facility without poflefling perfed:ly all 
the Trecepts of the Arty and to have made it ha- 
bitual to you. For eafe oonfifts in revaking pre- 
cifely that work which you ought to make, and 
to fet every thing in its proper place with fpeed 
and Readinefs, which cannot be done without 
the Rules, for they are the aflur'd means of con- 
du<^ing you to the end that you defign with Plea- 
fure. 'Tis then mod: certain, (though againft 
the opinion of many,) that the ^les give Facility, 
Qiiietof Mind, and readinefs of Hand to the flow- 

Bb 2 eft 

1 88 Ohjervations on the 

eft Genius, and that the fame ^les increafe, and 
guide that eafe in thofe who have already received 
it at their Birth from the happy influence of their 

From whence it follows that we may confider 
Facility two feveral ways, either fimply, as Dili- 
gence and a readinefs of Mind and ot the Hand^^ 
or as a Di/pojition in the Mind, to remove readily 
all thofe difficulties which can arife in the work. 
The firft proceeds from an active temper full of 
Fire 5 and the fecond from a true knowledge and 
full pofle/fion of infallible Rules 5 the firft is plea- 
fing, but k is not always without Anxiety, be- 
caufe it often leads us aftray, and on the contra- 
ry, the laft makes us a6t with a Repofeof Mind, 
and wonderful! Tranquillity 5 becaufe it afcer- 
tains us of the goodnels of our work. Tis a 
great advantage to poffefs the firft, but *tis the 
height of perfedion to have both in that man- 
ner which (^bens and Fan t>yck polTefled them, 
excepting tlie part of Defign or Drawing, which 
both too much neglected. 

Thofe who fay that the Rules are fo far from 
giving us this Facility, that on the contrary they 
puzzle and perplex the Mind and tie the hand, 
are generally fuch people who have pafs'd half 
their lives in an ill praftice of Painting, the ha- 

Art of Painting. 1 8^ 

bit of which is grown fo inveterate in them, that 
to change it by the Rules, is to take as it were 
thier Pencils out of their Hands, and to put them 
out of condition of doing any thing ; in the fame 
manner as we make a Country -man dumb whom 
we will not allow to fpeak, but by the Rules of 

Obferve, if you pleafe, that the Facility and 
Diligence of which I fpoke, confifts not in that 
which we call bold ftrokes and a free handling of 
• the Pencil, if it makes not a great efte(^ at a dir 
fiance. That Ibrt of Freedom belongs rather to 
a Writing-Mafter than a Painter. I fay yet fur- 
ther, that 'tis almoft impoffible that things which 
are painted fhould appear true and natural, where 
we obferve thefe forts of bold ftrokes. And all 
thofe who have come neareft to nature,, have ne^ 
ver us'd that manner of Painting, thofe tender 
Hairs, and thofe hatching ftrokes of the Pencil, 
which make a kind of minced meat in Painting, 
are very fine I muft confefs, but they are never 
able to deceive the Sight. 

Nor till you hope prefent in your Mind a perfeSi IJ* 44^.^ 
Idea of your work^ &c. If you will have pleafure 
in Painting, you ought to have fo well confi- 
der'd the ceconomy of your work, that it may 
be entirely made and difpos'd in your head before 


f^o Oiifervations on the 

it be begun upon the Cloath. You muft I fay^ 
forefee the effe(5t of the Grouppes, the ground 
.and the Lights and Shadows of every thing, the 
Harmony of the Colours, and the intelligence of 
all the Subje<5t, in fuch a manner, that whatfoe- 
'Ver youfliall put upon the Cloth, may be onely 
a Copy of what is in your Mind. If you make 
ufe of this Conduct, you will not be put to the 
trouble of fo often changing and rechanging. 
442. Let the Eye be fat is fie d in the firjl place y e^en a- 
gainji and above all other ^ajonsy Sec. This paf- 
fage has a refpecSt to fome particular Licences 
which a Painter ought to take : And as 1 defpair 
not to treat this matter more at large 5 I adjourn 
the ^ader to the firft opportunity which I can 
get for his farther fatisfadion on this point to the 
beft of my Ability ; but in general he may hold 
for certain, that thofe Licences are good which 
contribute to deceive the Sight, without corrup- 
ting the truth of the Subjsdt on which the Painter 
is to work. 
5^ 44 J. Profit your Jelf by the Counfels of the knowings dec 
^arrhifflus and Cliton thought rhemfelves much ob- 
liged to Socrates for the knowledge which he gave 
them of the Tafflons. See their Dialogue in Xeno- 
A 20. fhon towards the end of the third Sook of Memoirs : 
^* V?eywho thetnoft willingly bear reproofs fays Tlir^ 


Art of Tainting. 151 

*^ the Younger, are the "Very men in whom we find 
" 7nore to commend than in other people. Lyfippus 
was extremely pleased when Apelles told him his 
©pinion j and Apelles as much, when Lyfippus told 
him his. That which Praxiteles faid of Nieias in - 5. 
flinyy fhowsthe Soul of an accomplifli'd and an 
humble man. " FT2ixkc\cshein^ asKdjphichofall 
" his Works he Valued mojlf Tho/e, fays he, which 
" Nieias ha^ retouch* d. So much account he 
made of his Criticifms and his opinions. You 
know the common pradice of Apelles^ when he 
•hadfinidi'd any work, he expos'd it to the Sight 
©f all Paffengers, and concealed himfelf to hear: 
the Cenfure of his faults, with the Profped of ma- 
king his advantage of the Informations which un- 
knowingly they gave him* Being fenfible that 
the people would examine his works more rigo- 
roufly than himfelf, and would not forgive the: 
leaft miflake. . 

The Opinions and Gounfels of many together 
are always preferable to the advice of one fingle 
perfon. And Cicero wonders that any are befot- TufcuI.Iib.f.- 
ted on their own Produdions, and fay to one a- 
. nother, Very^ good, if your works pleafe youy mine 
are not unpkafing to me. In effe^ there are many 
who through Prefumption or out of Shame to be 
reprehended, never let their works be fcen. But 


1^2 OhfervaftoJis on tie 

there is nothing can be of worfe confequence j for 
Ceorg. s.l s. the difeafe is nour'tj}')dandmcreaJes^ fays Fir^tl^ while 
it is conceded. There are none but Fools, fays. 
Horace^ who out of Shamefac dnefs hide their Ul- 
cers, which if fliown might eafily be heal'd. Stul- 
Ep. i6. torum incurata mains fudor ulcera celat : There are 
others who have not altogether fo much of this 
foolifh Bafhfulnefs, and who ask every ones opi- 
nion with Prayers and Earneflnefs ; but if you 
freely and ingenuoufly give them notice of their 
Faults, they never fail to make fome pitiful 1 ex- 
cufe for them, or which is worfe, they take in ill 
part the Service which you thought you did 
them, which they but feemingly defir'd of you, 
and out of an eftablifli'd Cuftom amongft the 
greateft part of Painters. If you defire to gee 
your felf any honour, and acquire a Reputation 
by your works, there is no furcr way than to 
. (how them to perfons of good Senfe, and chiefly 
to thofe who are Criticks in the Art 5 and to take 
their Counfel with the fame Mildnefs and the fame 
Sincerity, as you dcfir'd them to give it you. You 
muft alfo be induftrious to difcover the opinion 
of your Enemies, which is commonly the trueft, 
for you may be affur'd, that they will give you 
00 quarter, and allow nothing to complaifance. 


Art of Fainting. 15 ?- 

Swf if you have no knowing Friend, See, QubtBi- C([ 449* 
to gives the reafon of this, when he fays, ^'Tlmt 
" the heji means to correEi our faults, is douhtlefs 
^^ this, To remote our deftgns out of Sight ^ for 
^' fome fpace of time, and not to look upon our ^i- 
*' BureSy to the end, that after this internal, we may 
" look on them as it were with other Eyesy and as a 
" new work which was of another hand, and not our 
" own. Our own Productions do but too much 
flatter us 3 they are always too pleafing, and 'tis 
impoiTible not to be fond of them at the moment 
of their Conception. They are Children of a 
tender age, which are not capable of drawing 
our Hatred on them. 'Tis faid, That Apes, as 
foon as they have brought their Young into the 
World, keep their Eyes continually faften'd on 
them, and are never weary of admiring their 
Beauty : fo amorous is Nature of whatfoever (he 

To the end that he may cultivate thofe Talents which Ijf 458. 
make his Genius^ &c. 

Qui fua metitur pondera, ferre poteft. 

*■' That we may undertake nothing beyond our forces, ^^^'^'^^ 
" we mufl endeavour to know them. On this Pru- 
dence our reputation depends. Cicero calls it a 

C c good • 

I ^^ Obfervations on the 

good Grace^ becaufe it makes a man feen in his 
1 Off. greateft Luftre. " 'Tis , (fays he) a becoming 
^^ Grace, which we fl)a\l eaftly make appear, if we are 
*^ carefuU to cultivate that which Nature has given us 
" in propriety, and made our own, provided it be no 
" Vice or ImperfeEiion : we ought to undertake nothmg 
" which is repugnant to Nature in general-, and when 
^^ we haVe faid her this duty, we are bound fo reli- 
" gioujly to follow our own Nature, that though many 
*^ things which are more ferious and more important, 
" prefent themfehes to us, yet we are always to con- 
" form our Studies and our Exercifes to our natural 
" Inclinations, It avails nothing to difpute againji 
" Nature, and think to obtain whatjhe refufes 3 for 
" then we eternally follow what we can neVer reach ; for^ 
^' as the'^roVerb Jays, There is nothing can pleafe, no- 
" thing can be gracefull which we enterpri:^ in fpight 
" 0/ Minerva; that is to fay, in fpight of Nature, 
" When we haVe conjtderd all thefe things attentively, 
'^ it will then be neceffary, that eVery man fhould re- 
*' gard that in particular, which Nature has made 
^^ his portion, and that he fhould cultivate it with care -, 
" 'tis not his hufinefs to giVe himfelfthe trouble of try- 
** ing whether it will become him to put on the Nature 
" of another man ; or as one would fay, to aSh the per- 
" fon of another : there is nothmg which can more be- 
" come us, than what is froperly the Gft of Nature. 

" Let 

Art of fainting. . I ^ ^ 

^' Let every one therefore endeavour to underfland his 
" own Talent^ and without flattering him/elf ^ let him 
" make a true judgment of his own VertueSj and his 
" own VefeSls and Vices j that he may not appear to 
" have lefs judgment than the Comedians ^ who do 
*' not always chufe the hefl TlaySy hut thofe which are 

" ^^fi /^^ ^'^^'^ ) ^^^^^ ^^, ^'^^/^ which are mofl in the 
" comfafs of their aBing, Thm we are to fix on thofe 
*' things for which we haVe the Jirongejl Inclination, 
" And if it fometimes happen that we are forcd by 
" neceffity to apply our fehes to fuch other things to 
^^ which we are no ways inclind 5 we mufl bring it fo 
" about by our Care and Indujiry, that if we perform 
^^ them not Very well, at leajt we may not do them fo 
^' Very ill as to be fham'd by them : we are mi fo 
^^ much to flrain our felves to make thofe Vertues ap- 
" pear in us which really we haVe not, as to aVoid 
*' thofe ImperfeEiions which may difhonour us. Thefe 
are the Thoughts and the Words of Cicero, which 
1 have tranflaced, retrenching onely fuch things as 
were of no concernment to my Subject : I was 
not of opinion to add any thing, and the Rea- 
der I doubt not will find his fatisfa(5lion in them. 

Winle you meditate on thefe Truths, and obferVe ^ ^6^ 
them diligently, 6cc, There is a great Connexion 
betwixt this Trecept and that other, which tells you. 
That you are to pafs no day without drawing a line. 

C c 2 'Tis 

I5(^ Ol}[ervatms onxhe 

*Tis impoffible to become an able Artift, without 
making your Art habitual to you : and 'tis im- 
poffible to gain an exa6t Habitude, without an 
infinite number of Ad:s, and without perpetual 
Pradice. In all Arts the Rules of them are learn'd 
in little time j but the perfedion is not acquir'd 
without a long Pra(5tice and a fevere Dihaence. 
We 7ieVer faw that La:^nefs produc d any thing which 

^'^ 34. WAS excellent^ fays Maximus Tyritis : and Quincli' 
lian tells us, That the Arts draw their heginning 
from Nature 5 the want we often have of them 
caufes us to fearch the means of becoming able in 
them, and exercife makes us entirely Mafters of 

^400. 57;^ morning is the hejl and moji proper part of the 
dayy &c. Becaufe then the Imagination is not 
cloudedwiththc Vapours of Meat, nordiftradted 
by Vifits which are not ufually made in the morn- 
ing. And the Mind by the Sleep of the forego- 
ing Night, is refrefh'd and recreated from the 
Toyls of former Studies. Malherbe fays well to 
this purpofe^ 

Le plus beau de nosjours^ eft dans kur matinee. 

The fprightly Morn is the hefl part of Day. 


Art of Fainting. 157 

Let m day pafs over you without drawing a linCy &c. ^ 4^8.- 
Thac is to fay, without working, without giving 
ibme ftrokes of the Pencil or the Crayon. This 
was the Precept of y^/?e/fey ; and 'tis of fo much the 
more neceffity, becaufe Painting is an Art of much 
length and time, and is not to be learn'd with^ 
out great Practice. Michael Angela at the Age of 
fourfcore years, faid. That he learn d fomething 
every day, 

Se ready to put into your Table-booky Sec, As it ^ 47'J>" 
was the cuftom ofTttian and the Carraches-^ there 
are yet remaining in the hands of fome who arc 
curious in Painting ;. many thoughts and obfer- 
vations which thofe great Men have made on Pam- 
per, and in their Table-books which they carry'd 
continually about them* 

Wine andgood Cheer are no great Friends to Taint- gr a^^^ 
ing^ they ferVe onely to recreate the Mind when it is 
oppre/sd and /pent with Labour, &c. '^ During 35« 10*- 
" the timey fays Tliny , that Protogenes was 
" drawing the ^iBure o/Jalyfus, which was the 
" hejl of aU his Works ^ he took no other nourifliment 
*' than Lupines mixd with a little water^ which ferVd 
" him both for Meat and Drinky for fear of clogging 
" his Imagination by the Luxury of his Food. Mi* 
chml Angeloy while he was drawing his day of Judge- 
ment, fed oncly on Bread and Wine at Dinners 


158 Ohfervations on the 

And Vafari obferves in his life, that he was fo fo- 
ber that he flepc but Uctle, and that he often rofe 
in the Night to work, as being not difturb'd by 
the Vapours of his thin Repafts. 
•i(f 478. Sut delights in the liberty which belo7tgs to the Sat- 
chelors EJiate, Sec. We never fee large and beau- 
tifuU and well-tafted Fruits proceeding from a 
Tree which is incompafsM round, and choak'd 
with Thorns and Bryars. Marriage draws a 
world of bufinefs on our hands, fubjcd:s us to 
Law-fuits, and loads us with multitudes of do- 
meftick Cares, which are as fo many Thorns 
that encompafs a Painter , and hinder him 
from producing his works in that perfed:ion of 
which otherwife he is capable, ^phaely Michael 
Jngeloy and Hannibal Carracci were never marry^d : 
and amongft the Ancient Painters we find none 
recorded for being marry'd, but onely Jpelles, to 
whom Alexander the Great made a prefent of his 
own Miftrefs Campafpe-, which yet I would have 
underftood without offence to the Inflitutioq of 
Marriage, for that calls down many Bleflings up- 
on Families, by the Carefulnefs of a vertuous 
Wife* If Marriage be in general a remedy againft 
Concupifcence, 'tis doubly fo in refpc<^ of Paint- 
ers 5 who are more frequently under the occafi- 
ons of Sin than other Men 5 becaufc they are un- 

Art of Painting: i$^> 

dcr a frequent neceflity of feeing Nature bare-fac'd. 
Let every one examine his own ftrcngth upon 
this point : but let him preferr the intereft of his 
Soul to that of his Art and of his Fortune, 

^alntiyig naturally withdraws from noife and tu- i([ 48 a. 
multy 8ic, I have faid at the end of the firft Re- 
mark, that both Poetry and Painting were up- 
held by the ftrength of Imagination. Now there 
is nothing vi^hich warms it more than Repofe and 
Solitude : Becaufe in that eftate, the Mind being 
freed from all forts of bufinefs, and in a kind of San- 
(Sluary undifturb'd by vexatious Vifits, is more 
capable of forming noble Thoughts and of Appli- 
cation to its Studies. 

Carmina fecejfum fcribentis <sr otra quarunt. 

Good Verjcy (I(ecefs and Solitude requires : 
And Eafe from Cares, md undiflurU d Defer es. 

We may properly fay the fame of Painting, by 
reafon of its conformity tvith Poetry, as I have 
fhown in the firft Remark. 

Let not the eoVetons defign of growing rich, &c. C a^±^ 
We read in ^liny, that KictAs refus'd Sixty Ta- 7500 /* 
Icnts from King JttaluSy and rather chofe ta 
make a free Gift of his Picture to his Country. 

2O0 Oiftrvathns on the 

Petron. Ar- . « Jgfj^iui/d of a prudent ma?ty (fays a grave Author) 
^* in what times thofe noble TiBures were made which 
^^ now we fee j and defird him to explain to mefome of 
" their SubjeHsy which I did not well underfland, I 
'^^ asKd him likewfe the reafon of that great negligence 
" -which is now Vifble amongfi Painters : And from 
'^ ivhence tt proceeded, that the moft heautifull Arts 
'^'Were now bury d in ObliVton , and principally ^aint- 
^^ ing^ a faint Shadow of which is at prefent remaining 
' ^^tOHS, T^o which he thu^ reply d, Tloat theim^node- 
" rate deftre of Riches had produced this change: For 
^' of old) when naked Vertue had her Charms, the no* 
" ble Arts then flouriji? d in their Vigour: and if there 
*' was any conteft amongfi men, it was onely who 
*' Jhould he the fir ft Dif coherer of what might he ofad- 
*' Vantage to pofterity. Lyfippus and Myron, thofe 
^' renown d Sculptors, who could giVe a Soul to Srafsy 
^' left no Heirs, no Inheritance behind them, hecaufe 
*' they were more carefull of acquiring Fame than (^*- 
" ches. (But as for us of this prefent Age, it feems 
^^ by the manner of our ConduB, that we upbraid An' 
*^ tiquityfor being as covetous of Vertue as we are of 
^' Vice : wonder not fo much therefore, if fainting has 
-*' lofl its Strength and Vigour, becaufe many are now of 
^' opinion, that a heap of Gold is much more beautifull 
" than all the ^iBures and Statues of Apellcs and 
^^ Phidias, and all the noble Performances 0/ Greece. 


Art of fainting. 201 

I would not exad fo great an aA of Abfli- 
nence from our modern Painters, for I am not 
ignorant that the hope of gain is a wonderful! 
fliarp fpur in Arts, and that it gives induftry to 
the Artift 3 from whence it was that JuVenal faid 
even of the Greeks thcmfelves, who were the In- 
ventors of Painting, and who firft underftood all 
the Gr«aces of it and its whole perfe^lionj 

Grdculus efuriensy in Cceluniy jt^Jferify ibit. 

A hungry Greeks if hidden^ fales the Skies. 

But I could heartily willi, that the fame hope 
which flatters them did not alfo corrupt them: 
and did not fnatch out of their hands a lame, 
impcrfed Piece, rudely daub'd over with too lit- 
tle Reflection and too much hafl:e. 

The qualities requijite to form an excellent Taint er^ ^ 487. 
&c. 'Tis to be confefs'd that very few Painters 
have thofe qualities which are required by our Au- 
thor, bccaufe there are very few, who zxq able Pain- 
ters, There was a time when onely they who were 
of noble Blood,were permitted to exercife this Artj 
becaufe it is to be prefum'd, that all thefe Ingredi- 
ents of a good Painter, are not ordinarily found in 
men of vulgar Birth. Apd in all appearance,we may 

D d hope 

2 02 Oifirvations on the 

hope that though there be no EdiB in France whicK- 
takes away the Liberty of Painting from thofe to 
whom Nature has refus'd the Honour of beings 
born Gentlemen, yet at lead that.the (S^yal Acade- 
my will admit hence-forward onely fuch who being 
endu d with all the good Qualities and the Ta- 
lents which ar€ recjuir d for Painting, thofe en- 
dowments may be to them inftead of an honoura- 
ble Birth. *Tis certain, that which debafes Paint- 
ing, and niakes it defcend to the vileft and moft 
defpicable kind of Trade, is the great multitude 
of Painters who have neither noble Souls nor any 
Talent for the Art, nor even fo much as com- 
mon Sence. The Origin of this great Evil, is 
that there have always been admitted into the 
Schools of Painting all forts of Children promif- 
Guouflyj. without Examination of them, and 
without obferving for fome convenient fpace of 
rime, ifthcy were conducted to this Art by their 
inward Difpofition, and all neceflary Talents, 
rather than by a foolifh Inclination of their own, 
or by the Avarice of their Relations, w ho put thenv 
to Painting, as a Trade which they believe to be 
fomewhat more gainfull than another. The 
qualities properly required , are thefe follow- 


Art of?atnthg. 20 j 

A good Judgment y That they may do nothing a- 
•gainft Reafon and Verifiniilky. 

A docible Mind, That they may profit by in- 
ftrudlionSj and receive without Arrogance the 
opinion of every one, and principally of know- 
ing Men. 

A noble Hearty That they may propofe Glory 
to themfelves, and Reputation rather than Ri- 

A Sublimityy and ^ach ofTlooughty To conceive 
readily, to produce beautiful! Ideas, and to 
work on their Subjects nobly and after a lofty 
manner, wherein we may obferve fomewhat that 
is delicate, ingenious and uncommon. 

Awarm and Vigorous Fancy y To arrive at leaft to 
fome degree of Perfedion, without being tir'd 
with the Pains and Study which arc required ia 

Healthy Torefift the diflipation of Spirits,which 
are apt to be confum'd by Pains-taking. 

louthy Becaufe Painting requires a great Expe- 
rience and a long Practice. 

(Beauty or Handfomenefy Becaufe a Painter paints 
himfelf in all his Pidures, and Nature loves to 
produce her own Likenefs. 

A convenient Fortune y That he may give his 
whole time to ftudy, and may worJc chearfully, 

D d 2 without 

20f Obfervations on the 

without being haunted with the dreadful! Image 
of Poverty, ever prefent to his Mind. 

Labour^ Becaufe the Speculation is nothing 
without the Pradlice. 

A LoVe for his Jrty We fuffer nothing in the 
Labour which is pleafing to us : or if it hap- 
pen that we fuffer, we are pleas'd with the Pain. 

Aid to he under the Difdpl'me of a knowing Maflery 
&c. Becaufe all depends on the Beginnings, 
and becaufe commonly they take the manner of 
their Mafter, and are form'd according to his 
Gufto: SttVerfe 422, and the ^mark upon it. 
All thefe good qualities are infignificant and un- 
profitable to the Painter, if fome outward difpo- 
fitions are wanting to him. By which I mean 
favourable times, fuch as are times of ^eace^ 
which is theNurfe of all noble Arts ; there muft 
alfo fome fair occafion offer to make their Skill 
manifeft by the performance of fome confidera- 
ble Work within their power : and a Protestor, 
who muft be a Perfon of Authority, one who 
• takes upon himfelf their care of the Fortune, at 

leaft in fome meafure ; and knows how to fpeak 
well of them in time and place convenient. 'Tis 
of much importance, fays the Younger Tliny, in 
what times Vertue appears. And there is w« Wit, how- 
foe^er excellent it may hey which can make it felf im- 

♦ Art of Painting. 205 

mediately known. Time and Opportunity are neceffary 
to it, and a per f on who can ajfijl us with his faVour 
and he a Maecenas to us, 

JndLtfeisfo pmty that it is not [undent for fo long gr 49 (J. 
an Arty 3cc. Not onely Painting but all other 
Arts coniider'd in rhemfelves require almoft an 
infinite time to poflefs them perfe<5tly. 'Tis in 
this Senfe that Hippocrates begins his Aphorifms 
with this faying, That Art is long and Life is fhort. 
But if we confider Arts, as they are in us, and ac- 
cording to a certain degree of Perfection, fuffici- 
enc enough, to make it known that we poflefs 
them above the common fort, and are compara- 
tively better than moft others, we fhall not find 
that Life is too fhort on that account, provided 
our time be well ehiploy'd. 'Tis true, that Pain- 
ting is an Art which is difficult and a great under- 
taking. But they who are endu'd with the quali- 
ties that are neceflary to it, have no reafon to be 
difcourag'd by that apprehenfion. Labour always Veget. de re 
appears difficult before 'tis tryd. The paflages by ^'^'''^''°' "' 
Sea, and the Knowledge of the Stars, have been 
thought impoflible, which notwithftanding have 
been found and compafsM, and that with eafe by 
thole who endeavour'd after them. 'T« afhamefull Lib. 1. defti* 
thing, fays Cicero , to be weary of Enquiry, when 
what we fearch is excellent. That which, caufes 


.2D& Olfervations on the 

us to lofe moft of our time^ is the repugnance 
which we naturally have to Labour, and the Igno- 
rance, the Malice, and the Negligence of our 
Mafters : we wafte much of our time in walking 
and talking to no manner of purpofe, in making 
and receiving idle Viiits, in Play and other Plea- 
fures which we indulge, without- reckoning thofe 
hours which we lofe in the too great care of our 
JBodiesj and in Sleep, which we often lengthen out 
till the day is far advanced : and thus we pais 
that Life which we reckon to be fhorr, becaufe 
^e count by the years which we have liv'd, ra- 
ther than by thofe which we have employed in flu- 
dy. *Tis evident that they who liv'd before us, 
have pafs'd through all thofe difficulties to arrive 
at that Perfection which we difcover in their Works, 
though they wanted fome of the ' Advantages 
which we poflefs, and that none had laboured for 
them as they have done for us. For 'tis certain 
that thofe Ancient Mafters, and thofe of the laft 
preceding Ages, have left fuch beautifull Patterns 
to us, that a better and more happy Age can ne- 
ver be than ours j and chiefly under the Reign of 
our prefent King, who encourages all the noble 
Arts, and fpares nothing to give them the {hare 
of that Felicity of which he is fo bountifuU to his 
Kingdom : and to condud them with all man- 

Art of fainting: 207 

ner of advantages to that fupreme Degree of Ex- 
cellence, which may be worthy of fuch a Mafter, 
and of that Sovereign Love which he has for them. 
Let us therefore put our hands to the work, with- 
out being difcourag^d by the length of time, which 
h rcquifite for our Studies 5 but let us ferioufly 
contrive how to proceed with the beft Order, and 
to follow a ready, diligent, and well undcrftood^ 

Take Courage therefore^ ye noble Youths I you fir roo: 
kgitimate Ojfspr'ing of Minerva, who are born under 
the influence of a ha fpy planet, Sec, Our Author 
intends not here to few in a barren, uneratcfuU 
Ground, where his Precepts can bear no Fruit : 
He fpeaks to young Painters, but to fuch onely 
who are born under the Influence of a happy 
Star; that is to fay, thofe who have receiv'd from 
Nature the necelTary difpofitions of becoming 
great in the Arc of Painting : and not to thofe 
who follow that Study through Caprice or by a 
fottifli Inclination, or for Lucre, who are either 
incapable of receiving the Precepts, or will make, 
a bad ufe of them when receiv^'d. 

You will do weliy Sec, Our Author fpeaks not q ^q.^.. 
here of the firft: Rudiments of Defign; as for ex- 
ample, The management of the Pencil, the juft 
relation which the Copy ought to have to the O- 

riginal, , 

2o8 Olfervatims on the 

riginal, O-r. He ibppofes, that before he begins 
his Studies, one ought to have a Facility of Hand 
to imitate the beft Defigns, the nobleft Pid:ures 
and Statues, that in few words he fhould have 
made himfelf a Key, wherewith to open the Clo- 
fet of Mineryuy and to enter into that Sacred 
Place, where thofe fair Treafures are to be found 
in all abundance, and even offer themfelves to 
us, to make our advantage of them by our Care 
and Genius. 

% 509. you are to begin with Geometry, Sec. Becaufe 
that is the Ground o( TerfpeBiyey without which 
nothing is to be done in Painting : befides, Geome- 
try is of great ufe in ArchiteElnre, and in all things 
' which are of its dependence 5 'tis particularly ne- 
ceflary for Sculptors. 

^510. Set your Jelf on dejtgning after the Ancient Greeksy 
dec. Becaufe they are the Rule of Beauty, and 
give us a good Gufto: For which reafon 'tis ve- 
ry proper to tie our felves to them, I mean ge- 
nerally fpeaking j but the particular Fruit which 
we gather from them, is what follows. To 
learn by heart four feveral Ayres of Heads : of a 
Man, a Woman, a Child , and an Old Man. 
I mean thofe which have the moft general Ap- 
probation; for example thofe of the Jpolloy of 
the Fenus de Medicesj of the little Neroj (that is, 


Art of Fainting. 209 

when he was a Child,) and of the God Tther. It 
would be a good means of learning them, if when 
you have defign'd one after the Statue it felf, you 
dcfign it immediately after from your own Ima- 
gination, without feeing it ; and afterwards ex- 
amine, if your own work be conformable to the 
firft Defign. Thus exercifing your felf on the 
fame Head, and turning it on ten or twelve fides 5 
you muft do the fame to the Feet, to the Hands, 
to the whole Figure. But to underftand the 
Beauty of thefe Figures, and the juftnefs of their 
Outlines, it will be neceffary to learn Anatomy : 
when I (peak of four Heads and four Figures, I 
pretend not to hinder any one from defigning 
many others after this firft Study, but my mean- 
ing is onely to fliow by this, that a great Varie- 
ty of things undertaken at the fame time, diflipates 
the Imagination, and hinders all the Profit 3 in 
the fame manner as too many forts of Meat are 
not eafily digefted, but corrupt in the Stomach 
inftead of nourifliing the parts. 

Jnd ceafe not Day or Night from Labour^ till hy % 5 1 1 . 
your continual TraBicej See. In the firft Princi- \ 

pies, the Students have not fo much need of Pre- 
cepts as of Pra(5tice : And the Antique Statues be- 
ing the rule of Beauty, you may exercife your 
felves m imitating them without apprehending 

E e any 

210 Ohfervations m the 

any confequence of ill Habits and bad Ideas,, 
which can be form*d in the Soul of a young Be- 
ginner. 'Tis not, as in the School of a Mafter, 
whofe Manner and whofe Guft are ill, and under 
whofe Difcipline. the Scholar fpoils himfclf the 
more he exercifes. 
HT J 1 4. And when afterwards your Judgment fhaU groi^ 
flronger^ Sec, 'Tis neceffary to have the Soul 
well form'd,and to have a right Judgment to make 
the Application of his rules upon good Pictures, 
and to take nothing but the good. For there are 
fome who imagine, that whatfoever they find in 
the Pidiure of a Mafter, who has acquired Repu- 
tation, muft of neceflity be excellent 3 and thefe 
kind of people never fail when they copy to fol- 
low the bad as well as the good things 3 and to 
obferve them fo much the more, becaufe they 
feem to be extraordinary and out of the com- 
mon road of others, fo that at laft they come to 
make a Law and Precept of them. You ought 
not alfo to imitate what is truly good in a crude 
and grofs Manner, fo that it may be found out 
in your works, that whatfoever Beauties there are 
in them, come from fuch or fuch a Mafter. But 
in this imitate the Bees, who pick from every 
Flower that which they find moft proper in it 
to make Honey. In the fame manner a young 


Art of Fainting. 211 

I'ainter Qiould colled from many Pidures wliat 
he finds to be the moft beaucifull, and from his 
feveral CoUedions form that Manner which 
thereby he makes his own. 

A certain Grace which wm wholly natural andpecu- ^^ j 2 o. 
liar to him J See. (^aphaelin this may be compared 
to JpeSesy who in praifing the Works of other 
Painters, faid That Graceftdnefs was wanting to them : 
and that without Vanity he might fay^ it woi his own 
peculiar portion* See the ^mark on the 1 1 8r/;, 

Julio Romano, (educated from his Childhood in l|f 522. 
the Country of the Mufesy) Sec, He means in the 
Studies of the belle lettere^ and above all in (Poe- 
fyy which he infinitely lov'd. It appears, that 
he formed his Ideas and made his Guft from read- 
ing Homer 5 and in that imitated Zeuxis and Po- 
lignotusy who, as Tyrius Maximum relates, treated 
their Subjeds in their Pidures, as Homer did in 
his Poetry. 

To thefe Remarks I have annexed the Opini- 
ons of our Author upon the beft and chiefeft 
Painters of the two foregoing Ages, He tells 
you candidly and briefly what were their Excel- 
lencies, and what their Failings. 

Ipafs in Silence many things which will be more am- ^ c^i , 
fly treated in the cnfuing Commentary, 'Tis evi- 

E c 2 dent 

212 Ohfervations on the^ &c. 

dent by this, how much we lofe, and what da- 
mage we have fuftain d by our Authors death, 
iince thofe Commentaries had undoubtedly con- 
tained things of high Value and of great inftru- 
if J 44. To intrujl with the MufeSy &c. That is to 
fay, to write inVerfe, J^oetry being under their 
Proteftion, and confecratcd to them. 


> • ( 213 ) 

J U 15 G M E N T 


Charles Alphonfe du Frefnoy, 

On the Works of the Principal and Bcft 
PAINTERS of the two laflAges. 

PAINTING was in its TerfeBion amon^ 
the Greeks. The principal Schools were at Sy- 
cion, afterwards at Rhodes^ at Athens^ 
and at Corinth, and at lajl in Rome. Wars and. 
Luxury haVing overthrown the Roman Empire, it 
was totally extin^Hip?d, together with all the nobk 
Arts J the Studies of Humanity y and the other Sciences^ 
It hegan to appear again in the Year 14JO a* 
7nongjl fome Painters of Florence, of which DO- 
MENICO GHIRLANDAIO was one^ who was 
Mafier to Michael Angelo, and had fome kind, of 
^putationj thmgh his manner was Gochi<|ue and Ve- 
ry dry, 


214 "^^ Judgment df 

MICHAEL ANGELO his Scholar, flouripd 
hi the times 0/ Julius thefecond, Leo the tenth, Paul 
the third, and of eight fuccejJiVe Topes, He was a 
Painter, a Sculptor, mid an Archited, hoth CiVil 
and Military* Tl)e Choice which he made of his To- 
Jlures was not always heautifull or fleafing : His Gujl 
of Defigning was not the finefl, nor his Out-lines th 
mofl elegant : Tl?e Folds of his Draperies, and the 
Ornaments of his Habits, were neither noble nor grace- 
Jull, He was not a little fantajlkal and extravagant 
in his Compofitions ; he was bold eVen to ^p?nefs, in 
taking Liberties againfi the ^les ofTerfpeB'fVe, His 
Colouring is not oyer true or yery pleafaiit. He 
knew not the Artifice of the Lights and Shadows : Sut 
he defigyid more learnedly, and better underfiood all the 
J^nittiiigs of the !Bones, with the Office and Situation 
of the Mufcles,9thaH any of the modern Tainters. There 
appears a certain Air ofGreatnefs and Severity in his 
Figures, in both which he has oftentimes fucceeded: 
Sut above the reft of his Excellencies, was his won- 
JerfuU skill in ArchiteElure, wherein \he has not onely 
furpafsd all the Moderns, but eVen the Ancients aljo : 
The St, PeterV of Rome, the St. JohnV of Flo- 
rence, the Capitol , 4he Palazzo Farnefe , and 
his own Houfc, are fujfficient Teflimonies of it. His 
-Scholars were Marcel lo Vcnufto, Andrea de Vater- 
^a, II Roflb, Georgio Vaferi, Fra. Baftiano, (^hQ 



Charles Alphonfe dw Ynjnoy, &c: 215 

commonly painted for hbri) and many other V\otcmi^tts» 
PIETRO PERUGINO deftgn d ip'tth fuffident 
knowledge of Nature^ hut he is dry and his manner 
little. His Scholar was 

RAPHAEL SANTIO, who was horn on Good 
Friday, in the Tear 1483, and died on Good Friday^ 
in the Tear 1520: So that he liVd onely j 7 years 
compleat. He furpafs' d all modern Painters, hecaufe 
he poffejs'd more of the excellent parts of Tainting, 
than any other -^ and 'tis helieVd, that he equalled the 
Ancients^ excepting onely that he defignd not naked 
'Bodies with fo much Learning, as Michael Angelo : 
^ut his Guft of Dejigning is purer and much better. 
He pamted not withfo good, fo full, and fo gracefult 
4 manner as Correggio ; nor has he any thing of tht 
Contrafi of the Lights and Shadows, or fo flrong and 
free a Colouring, as Titian j hut he had a better dif- 
pojition in his Pieces without compart fon, than either 
Titian, Correggio, Michael Angelo, or all the 
reft of the fucceeding Painters to our days. His 
Choice of Tojlures^ of Heads ^ of Ornaments, theSui- 
tahlenefs of his Drapery, his manner of Dejigning^ 
his Varieties, his Contrajls, his Exprejpons, were heau- 
tifull in TerfeEiion ; hut ahdVe all, he poffefs'd the 
Graces in fo advantageous a manner, that he has ne- 
ver Jince been equalfd by any other. There are 
frotraits {or Jingle Figures of his) which are fi- 


ii6 The Judgment of 

nip?'d fieces. He was an admirable ArchlteB, He 
was handfomCy well made^ and tall of Stature^ ciVily 
und well-naturdy ne'Ver refufing to teach another what 
he knew himfelf. He had many Scholars^ amongjl 
others^ Julio Romano, Polydore, Gaudens, Gi- 
ovanni d'Udine, and Michael Coxis. His Gra- 
yer was Marc Antonio, whofe Prints are admira- 
ble for the correB?tefs of their Out-lmes. 

JULIO ROMANO was the mofl excellent of 
all Raphael'^ Scholars ; he had Conceptions which were 
more extraordmary^ more profoundy and more eleva- 
ted j than even his Majler htmfelf He was alfo a great 
ArchiteBy his Guji was pure and excpuiftte. He was 
agreatlmitator of the Ancients ygiVmg a clear Tefiimony 
in all his TroduBionSy that he was defirom to reftore to 
^raSiice the fame Forms and Fahricks which were an- 
dent. He had the good Fortune to find great perfons 
who committed to him the care of Edifices, Veftibu- 
les and Portico's, all Tetraftyles, Xiftes, Theatres, 
and fuch other places as are not now in ufe. He was 
wonderfull in his Choice of Tojlures, His manner 
was drier and harder than any of Raphael's School. 
He did not exaEily underfland the Lights and Sha- 
dows or the Colours. He is frecjuently harfi? and 
ungr ace full: The Folds of his Draperies are neither beau- 
tifull nor great y eafie nornaturaly but all extravagant 
and too lih the Habits of fantajlical Comedians. He 


Charles Alphonfe dn Vrefnoy, &c. 217 

WHS "Very knowing in humane Learning, His Scho- 
lars were Pirro Ligorio, {who wdi admirable for An- 
cient 'Buildings y as for Towns y Temples y Tombs y and 
Trophies y and the Situation of Ancient Edifices) 
i£neas Vico, Bonafone, Georgio Mantuano,^??^ 

POLYDORE, Scholar to Raphael, deftgnd 
admirably welly as to the practical party haVmg a par- 
ticular Genius for Free;^Sy as we may fee by thofe of 
white and blacky which he has painted at Rome. He 
imitated the AncientSy but his manner was greater 
than that of Julio Romano : NeVerthelefs Julio 
feems to be the truer. Some admirable Grouppes are 
feen in his Worksy and fuch as are not elfewhere to be 
found. He colour d Very feldomy and made Landt- 
fchapes of a reafonable good Gujlo, 

GIO. BELLINO, one of the firjl who was of 
any confderation at Venice, painted "Very drily accor- 
ding to the jnanner of his time. He was Very knoW" 
ing both in ArchiteBure and Terfpe6iiye. He was 
TCitim s firfi Majlery which may eajily be obferVd in 
thefirft fainting of that noble Scholar y in which we 
may remark that Propriety of Colours which his Ma- 
Jler has obferVd. 

About this time GEORGIONE the Contempora- 
ry of Titian came to excell in portraits or Face-paint^ 
ingy and alfo in great Works. Hefrfl began to make 

F f choice 

21 8 The Judgment of 

choke of Glowing and Jgreeable Colours ; the Terfe- 
Bton and entire Harmony of which were afterwards t@^ 
be found in Titian'^ ^iBures, He drefs'd his Fi- 
gures wonderfully well : And It may he truly faidj that 
hut for him, Titian had ne^er arriVd to that height 
of TerfeBiony which proceeded from the ^"Valfyip a?id. 
Jealoufy of Honour betwixt thofe two, 

TITIAN Wius one of the greatefl Colouriflsy who 
was eyer known ; he defignd with much more Eafe and 
^raHice than Georgionc. There are to he feen Wo- 
men and Children of his handy which are admirable 
hoth for the Deftgn and Colouring : the Guft of them 
is delicatey charming and nohky with a certain pleaftng 
Negligence of the Headdreffesy the Draperies and Or- 
naments of HahitSy which are wholly peculiar to him. 
As for the Figures of Men^ he has defignd them but 
moderately well. There are e'Vm fome of his T>r aperies y 
which are mean and favour of a little guft. His 
fainting is wonderfully glowingy fweet and delicate. 
He made TortraiEiSy which were extremely noble ; the 
^Poflures of them hemg "Very gracefully gr^^ey diVer- 
fifydy and adorn d after a yery becoming fapnon, No> 
man eyer painted Landtfchapey with fo great a man- 
ner y fo good a colouringy and with Juch a refemblance 
ofKature, For eight or ten years /pace, he copydl 
with great labour and exaBneJs whatfoCVer he under- 
took'y thereby to make himfelf an eafy way, and to efla- 

Charles Alphonfe da ^repioy, Scc. .£15 

hlijh fome general maximes for his future conJuSl. » 
(Bejides the excellent gufl which he had of Colours, in 
which he excell'd all Mortal Men, he perfeHly under - 
flood how to give eyery thing the touches which were 
mofl fuitahky and proper to them , fuch as diflin- 
,guifh'd them from each other; and which gdVe the 
greateji Spirit, and the mojl of Truth. The^iBures 
which he made in his heginningj and in the decknfwn of 
his Age, are of a dry, and mean manner* He IV d 
ninety nine years. His Scholars were Paulo Vero- 
nefe, Giacomo Tintoret, Giacomo da Ponte, 
Bafl&no, and his brothers, 

PAULO VERONESE was wonderfully graceful 
in his Airs of Women: with great "Variety of p?ining 
Draperies 5 and incredible yiVacityy and eafe, TSLeyer- 
^hele/s' his Compoftion is fometimes improper -^ and his 
Defign is uncorreSl. !But his colouringy and whatfo- 
eVer defends on ity is Jo "Very charming in his ^iHureSj 
that itjurpri:^es at the firfl fight y and makes us totally 
forget thofe other qualities which are wanting in 

TINTORET was Scholar to Titian, great in 
the praEiical part Qf Defigning ; hut fometimes alfo 
fufficiently extravagant. He had an admirable Ge- 
nius for Tainting^ if he had had as great an affeEiion 
to his Arty arid as tnuch patience in undergoing the 
difficulties ofity as he had fire and Vivacity of Nature: 

F f 2 He 

220 ^ The Judgment of 

' He has made Ti^ures, not inferiour in beauty to thofe 
• 0/ Titian : his Compojttion and his Dreffes^ are for 
the mojl part Improper j and his Outlines are not cor- 
real : 'Bnt his Colourings and the dependencies of ity 
- like that of his Mafler, are mofi admirable. 

Tl^e BASSANS had a 7nore mean and poorer guji 
in fainting than Tintoret ; and their Deftgns were- 
dfo lefScorreB than his. Tl)ey had indeed an excellent 
gujl of Colours ; and haVe touch'^d all kinds of Animals 
.with an admirable manner : !Sut were notorioufly im- 
'^perfeSl in the Compofition and J)ejign. 
' CORREGGIO painted at Parma two large Cupo- 
lo4 in FrefcOy and fome Altar-pieces. This Arttft^ 
found out certain natural and unaffeSied Graces^ for 
his Madonnas', his Saints, and little Children , 
which were particular to him. His Manner is exceed- 
ing great y both for the defign and for the work-, but 
withadl is Very uncorreSi, His pencil was both eajte 
and deligfjtfuUy ani 'tis to be acknowledge that he 
painted with great Strength j great Heightning^ great 
Sweetnefsy andliveline/^ of Colours^ in which none fur^ 
pafs'd him. 

He underfiood how to diftribute lis Lights in fuch 
^ manner as was wholly peculiar to himfelfj which ga\t 
4 great force and great roundnejs to his Figures. This 
manner conftfts in extending a large Light, and then 
making it lofe it felf infenfibty in the dark fhadowingr, 


Charles Alphonfe du Vrefnoy, &C, 221 

which he plac'd out of the Maffes, And thofe giVe 
them this great roundnejs^ without our heing able to 
perceive from whence proceeds fo much of force y ami 
fo Vaji a pleafure to the Sight. 'Tis probable^ that in 
this part the refl of the Lombard School copied him : 
he had no great choice of gracefull Tojlures, nor of 
Sflribution for beautifuU Grouppes : hh Dejign often- 
times appears lame^ and the ^ojitiom are not much ob- 
ferVd in them, 77;e AfpeEis of his Figures are many 
times unpleajtng ; hut his manner of deftgning Heads^ 
Hands y Feety and other parts ^ is yery great ^ and well 
ieferVes our imitation. In the conduEl and finip?ing 
of a ^iSlurey he has done wonders ; for he pamted with 
fo much Uniony that his greatefi Works feem'd to haVe 
been finip)d in the compafs of one day j and appear y 
as if we J aw them from a Looking-glafs, His Landt-^ • 
fchape is equally beautiful! with his Figures. 

At the fame time with Correggio, livd and flou- 
rifUd PARMEGIANO j who heftdes his great man- 
ner of well Colourings excelled alfo both in Invention 
andDefigny with d Genius full of gentlenefs and of 
fpirity having nothing that was ungracefull in his 
choice of ^oflures and in the dreffes of his Figures^ 
which we cannot fay of Correggio : there are pieces 
of his to befeen, which are both beautifuU and cor- 


^12 The Judgment oF 

Tl?efe two Tainters lajl mention d^ had "Very good Scho- 
lars) kit they are known onely to thofe of their own Pro- 
vince y and be fide 5 there is little to be credited of what 
his Country-men fay^ for Tainting is wholly extin- 
guip/d amongfl them, 

I fay nothing of LEONARDO da VINCI, 
hecaufe I haVe feen hut little of his, though he re- 
fiord the Arts at Milan, and had many Scholars 

tiibal and Auguftine, fludied at Parma after Cor- 
reggio 5 and excelled in Deftgn and Colouring, with 
fuch a Gracefulnefs, and fo much Candour, that Gui- 
de the Scholar of Hannibal, did afterwards imitate 
him with great fuccefs. There are fome of his HV- 
ilures to he feen^ iphich are Very beautifully and well 
underflood. He made his ordinary refidence at Bo- 
logna, and it was He, who put the Tencil into the 
hands of Hannibal his Nephew. 

HANNIBAL in a little time excell'dhis Mafler^ 
In all parts of Tainting: He imitated Correggio, 
Titian, and Kiil^h2Lc]j in their different manners as 
he pleas d, exceptmg onely that you fee not in his (P/- 
flures, the ISloblenefs, the Graces^ and the Charms of 
Raphael, and that his Out-lmes are neither fo pure, 
fior fo elegant as his. In all other things, he is won* 
Jerfully accomplifl? dy and of mVLniwcxi^^l Genius. 


Charles Alphonfe dii Vrefnoy, &c: 223' 

AUGUSTINO, ©ro^kr fo Hannibal, wasalfo 
d yery good Tainter, and an admirable Grayer, He 
had a ISLatural Son^^ call'd ANTONIO, who dyed 
at the age of ^'^y and who accoi ding to the general 
opinion J woud haVe furpaji'd his Uncle Hannibal : 
for by what he left behind hinty it appears that he was 
of a more lofty Genius, 

GUIDO chiefly imtated Ludovico Carracci, yet 
retain d always fomewhat of the manner which his Ma- ' 

fter Lawrence the Flemming taught him. This 
Lawrence liVd at Bologna, and was Competitor ajid 
^Val to Ludovico Carracci : Guido made the fame 
ufe of Albert Durer, as Virgil did of old Ennius ; 
borrowed what pleas' d him, and made it afterwards his 
&wn : that is^ he accommodated what was good in Al- 
bert to his own ynanner : which he executed with fa 
much gracefulnefs and beauty, tljat He alone got 77tore' 
Money, andtnore^putationinhistimey than Ins own 
Majiersy and all the Scholars of the Carraches, though 
they were of greater capacity than himf elf His Heads 
yield no manner of precedence to thofe of K^i^hsid. 

SISTO BAIX)LOGCHI defignd the befl of all 
Ins Scholars : but he dy d youngs 

EX)MENICHlNO was a Very knowing Taintery 
md Very laborious y but othermife of no great Natural ' 
Endowments: 'tis true, he was profoundly skill' d in all 
the parts of ^aintingy but wanting Genius^ 04 Ifaidy 


Z24- The Judgment of 

he had lefs of jwbknefs in his Works than all the rejl 
whojludied in the School of the Carrachcs. 

A LB AN O was excellent in all that belong d to 
Taifitingy and adorn d with Variety of Learning, 

JOHN LANFRANC, a Man of a great and 
fprightly wity fupported his ^putation for a long time 
with an extraordinary guji of Dejign and Colouring. 
!But his foundation being onely on the praflical part, he 
at length loji ground in point of correBnefs : fo that 
many of his Tieces appear extravagant and fantajlical. 
And after his Deceafe, the School of the Carraches 
went dayly to decay in all the parts of fainting. 

GIO. VIOLA Wits Very old before he learnd 
LandtfchapCy the knowledge of which was imparted to 
him hy Hannibal Carracche, who took pleajure to 
infiruH him, fo that he painted many of that hind 
which are wonderfully fine and well colour d, 

Jfwe cafl our eyes towards Germany and the Low- 
Countries, we may there behold ALBERT DU- 
ALDEGRAVE, and ISBIN, who were all Con- 
temporaries. Amongfl thefe, Albert Durer and Hol- 
bein, were both $f them wonderfully knowing and had 
certainly been of the firfl form of Painters, had they 
traVelfd into Italy : For nothing can be laid to their 
charge, but onely that they had a Gothique G«/?. As 
for Holbein, he perform d yet better than Raphael ; 


Charles Alphonfe du Vrefnoy, &c 125 

and I hav^ feen a Portrait of his ^alntingy with 
which one of Tician'j could not come in Competition. 

Amongjl the Flemmings, we had RUBENS, wh9 
deriVd from his !Birth, a lively y free, noble and uni- 
Verfal Genius. A Genius which was capable not one- 
ly of raijtng him to the rank, of the Ancient Painters, 
but alfo to the hi^hefi employment in the Service of his 
Country : fo that he wm chofen for one of the moji 
important Embaflics of our Age. His Guflo ofDe- 
figning favours fomewhat more of the Flemniing than 
of the Beauty of the Antique y becaufe he flay d not long 
at Rome. And though we cannot but ehferVe in all 
his TaintitigSy fomewhat of great and noble -^ yet it 
mufl be confefs^dy that generally fpeakingy he defignd 
not correBly : But for all the other parts ofJ^ainting, 
he was as abfolute a Mafler ofthem^ and poffefsd them 
all as throughly as any of his ^redeceffors in that noble 
Art. His principal Studies were made in Lombardy, 
after the Works of Titian, Paul Veronefe and Tin- 
toret ; whofe Cream he has fhimnid (if you will allow 
the ^brafe) and extraSled from their feVeral Sean- 
ties many general Maxims and infallible ^lesy which 
ie always follow dy and by which he has acquirdinhis 
Works y a greater Facility than that ofTiiizn 5 more 
of Purity y Truth and Sclencey than Paul Veronefe ; 
and more of Majefiyy ^pofe and Moderationy than 
Tintorct. To concludcy His manner is fo folidy Jo 

Gg hiOiPirigy 

226 The Judgment of, &c. 

htow'mgy and Jo ready^ that it may feem, this rare 
accomplijh'd Genius was fent from HeaVen to injlru^ 
Mankind in the Art of Tainting. 

His School was full of admirable Scholars, amongfl 
whom VAN DYCK was he, who hejl comprehend- 
ed all the ^des and general Maxims of his Mafkr-^ 
and who has eVen excelled him in the delicacy of his 
Colouring and in his Cabinet Pieces 5 but his Gujl in 
the defining Tarty was nothing better than that of Ru- 



Short Account 

of che moft Eminent 



^ttrtent and i^DDetn, 

Continu'd down to the 


According to the 

Order of their Succejfwn, 


Printed for W. Rogers at the Sm agalnft St. 
Vunftans Church in Fleetfireet. J <^p ;• 

( 225 )- 


TH E Title baVhig onely promised a fliort 
Account of the mod Eminent Mafters, 
<src, tl?e Reader ?nuft exfeEl to find yery 
little more in the fmaU Compa/I of thefe few Sheets, than 
the Time when, the J^lace where, by whofe Injirtic- 
tions, and in what particular Subje(5t: each of thofe 
great Men became Famous. 

In the firft parr, which comprehends the prime - 
Mafters of Antiquity, I ha^e followed Pliny : yet 
not blindly^ or upon his Authority tdone^ but chiefly 
in thofe places^ where I haVe found his Evidence co?i- 
fir7nd by the concurrent Tcikimony of other Writers, 
The Catalogue of Fran. Junius I haye diligently^per- 
us'dy and examind mofl of the Records cited in it. 
1 haVe alfo read oyer the Lives of the Four Principal 
Painters <?/ Greece, mitten in Italian, by Carlo Dati ^ 
0/ Florence, together with his learned Annotztior\9. • 
upon them : and in a word^ haye left nothing unregard- 
edj that coud giye me any maimer ©yAfliftance in this^.' 
prefem Undertaking. 

In the Chronological part, becaufe I forefaw that 1 
the Olympiads, and the Years of Rome, would beof . 

little ■: 

230 P K EFA C E. 

little tifi* to the generality of Readers, I haVe adjufled 
: them to the two Vulgar /Eras (v/;^.) the Creation of 
thc'World, andthe]^\n\\ of Chrill. T/;e Greek Ta- 
lents I have likewife reduc d into Englifli Money : i^a 
to juflifiemy Account, 7nujl ob/erVej that here (as in 
nwji Author Sy where aT^ilcnt is put ab/olutelj/j and 
without any other Circu?nJiance)theT zlcntum Atticum 
Minus is to he Ainderjlood \ which according to the near^ 
efl Computation comes to about i 87 1. 10 s, of out Mo- 
ney, the Msijus being about 61 1. los. more. 

In the latter part, which contcuns the Mafters of great- 
ejl Note amongft the Moderns, I ha'Ve been equally di- 
ligent^ not onely fearching into -all the ??ioJi conjiderable 
Writers, who haye left us any Memorandums relating 
to them ; but alfo in procuring from Rome, and other pla- 
ces yih bejl Advice thatpojfibly I could get, conceryiing 
thofe Painters who are but lately deceasd, and whofe 
hiy^ ha'Ve never yet appear d iw Print. 7« Italy Ihal^e 
taJ^en fuch Guides, as I had reafon to believe, were befl 
acquainted in that Country : andin France, Germany, 
Flanders, and Holland, We been govern d by the Au- 
thors who haVe been mofl conVerfant in thofe J^arts, For 
the Roman, Florentine, and fome other particular 
Mafters, IhaVe apply d my f elf to the Vite de' Pittori, 
&c. 0/ Giorgio Vafari, and that excellent Trcmk of 
Gio: Pietro Bellori on the fame SubjeSl, For the Lom- 
bard School, I haVe confuted the Maraviglie deir 


PREFACE. 23^1 

Arte 0/ Cavalier Ridolfi. For the Bolognefe Pain- 
ters, the Felfina Pittrice of Conte Carlo Cefare Mai- 
vafia. For thofe of Genoua, r/;e Vice dc Pittori, ((^c. 
of Rafaelle Soprani nobile Genouefe. For the French 
Mafters, the Entretiens fur les Vies, <C^c. o/^Felibien* 
For the German, Flemidi, and Dutch Painters, (of 
whom I have admitted but very few into this Col[e<5ti- 
on) the Academia nobiliffimx Artis Pidorix, of 
Sandrart, andthe Schilder-Boeck o/Carel van Man- 
dcr. For f/w/^o^our own Country, lam ajham'd 
to acknowledge how difficult a matter 1 haVe found ity to but the leafl Information touching fome of thofe In- ^ 
genious Men, whofe Works haVe been a Credit and 
Reputation to it, Tl?at all our Neighbours haVe a 
greater "Value for t/;e Profe(fors of this noble Art, k 
ftifficienlly eVident^ in that there ha^ hardly been any one 
Mafter of tolerable Parts amongji the?ny but a Crowd 
of Writers, nay fome Pens of Quality too^ ha'Ve been 
imploydin adorning his Li{c>^and in tranfmitting bif ■ 
Name^ honourably to Pofterity. 

For the Charaflers of the Italians of the firfl: Formr, 
IhaVe all along referrdthe Reader to the Judgment 
0/ Monfteur da FRESNOY /;/ rk preceding Pages. 
^Ht for the rejiy I ha'Ve from the Books ahoVe-mentik- 
arid, and the Opinions of the Learned, briefly Jl?cwn, 
wherein their different Talents and Per.fe<5lions co}i/i^. 
flxd: chufifig always (in the little ^m to which 1 ha'Ve 


232 P R ETA C E 

been confind) to Jet the bejl ftde forwards, effcddUy 
tvhere thcrr few Faults haVe been over-balanc'd by 
their many Virciies. 

' (By the Figures in the Margin it will eajily appear, 
horn careful Iha'Ve every where been^ to preJerVe the Or- 
der of Time, which indeed was the thing principally 
intended in the/e Papers. Some few Mafters /;o». 
ever viufl be excepted j whom yet I haVe placed next 
to their Contemporaries, tho I could not fix them in 
any particular Year. In all of them I haVe been Very 
exah in fetting down their refpeBiVe T^Sitncs, jufi as 
they themfelves us'd to doy when they did not write 
them in Latine. 

Ifitfhould be Objected, thatfeVeral of the Mafters 
herein after-mention d, haVe already appear d amongfl 
us, in an Englidi Drefs : / can onely anfwer, That ds 
f/;e Method here made ufe of, is more regular, and quite 
difFcrentyrow any thpig that has been hitherto publifh'd 
in this kind'j /o, whofoeVer fhail think it worth his while 
to compare the/e little Sketches with the Originals 
from which IhaVe copy'd tfcem, will find, that I haVe 
takengreater Care in drawing them true, and that my 
Out-lincs are generally more correft, whatever De- 
feds may be in the Colouring part. 


(23! ) 

<SLntimt Rafters. 


BY whom, and in what particular Age the Art 
of fainting was firft invented in Greece^ 
Ancient Authors are not agreed. Ar'tflotle afcribes 
the honour of it to EUCHI^^ a Kinfman of the ^^^^ ^^^^ 
famous D^dalusy who flounfli'd Anno i 2 i 8 be- 2720. 
fore the Birth of Chriji-, Theophra/lus pleads for 
^OLYGNOTUS the Athenian , Athenagoras for 
SAU^SJAS of Samos j fome contend for fHILO- 
CLES the Egyptian J and others again for CLEAN- 
THES of Corinth But howfoever the Learned 
may differ in their Opinions touching the InVentery 
yet as to the Art it felf, all of them are unanimous, 
that its firft appearance amongft the Greeks^ was 
in no better a drefs than the bare Shadow of a 
Man , or fome other !Body , circumfcrib'd with 
a fingle line onely, call'd by them Sdagraphia, 
and by the Latines^ ^iBura Linearis, 

The firft ftep made towards the advancement 
of Tainting^ was by ADVICES the Corinthian , 
mdTELETHANES oiSicyony ox C(!(ATO of iht 

H h fame 

2 J4- Ancient Makers. 

fame City ; who began to add other lines, by 
way of fliadowing their Figures, to make them 
appear round, and with greater ftrength. But 
fo inconfiderable were the advantages, which the 
Authors of this Manner (caird Qraphke) gained 
by their hVentiDTiy that they ftill found it necef- 
fery, to write under each piece, the name of eve- 
ry individual thing which they endeavoured to 
- r^prefent, leafl otherwife the Spectators fliou'd ne- 
ver be able to discover what they intended 
by ir.. 

The next Improvement, was by CLEO^HJN- 
TllS of Cormthy who firft attempted to fill up his 
Outlines with a fingle Colour : from whence his 
Pieces, and thofe of HYOIEMON, DiNZ^S, and 
CHA^fJS his followers, got the name of Mo* 
nochromata^ (>^^-) Pi<^ures of one colour. 

EUMA^S^S the Athenian^ began to paint Men 
and Women in a manner different from each 
other, and ventured to imitate all forts of Ob- 
jects : but was for excelled by his Difciple. . 

CIMON the Ckonnumy who found out the Art 
of Painting Hifiorieatly, dcfign^d his Figures in 
"variety of Poftures^ diftinguifh'd the fcveral parts 


Ancient Mafiers. 235 

of the Body by their Joints, and was the firft who 
took notice of the folds of Draperies, in his Pieces. 

In what Century the Majlers abovemention'd 
liv^'d, Jfitiquity has given us no Account : yet cer- 
tain it is, that about the time of the Foundation Jn, Mun. 
of '3^0 w^, Anno y^o ante C/;r. the Grecians \i2ii car- 3 198. 
ry'd fainting to fuch a height of Reputation, that ^-^^""v^^^ 
Candauks King of Lydiay firnam'd Myrjtlus, the 
laft of the Heraclid^j and who was kill'd by Gyges 
Anno quarto Olymp, \ 6. for a Pidiure made by 
BULA^CHHS, reprefenting a Battel of the Mag- 
nejians, gave its weight in Gold. 

TAN/ENUS of Athens, liv'd O/jw^f 8 j. Anno 
446 ante Chr. and is celebrated for having pain- 2^02 
ted the Battel at Marathon^ between the Athenians c^-v'v^ 
and Terjtansy fo very exa<5lly, that Mdtiades, and 
all the General Officers on both fides, were eafily 
to be known, and diftinguifli'd from each other in 
that Piece. 

THWIAS his Brother, the Son of Charmidasy 
flourifli'd 0/y?«/?. 84. Anno 442 ante Chr, and was ^ro(5. 
famous both for Tai?iting and Sculpture : but par- 
ticularly in the latter fo profoundly skill'd, that 
his Statue of Jupiter Olympius w^as by the Ancients 

H h 2 efteem'd 

2 '^6 Ancien t Majlers. 

efteemM one of the Seven wonders of the World, 
as his MtnerVdy in the Citadel of Athens, made of 
Ivory and Gold, was (by way of Enciinence) cali'd 
the !Beautiful Form, He was very intimate with 
derides, the Athenian General ; and fo much en- 
vy*d upon that account, and for the Glory which 
he acquired by his Works, that his Enemies cou'd 
never be at reft till they had plotted him into a 
Prifon, and had there (as fome fay) taken away 
his Life by Poifon. 

^OLKLETUSy a Native of Sicyon, and the 
An. Mun. moft renowned Sculptor in his time, liv'd Olymp, 
3518. 87. y^«wo4jo ante Chr. and befide the Honour 
which he gain d, by having brought the Sajf 
3^e//eVo to perfc(5tion, is commended for divers 
admirable pieces of work 3 but chiefly, for being 
the Author of that moft accomplifh'd Model , 
call'd the Canon : which comprehending in it felf 
alone all the feveral perfections, both of Feature, 
and Proportion, in Humane Bodies, by the joint 
confent of the moft eminent Artifts, as well 
Tainters as Sculptors, then in being, was unani- 
moufly agreed upon to be handed down to Po- 
fterity, as the Standard, or infallible ^ule of true 


Ancient Maflers. 23,7 

In this Olyfnpiad alfo were MY^N, and SCO- 
^JS) both excellent in Sculpture ; and in fome 
refpedts equal even to ^oljckm himfelf. 

^OLYGNOTUS the Thajtariy was the Difciple 
of his Father Aglaophon^ and particularly famous 
for reprefenting Women ; whom he painted in. 
lightfom and fliining Draperies, adorning their 
heads with dreffes of fundry colours, and giving 
a greater freedom to his Figures, thaa had been 
us'd by any of his Predeceflbrs. His principal 
Works, were thofe which he made gratis in the 
Temple at Delphi, and the ^rWPortico at Athens j 
caird the Various 3 in honour of which it was fo- 
lemnly decreed, in a gc/!£r^/ Council of the ^/«- 
phictyonSyXhdX where-cver hefhould travel in GreecCy 
his charges fliould be born by the PublicL He 
died fometime before the 9*0 Olymp. which was ^^' ^^^^ 
Anno 418 ante Chr. . IHZ' 

JfOLLODO^I^S the Athenian, liv'^d Olymp, 94. 
Anno 402 ante Cbr. and was the firft who inven- 
ted the Art of mingling his Colours, and of ex- 
prcffing the Lights and Shadows. He was ad- 
mir'd alfo for his judicious choice of Nature, and 
in the beauty and ftrength of his Figures furpafled 
all the Matters who went before him. He ex- 


^^'S Ancient Majiers. 

cell'd likewife in Sculpture, but was furnam'd the 
Madmaiiy from a ftrange humour which he had, 
of deftroying even his very beft Pieces, if after he 
had finifh'd them, he cou'd dilcover any faulty tho 
never fo inconfiderable. 

jin. Man, 2^EUXIS of HeradeUy flourijfh'd Anno quarto 
2552. Olymp, 9 5 . /htm 395; ante Chr, and was fam'd for 
being the moft excellent Colourift of all the Ancients *j 
though CicerOy Tli?iyy and other Authors tell us, 
there were but four Colours then in ufe (V/^.) 
whitey yellow, red and black He was cenfur d by 
ibme, for making his Heads too big 3 and by 
Jrijiotky for not being able to exprefs the Man- 
ners, and Paffions. He was very famous not- 
wathftanding for the Helena which he painted for 
the People of Crotona-^ in the Compofition of 
which he colleded from five naked Virgins (the 
moft beautiful that Town cou*d produce ^ 
whatever he obferv^d Nature had fornvd moft 
perfe<5t in each, and united all thofe admirable 
parts in that fingle Figure. He was extoU'd like- 
wife for feveral other Pieces 3 but being very rich, 
cou'd never be prevailed upon to fell any of 
them, becaufe he thought them to be above any 
price; and therefore chofe rather to give them 
away freely to frmcesy and Cities. He died (as 


Ancient Mafiers. 239 

'tis generally faid) of a fie of Laughter, at the 
fight of a Comical old Woman's Figure, which 
he had drawn. 

<?A^HAS1US aNati^^e of Ephefus, and Ci^- 
rizen of Athens^ was the Son and Difciple ofEvenoKy . 
and the Contemporary of Zeuxisy whom he over- 
came in the noted Conteft between them, by de- 
ceiving him with a Curtain, which he had painted 
fo excellently well, that his Antagonift miftook it 
for the Nature ic felf. He was the firft who ob- 
ferv'd the Rules of Symmetry in his works 5 and 
was much admired for the livelinefs of his expref- 
fion, and for the gayety and graceful Airs of his • 
Heads : but above all, for the foftnefs and elegance 
of his Out'lmesy and for rounding off his Figures, 
fo as to make them appear with the greater flrength - 
and relievo. He was wonderfully fruitful of In- 
vention, had a particular talent in fmall pieces, 
especially in wanton Subjeds , and finifli'd all 
his works to the lafl: degree of perfedion. But 
wichall was fo^ extravagantly vain and arrogant, 
that be commonly writ himfelf TuKrhajtus the 
(Beau, the Sir Courtly i'\:^^Ufl^y) wentcloath'd 
in purple, with a Crown of Gold upon bis 
H'ead, pretended to derive his Pedigree from A' 
folloy and flyl'd himfelf the Trince of his- frofeffion. . 


24-0 Ancient Mafiers. 

Yet, to his great afflidion, was humbl'd at laft by 

TIMAKTHES of S'lcyon (ox as fome fay, of 
Cythms) who in a Difpute betwixt them, was by 
the majority of Votes declared the httttx fainter: 
And befides was as eminent for the Angular raode- 
fty and fweetnefs of his Difpofition, as for the 
agreeable variety of his Invention, and peculiar 
happinefs in moving the Paffions. His moft ce- 
lebrated works were the fleep'mg Tolyphemusy and 
the Sacrifice of Iphigenia 5 in both which (as in all 
his other Performances) his diftinguiChing Cha- 
raBer appear'd, in making more to be under- 
ftood, than was really exprcfs'd in his Pieces. 

In this time alfo flouriflh'd ElifOMTUS of 
SicyoHj an excellent Artift, and whofc Authority 
was fo very confiderable, that out of the two 
Schools of Tainting^ the Jjtatick and the Greeky he 
made a third, by dividing the laft into the Jttick 
and the Sicyonian. His beft Difciple was 

^JM^HILUS a Native of Macedonia^ who to 
the Art of Tainting joynd the Study of the Liberal 
JrtSy efpecially the Mathematicks : and us'd to fay, 
that without the help oi Geometry^ no fainter could 
ever arrive at perfe<ftion. He was the firft who 


Ancient Mafters. 241 

taught his Art for fet rates, but never took a Scho- 
lar for lefs time^han ten years. What reputation 
and intereft he had in his own Country, and what 
ufe he made of it, for the honour and advance- 
ment of his ^rofejfioHy fee ^ag, 83. 

TJUSIAS of Sicyoriy a Difciple of ^amfhilmj 
was the firft who painted upon Walls and Ceil- 
ings: and amongft many rare <]ualities, was tx- 
cMcnt 2Lt fore'P?onening his Figures. His moft fa- 
mous Piece was the Pid:ure of his Miftrcfs Glycera, 
in a fitting pofture, compofing a Garland of 
Flowers : for a Copy of which L. LucuOuSy a 
noh\t ^oman, gave two T^tex {"^7^ lib,) 

EUTH(I(JNO(Il the yihnian, fio\xx\{[i A Olymf. An. Mun. 
104, Anno 362 ante Chr. He was an Unherfal 2585. 
Majler, and admirably skill'd both in Sculpture 
and fainting. His Conceptions were noble and ele- 
vated, his Style mafculine and bold 3 and he was 
the firft who fignaliz'd hirafelf by reprefenting 
the Majefty oi Heroes, He writ feveral Volumes 
of the Art of Colouring, and of Symmetry, and yet 
notwithftanding fell into the fame Error wirh 
Zeuxis, of making his Heads too big in propord- 
on to the other parts, 

I i f(^AXl 

24-2 Ancient Majlers. 

f(I(AXlTELES the fam'd Sctdptor , particu- 
larly celebrated for his Venm of Gn'tdwSj and other 
excellent performances in Marble y was the Con- 
temporary of Euphranor, 

An, Mun. CWIJS of Cythnus, liv'd Olymp. 1 06, Anno 354 
1 594. <^«^^ Chr, and raisM his reputation fo much by his 
works, that Hortenjtm the ^man Orator , gave 
44 TalentSy (8250 Itb,) for one of his Pieces, con- 
taining the Story of the Argonauts, and built a 
noble Apartment on purpofe for it, in his Villa at 

ATELLES the Trince of faintersy was a Na- 
tive of Coosy an Ifland in the Archipelago ( now 
known by the name of Lango) and fiourifli'd 0- 
lymp. 112, Anno j j o ante Qn\ He improved the 
noble talent which Nature had given him, in the 
School of Tamphilm-y and afterwards by degrees 
became fo much in efteem with Alexander the Great ^ 
that by a public EdiB he ftridly commanded , 
that no other Majler fhou d prefume to make his 
Portrait ; that none but Lyjippus of Sicyon fhou'd 
caft his Statue in Srafs 5 and that ^yrgoteles onely 
fliou'd grave his Image in Gems and ^reciom Stones. 
And in farther teftimony of his particular refpe(5t 
to this Artijly he prefented him, even with his 


Ancient Makers. 24.3 

tnoft beautiful and charming Miftrefs Campafpey 
with whom Jpelks had faU'n in Love, and by 
whom 'twas fuppos'd he copy'd his Fenu^ {Anadyo- 
mem) rifing out of the Sea. Grace was his pecu- 
liar portioriy as our Author tells us, Tage 1 5 o, and 
211. In which, and in knowing when he had 
done Enoughy he tranfcended all who went before 
him, and did not leave his Equal in the world. 
He was miraculoufly skill' d in taking the true li- 
neaments and features of the Face : Infomuch that 
(if Apion the Grammarian may be credited) ^hyji- 
ognomifts upon fight of his Pictures onely, cou'd 
tell the precife time of the parties death. He was 
• admirable likewife in reprelencing people in their 
lafl: Agonies. And in a word, fo great was the 
veneration paid by Anticpuity to his Works, that 
feveral of them were purchased with heaps of 
Gold, and not by any fet number or weight of 
pieces. He was moreover extremely candid and 
obliging in his temper, willing to inftrud: all 
thofe who ask'd his advice, and generous even to 
his moft potent Rivals. 

T^TOGENES of Caunusy a City of Caria fub- 
je(5l to the (^odiansy was by the Ancients eftccm'd 
one of the four bed Tainters in Greece : but liv'd 
mifcrably poor, and very little regarded in his 

I i 2 own 

24:4 Ancient Makers. 

own Country^ till Afelles having made him a vifity 
CO bring him into Reputation, bought up fevcral 
of his Pictures, at greater rates than he ask'd for 
them; and pretending, that he defign'dto fell 'em 
again for his own work, the ^yodians were glad 
to redeem them upon any terms. Whofe Difciple 
he was, is not certainly known 3 but 'tis general- 
ly affirm'd, that he fpent the greateft part of his 
hfe in painting Ships, and Sea-pieces onely ; yet 
applying himfelf at laft to nobler Subjects, he be- 
came an Arttji fo well accomplifh'd, that Jpelles 
confefs'd he was in all refped:s at leaft equal to 
himfelf, excepting onely, that never knowing when . 
to leave off, by overmuch diligence, and too nice 
a correftnefs, he often difpirited and deaden'd the 
Life. He. was famous alfo for feveral Figures 
which he made iq Srafs : but his moft celebrated 
piece of ^ainWig^ was that of JalyfuSy which coft 
him feven years ftudy and labour, and which 
fav'd the City of ^jodes from being burnt j^y 
Demetrius Toltorcetes. Vide ^age 84. 

Of MELANTHIUS w^e have nothing certain, 
but that he was brought up at Sicyon, (the beft 
School of Greece) under ^^amphilus, 2Lt the fame 
time with Jpelles. That he contributed both by 
his ^erty and fjncily to the Improvement of his 


Ancient Mafiers. 245 

Art ; and amongft many excellent Pieces, painted 
Anjlratus the Sicyonian Tyrant, in a Triumphal 
Chariot, attended by FiElory, putting a wreath 
of Laurel upon his Headj which was highly 

JS^SriDES oi Thebes, the Difcipleofaxm- 
das J liv'd in the fame Olympiad with Jpelles, and 
was the firft who by the ^les of An, attained a 
perfedr knowledge of expreffing the Paffions and 
Affed:ions of the Mind. And though his colour- 
ing was fomewhat hard, and not fo very beauti- 
ful as cou'd be wifli'd, yet notwithflanding fo 
much were his Pieces ad mir'd, that after his de- 
ceafc, Attains Ki"g ^f Ter^amus^ gave an hun- 
dred Talents (^1875 ^^^^0 ^^r one of them. 

His Contemporary was A^CLEflOW^S the 
Athenian, equally skill'd in the Arts of Sculpture 
and fainting 5 but in the latter, chiefly applauded 
for the beauties of a correal Style, and the truth of 
his Proportion : In which Apelles declared himfelf 
as much inferior to this Arttfly as he was to AM- 
¥HION, in the ordering, and excellent difpofiti- 
on of his Figures. The moft famous TiEiures of Af- 
ckpiodorus y were thofe of the twehe Gods, for 
which Mnafon the Tyrant of Elatea, gave him the- 
va! ue of about j o o /I SterL a-piece. Av 

2^6 Ancient Mafiers. 

About the fame time alfo u ere the feveral Ma- 
ilers following (Vt^.) THEOMNESTUS, fam'd 
for his admirable talent in 'Pom-^/V^. 

NICHOMACHUS , the Son and Difciple of 
Jn/iodemusy commended for the incredible facility 
and freedom of his Pencil. 

NiCOfHjNESy celebrated for the Elegance of 
his Dcfign, and for his grand Manner, and Ma- 
jefty of Style 3 in which few Majters were to be 
compared to him. 

^l^BfilCUS was famous for little pieces only j 
and from the fordid and mean Subjeds to which 
he addicted himfelf (fuch as a Sarbers, or Shoe- 
makers Shopy the StiUifey Animalsy Herhagey &c.) 
got the furname of ^yparographus. Yet though 
his Subje(5ts were poor, his Performance was ad- 
mirable ; And the fmalleft Pidurcs of this Art'tfty 
were eftcem'd more, and fold at greater Rates, 
dian the larger Works of many oxkzx Maflers. 

AKTIDOTUS the Difciple of Euphranory was 
extremely diligent, and induftrious, but very flow 
at his Kenedy which as to the colouring part was 
generally hard and dry. He was chiefly remarkable 
for having been the Mafter of NI- 

Ancient Majlers. 247 

NIClJS of Athens^ who painted Women in An. Mm' 
Perfection, and flourifli'd about the ii^.Olymp. ^616, 
Anno J 2 2 ante Chr, being iiniverfally cxtoll'd for 
the great variety and noble choice of his Subjedls, 
for the force and relievo of his Figures, for his 
great skill in the diftribution of the lights and 
fliadows, and for his wonderful dexterity in re- 
prefenting all forts of four-footed Anmals, beyond 
any Majier in his time. His moft celebrated 
Piece was that of Homer s Hell 5 for which having 
refufed 60 Talents (11250 lib.) ofFer'd him by 
King Ptolemy the Son of Lagus, he generoufly 
made a Prefent of it to his own Country. He was 
likcwife much efteem'd by allhis Contemporaries 
for his excellent Talent in Sculpture ; and as ^liny 
reports, by Praxiteles himfelf : which yet feems 
highly improbable, confidering, that by his own 
account , there were at leaft 40 years betwixt 

ATHENIOK of Marofiea, a City of Tl?race^ 
a Difciple of Glaucion the Corinthian^ was about 
this time alfo as much in vogue as TSLicias : and 
though his colouring was not altogether fo agree- 
able, yet in every other particular he was even 
fuperior to him, and wou d have mounted to the 
higheft pitch of Perfedion, if the length of his Life 


24.8 Ancient Maflers. 

had been but anfwerable to the great extent of 
his Genius, 

An, Mun, F^SlW5anoble ^man, painted thcTempkof 
z6a7. Health in ^nie^ Anno U, C 450, ante Chr, joi : 

'^^'"V^^ and glory'd fo much in his Performances there, 
that he affum'd to himfelf for ever after, the fur- 
name of 'Pif?or, and thought it no difparagement 
to one of the mod lUuftrious Families in ^me^ 
to be diftinguifli'd by that Title, 

2698. NEALCES hv'd Olymp. i ji, Anno 250 ante 
Chr. in the time of Aratus the Sicyonian General , 
who was his Patron, and intimate Friend. His 
particular CharaEleVj was a ftrange vivacity of 
thought, a fluent fancy, and a Angular happinefs 
in explaining his intentions ^as appears ^ag, 148.) 
He is befides frequently mentioned by Writers^ 
For that having painted a Horje^ and being weary'd 
with often trying in vain to exprefs the foam pro- 
ceeding from his Mouth, he flung his Pencil in a 
great paffion againft the ^lEiure^ which lighted fo 
luckily, that to his amazement he found. Chance 
had finifh'd his Defign, much better than he 
with all his art and labour cou d have done. 


Ancient Mafters. 249 

AfET^W^S Rounttid Anno \6i anteChr.An. Mm. 
and liv'd in fo much credit and reputation at Athens y 3780, 
that ^aulus ABmilius^ after he had overcome Ter- ^"^""V"^^ 
feus King o( Macedon^ Anno 3 Olymp. 152. having 
defir'd the Athenians to fend him one of their moft 
learned Wtlofophers to breed up his Children, and 
a skilful fainter to adorn his Triumph, Metro- 
dorus was the perfon unanimoi]|Py chofen, as the 
fitted for both Employments, 

MA^US ^ACUVlUSoi'Brmdufium, thcNe- -^^97* 
phew of old EnniuSy was not onely an eminent ^^^''V'^^ 
^oet himfelf, and famous for feveral Tragedies 
which he wrote, but excell'd alfo in fainting : 
Witnefs his celebrated Works , at ^omey in the 
Temple of Hercules, in the Forum !Boarium. He 
flourifli'd Anno W. C 600, ante Chr, 151, and 
died at Tarentum, almoft 90 years of age, 

TlMOMACHUS o{ !By:^anttum (now Conftantl J^oi. 
nople) liv'd Anno U. C 704, ante Chr. 47, in the 
time of Julius Cefary who gave him 8 o Talents 
( 1 5 000 lib.) for his Pieces of Ajax and Medea, 
which he placed in the Temple of Venus, from 
whom he deriv'd his Family. He was commen- 
ded alfo for his Orejies and Iphigenia : but his Ma- 
fler-piece was the Gorgon^ or Mednfas Head. 

K k About 

250 Ancient Majlers. 

About the fame time alfo A^^ELLIUS was fa- 
mous at S^we, being as much admir'd for his ex- 
cellent talent in Tainting^ as he was condemn'd 
for the fcandalous ufe which he made of it, in ta- 
king all his Ideas of the Goddejfes from common 
Strumpets , and in placing his Mtflrejfes in the 
Heavens , amongft the Gods , in feveral of his 

Jn. Mun. LUVIUS liv'd in great Reputation, under Au- 
3 po/. gujlus Cafary who began his <^eign Anno U.Cyi o, 

^^'^^^'V'^ ante Chr, 41 . He excell'd in^r^?!^ Compojittonsy and 
was the firft who painted the Fronts of Houfes, 
in the Streets of ^Upme : which he beautify'd with 
great variety of Landtjchapes, and pleafant Views, 
together with all other forts of different Subjects, 
manag'd after a moft noble manner. 

An. Dom. TU^ILIUS a (^oman Knight, liv'd in the time 
(jp^ of Vefpajwiy who was chofen Emperour, An. Dom, 
6p, And though he painted every thing with his 
left hand, yet was much applauded for his admi- 
rable Performances at Verona, 

His Contemporaries were CO^ELIUS fU 
ms, and ACTIUS ^^ISCUS, who with their 
Pencils adorn d the Temples of Honour and Virtue, 



Ancient Mafters. 251 

repaired by Fefpajian. But of the two, ^rifcus 
came nearefl: jn his Jiyle and manner of Taint in^j 
to the purity of the Grecian School 

And thus have I given the ^ader z jhort Ac- 
county of all the moft eminent Majlers who 
flourifli'd in Greece ^ and (I(ome, in the compafs of 
more than a thou/and Years, 'Tis true indeed, 
that for a longtime after the 3(eigwi o( Fefpajtan, 
and TJf «J his Son, Tainting and Sculpture continu d 
in great reputation in Italy. Nay, we are informed, 
that under their Succeflfors Domitian, Ker'Vay and 
Trajan, they fliin'd with a Luftre almofl: equal to 
what they had done undet Alexander the Great, 'Tis 
true alfo, that the ^man Empcrours Adrian, An- 
tonine, Alexander SeVerus, Conjiantine, and Valentl- 
nian, were not onely generous Encouragers of 
the fe Arts, but in the pradice of them alfo fo well 
skiird, that they wrought feveral extraordinary 
Pieces with their own hands 5 and by their Ex- 
ample, as well as their Patronage, rais'd up ma- 
ny confiderable Artijls in both kinds. But the 
Names of all thofe excellent Men being unhappily 
loft with their Works, we muft here conclude our 
Catalogue of the ANCIENT UASTE^^: and 
fliall onely take notice, that under that Tttky All 
thofe are to be comprehended , who pradtifed 

K k z Tainting 

252^ Anclen t Makers. 

An. Dom.Taintmg or Sculpture tkhcv in Greece or <^me^ bc- 
y8o- fore the year of our Lord 580. Ac which time 
the Latlne Tongue ceafing to be the common Language 
of Italy, and becoming mute. All the noble Arts 
and Sciences (which in the two preceding Centu- 
ries had been brought very low, and by the con- 
tinual Invafions of the Northern Nations reduc'd 
to the laft extremities) expir'd with it : and in the 
Reign of ^hoca^ the Emperour, foon after, lay bu- 
ry'd together, as in one common Grave, in the 
Ruins of the ^man Empire. 


( 253 ) 

C'^IOVAKKI CIMAmn, nobly defcended, ^ _ 
y Tindhoin zi Florence y Jnno \ 2^0 ^ was the 1240. 
firft who reviv'd the Jrt of Tainting in Italy, He 
was a Difciple of fome poor ordinary Taintersy 
fent for by the Government of Florence from 
Greece : whom he foon furpafs'd, both in Drawing, 
and Colouring , and gave fomething of ftrength 
and freedom tq his Works, at which they cou'd 
never arrive. And though he wanted the Art of 
managing his Lights and Shadows, was but little 
acquainted with the Rules of ^erffeEiiye^ and in 
divers other particulars but indifferently accom- 
plifli^d 5 yet the Foundation which he laid for fu- 
ture Improvement, entitled him to the name of 
the Father of the F'trjl Age^ or Infancy of the Mo- 
dern Tainting. Some of his Works are yet re- 
maining ac Florencey where he was famous alfo 
for his skill in ArchiteBurey and where he died ve- JEt, 60. 
ry rich, Anno 1 300. 


254 Modern Mafters. 

r%^.^A.^^^>> GIOTTO his Difciple, born near Florence^ Anm 
\iy6. I 27<^, ^as a good Sculptor and JrcbiteH^ as well 
as a better fainter than Cimabue. He began to 
fhake off the ftitfnefs of the Greek Majlers ; endea- 
vouring to give a finer Air to his Heads, and more 
of Nature to his Colouring, with proper Poflures 
to his Figures. He attempted likewife to draw 
after the Life, and to exprefs the different Paffions 
of the Mind : but cou'd not come up tothelive- 
hnefs of the Eyes, the tendernefs oftheFlefh, or 
the ftrength of the Mufcles in naked Figures. He 
was fcnt for, and em ploy 'd by Pope !BenediH IX. 
in St. Teters Church at (?(owe, and by his Succef- 
for Clement V. at AVigmn, He painted feveral 
Pieces alfo at Tadoua, Naples^ Farrara, and in o- 
ther parts of Italy ; and was every where much 
admir'd for his Works : but principally, for a 
^'lElure which he wrought in one of the Churches 
oi Florence-, reprefenting the Death of the ©. Virgin j 
with the Jpo/tles about her : the Attitudes of which 
Story, Af. Angela Suonaroti us'd to fay, cou'd not 
be better defign'd. He fiouriflh'd in the time of 
the famous Dante and Tetrarch^ and was in great 

j^ J, efteem with them, and all the excellent Men in 
* his Age, He died AmiQ 1 3 3 <i. 

Modern Majlers. 255 

his Contemporaries, and the Reftorers oiMofdic- 
ipork in Italy : which the former had learnt oiApol- 
lonm the Greeks and the latter very much improv^'d. 

At the fame time alfo was MA%G A%lT01SlEy 
a Native oi Are:^ in Tufcany^ who firft invented 
the Art of Gilding with Lcafgoldj upon Sole-oj-me- 

SIMONE MEMMJy born at Siena, a City in r^^A.>-- 
the borders of the Dukedom of Florence, Anno * ^ ^ J* 
1285, w^as a Difciple of Giotto, whofe manner 
heimprov'd in drawing after the Life : and is par- 
ticularly celebrated by Petrarch, for an excellent 
Portrait, which he made of his beloved Laura. 
He was applauded for his free and eafie InyentioUy 
and began to underftand the Decorum in his Com- yEt. ^o. 
pofitions/ Obiit Anno 1345. 

TADDEO GADDIy another Difciple o[ Giotto, 
born at Florence, Anno i joo, excell'd his Mafter M°®* 
in the beauty of his Colouring, and the livelinefs 
of his Figures. He was alfo a very skilful Archi- 
teEi, and much commended for the Bridge which 
he built over the River /trno., at Florence. He died ^t, y o^ 
Anno 1350. 


25^ Modern Majlers. 

r-s-.^-x-» TOKfJSOy call'd GIOTTlNO, for his affe(fting 

*3^4- and imitating Giotto's manner, born alfo at Flo- 

rojcey Amio 1524, began to add ftrength to 

jr; his Figures, and to improve th^Art olJPerlfeBiye. 

Xj, He died Anno 1 3 J <i» 

JOHANNES ah EYKi, commonly call'd JOHIST 
^^^^' oi'B^GES, born at Majeech on the River Mae:^ 
in the Low-Countries J Anno 1 370, was a Difciplc 
of his Brother Hubert, and a confiderable 'P^w- 
f^r ; but above all things famous for having been 
the happy Menter of the A^ oi TAINTING 
IN OtLy Anno 1410, (thirty years before (Prmr- 
tng was found out by John Guttemherg, of Straf- 
Jit. 7 1 . hurgh,) He died Anno 1 44 1 , having fome years 
before his deceafe communicated his Invention to 

ANTONELLO of Meffinuy who traveled from 
his own Country into Flanders on purpofe to learn 
the Secret : and returning to Sicily y and afterwards 
to Venice^ was the firft who pradifed, and taught 
it in Italy. He died Anno jEtat. 49. 

In the preceding Century flourifh'd feveral other 
Mafters of good Repute : but their Manner being 
the fame, or but very little different from that of 
Gimo.^ it will be fufKcient to mention the Names 


Modern Majlers. 2 57 

onely of fome of the mod Eminent, and fuch 
were Andrea Orgagna^ ^ietro CaVallim, Stefano, (Bo- 
namico ^ujfahnacco^ ^ietro Laurati, Lippo, Spinelh, 
Ca/entino, Tijajio, Sec. And thus the Art of Tain- 
ting continu'd almofl: at a fl:and for about an 
hundred years 5 advancing but flowly , and ga- 
thering but litde ftrength, till the time of 

MASACCIOj who was tjorn in Tufca)r^y Anno rv^-A,^ 
1417, and for his copious Invention, and true ^4^/"' 
manner of Defigning 5 for his delightful way of 
Colouring, and the graceful A<5tions which he 
gave his Figures 5 for his loofenefs in Draperies, 
and extraordinary Judgment in TerfpeBil^ey is rec- 
koned to have been the Majier of the Second, or 
Middle Age oi Modern Tainting: which 'tis thought 
he wou d have carry'd to a much higher degree of 

Perfcdion, if death had not ftopp'd him in his ^ 
Career (T^y Poyfon, asitwasfuppos'd) Ajj, 1443. ^^ 


GENTILE, and GIOFANNI, the ^Sons and 
Difciples of GIACOMO ^ELLINO, were born at H^ » 
Venice, (^Gentile, Anno 1421.) and were fo emi- 
nent in their time, xh^x. Gentile was fent for to Con- 
Jiantinopk, by Mahomet II. Emperour oith^Turks : 
for whom having (amongft other things) paint- 
ed the Decollation of S* John S^/?fi^, the Emperaur, 

L 1 to 

25 8 Modern Maflers. 

to convince him chat the Neck after its feparation 
from the Body, cou'd not be fo long as he ha4 
made ic in his Pidure, ordered a Slave to be 
brought to him, and commanded his Head to be 
immediately flruck off in his prefence : which fo 
tetrifi'd Gentile^ that he cou'd never be at reft, till 

V V ..v- he got leave to return home : w/hich the Einpe» 
rour granted, alter he had Knighted him, and 
nobly rewarded him for his Services. The moft 
Gonfiderable Works of thefe brothers are at Veniccy 

.i\^^ where Gioyanni liv'd to the age of 90 years, ha- 
ving very rarely painted any thing but Scripture- 
Storiei and '^Ugiom Suhjeiis^ which he performed 
lb well, as to be efteem'd the moft excellent of 

jp ^ all the ^Uinl See more of him ^ag. 217. 
*_, Gentile died Anno 1501. 

ANDREA MANTEGNJ, born at ^aJoua^ 

^^ ' Anno 14JI, a Difciple of Squarcione , was very 

- corred:in Defigning, admirable in fore fhort'ning 

his Figures, well vers'd in ^erfpeBive^ and arrived 

to great knowledge in the Antiquities, by his con- 

,b I •ti^ tinu^'d application to the Statues, 'Bafs (^lieyos, 8cc^ 

^""'^"'^^'""^Yet however his neglect of feafoning his Studies 

^^^.^^ after the Antique , with the living Beauties of No- 

,9 J I, I tun J has given him a Tencd fomewhat hard and 

djy^; And befides, nis Drapery is generally ftiff, 

,{. I ' according 

r^^. > K 

Modern Mailer's. S 5> 

according to tlte manner of thofe times, arid tob 
much perplex'd ivifh little folds. The beft of his 
Works (and for which he was Knighted, by the 
Marquefs Lodovk^ G()n:^aga, of Mantoua) are thi 
Triumphs of Julius C^far, now at HamftohCoui^^ 
He died Anno 1517, having been the firft (ac- 
cording to ^Y^ri) who pradifed the An of ^ra- ySt. 86. 
^in^ in Italj. ''<i'^'^^ ";'' -^u >.ii« ,...,;.^.^ luoi 

■ ' AND%EA PW(!I(pCCH0k'%Mm}^ 

Anno 14J2, was well skiird in Geometry^ Optics ^ '43^* 

Sculpture^ Mujic, and fainting : but left off the 

laft, becaufe in a Piece which he had made of St» 

John (Baptii^ng our Saviour^ Leonardo da Vinciy ovit 

of his Scholars, had by his order, painted an Art? ,08 a^ 

gel, holding up fome part of our Saviour's Gat^ ^-^--v^s^ 

ments, which fo far excelled all the reft of An- 

Jreas Figures, that inrag'd to be out-done by a J^^i 

Youn^many he refolv'd never to make ufe of hh 

Pencil any more. . He was the firft who found 

out the Art of taking and preferving the likenefs 6f 

any Face, by moulding off the Features in Plaiftei^. ^ 

He died Anno 1488. .- ^ ^^* 5'^* 

LUCA SIONO(!{ELLpGf^rorfm^% (^fl^f 
the Dukedom of Florence^ born Anno 1439, w'stk ^439' 
a Difciple of ^ietro S. SepulchrOy and fo exeellerit ' 
5 L 1 2 at 

at '3efigning teWj, that from a Piece which W 

minted in a Chappel of the great Church at Or- 

ieto, hf, Angelo^uomroti transferred feveral entire 

^ A ,^]Pigures into his Lajljudgrfient.:-^' He died very rich, 

OH .rn5m to b vboribo bsff arf Hoirfv/ ^noiib^lisq 

,tol,^j£j^Q ^i COSIMO ^^¥tmmnei^^mn^Mo^ 

i44iw:c'^J^i, was a Difciple of Cofino ^Jfelli (whofe 

'tome he retained) and a very good Tainter ; but 

fo ftrangely fantaftical, and full of Caprichios , 

•'that all his delight was in painting Satyrs^ Faumy. 

'^lS0fit5'^ Monftersj and fuch like extravagant Fi- 

*^res: and therefore he apply'd himfclf, for the 

('ttioft part , to (Bacchamtias , Maf^ueradesy 3cc^ 

* Obiit Jnno i ji^.^^^^^^^i^no:* i^i^/sl i^^k ait^xiw 

^-^^^^M02OI^M ./^''T^ a'Gaftle fe 

^.y^**f^r"calfd, near the City of Floro^ce, Anno 1445, was 
r'^^red up under Andrea Verrocchio^ but fo far fur- 
pafs'd him, and all others his Predeceffors, that he 
is own'd to have been the Majler of the Thirds or 
^^^^^^ ^^Goiden Agz of Modern fainting. He was in every 
'^^^refpedl one of the compleateft Men in his time, 
*^^ind the bed furniCh'd with all the perfedions both> 
^fbfBody and Mind: was an excellent Sculptor. 
Ji\ .t2k ^*^ and ArchiteH , a skilful Mujician , an admirable 
'^f.oct^ very expert in Anatomy and Chymifiryy and 
'^^^^ throughly, 

^lirbuglily learned in all the part§5.9f tjhe Mathema- 
ticks* He was extremely diligent in the perfor- 
mance of his Works, and fo wonderfully neat, 
and curious, thai he left feveral of them unfinifh'd^ 
believing his hand cou'd never reach that Ide^-of'^^ '^^ 
perfed:ion, which he had conceiv'^d of tliem. He 
liv'd many years at M7^», highly efteem'd ^o^^^-va^,^ 
his celebrated Piece of Our Saviours Ldjl Sup^vry^ j ^^i 
and fome of his other Paintings j and as much ap- 
plauded for his Jft in contriving the Canaly that. ^ 
brings the Water from the River Jdda, to that' 
City. He was a great Contender with M, Angdo- 
Smnaroti, and upon account of the enmity be- 
twixt them, went into France (Anne jEt, yo.y 
whereafter feveral confiderable Services done for ^ .V^ 
Francis \, he expir'd ia the Arms of that Monarchy. '^"^^'""^^ 
being taken fpeechlefs the very moment, in whic}*.^^^^^^^^^^ 
. he wou'd have rais'd up himfelf , to thank die* •:: r 
^ing for ih^honour .(^pne him in that Vifit, ^ffio* * ^' 

Yt^ (PIET(I(P fpE^Gim, fo caird from the place 
where he was born in the Ecckjiajlical State^ Anno 
1 44<J, was another. Difciple of Andrea Verrocchio. 
What CharaBer he had, fee Tag. 215- He was fo 

^ very miferable and covetous, that the lofs-of his ^ ^r 

I Money by Thieves, broke his Heartj ^//«o 1524. 

Ylriguoixi3 ^(ME- 

Modern Mafterf.'i;^^ 

mUENlCO GHl^LmVAIoJ^^i'^VlorenUnc 

^^9* born, Jmio 1449, was at firfl defignM for 

the Profeffion of a Goldfmhh ; but followed his, 

Aore prevailing inclinations to 'P^mnVig; withfuch 

f&tcefs, thaVhe is rank'd amongft i\\t prime Ma- 

J7,- . . /ferx in his Eime. See farther Tax- 2M- He died 

_ .^..<ICESC0 %AmOLmi, commonly call'd 
' F^ANCIJy bormt !Bologna J J?mo \j\.')0 J was at 
firft a Coldfmithj or Jeweller^ afterwards a Gra'Ver 
of C0//2J and Medals J but at laft applying himfelf 
to fainting , acquired great Reputation by his 
- Works : And particularly, by a Piece of St. Se- 
hajliarij whom he had drawn bound to a Tree, 
with his hands tied over his head. In which Fi- 
gure, befides the delicacy of its Colouring, and 
.8f .^iv^ gracefulnefs of the Pofture, the proportion of its 
^'■''''''^''^*^ Parts wasfo admirably juft and true, that all the 
^^-^ fucceeding Solo^nefe ^aintersy even to Hannibal 
.o\^i Carrache himfelf, ftudy'd its meafures as their (?(«&, 
and followed them in the fame manner as the An- 
cients had done the Canon of ^olycletm. It was un- 
der the Difcipline of this Majter^ that Man Jnto- 
nioy ^phaels bed Gra'Ver, learnt the Rudiments of 

JEt '76 ^^^ '^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ about the year i 5 2<^, and not 
' Jnm I J 1 8, as Va(ari erroneoufly has recorded. 

Modern Maftem 

^^^ F<SJ (BJ(I(rOLOMEO , born at SaU^nano, a 

yillage about ten miles from Florence^ Jmio i 4^9^ 

was a Difciple of Cojimo ^^^elli: but much more 

beholden to the Works of Leonardo da Vinciy for 

his extraordinary Skill in ^aintin^. He was very 

well vers'd in the fundamentals oiVeJtgn : and be- 

fidesj had fo many other laudable Qualities; that -^^ ' "^ 

i^phael, after he had quitted the School of Teru^i- 

rwy apply'd himfelf to this Af^yZ^r, and under him, -^"wAw^^ 

ftudy'd the (^les of ^erfpeSliye, together with the '^l¥^ 

Art of Managing, and Uniting his Colours. He 

turn'd Dom'mican Fryary Anno ijoo , and afcer 

fome time, was by his Superiors fent to the Con- 

"Vent of St. Mark , in Florence. He painted both 

Portraits and Hiflor'ieSy but his fcrupulous Con/ci-,, 

erwe wou*d hardly €ver fuffer him to draw Kahd 

Figures. He died /hno 1517, and is faid to have 

been the firjl who inyented, and made ufe pf a j^'f, ^g. 


AL'BE^ VW^%, born at Kuremhergy An- 
no 1470, by the Inftru6tions of his Father, a cu- 
rious Jeweller 3 the Precepts of Michael Wolgemuthy 
a confiderable fainter:, and tlte Rules of Geometryy 
ArchiteBurey and ferffeSifve , became the moft 
excellent of all the German Majlers. And not- 
withftanding that his manner of Defisning is ge-v 



5- .\^. 


<2^4' Mo fern ll{afl}rs! 

nerally hard, ftiff, and ungraceful, yet however 
he was otherwifc fo very well AccompliiVd, that 
his Prints were had in great efteem all over Italy ; 
copy'd at Fenicey by the famous Marc Anton'tOy 
and fo much admir'd even by (Raphael himfelf, 
that he hung them up in his own Chamber, and 
us'd frequently to lament the misfortune of (b 
great a GeninSy to be brought up in a Country 
where nothing was to be feen, that might furnifh 
him with noble Ideas, or give him any light into 
things neceffary for grand Compojttions, His prin- 
cipal Works were made at Trague, in the 'Talace 
of the Emperour Max'nmlian I. who had fo great 
a refpe<5t for him, that he prefented him with a 
Coat of Armsy as the !Badge of Kobility. He was 
alfo much in favour with the Emperour Charles V^^ 
and for his modeft and agreeable temper belov'd 
by every body , and happy in ali places, but 
onely at home ; where 'twas thought, the penu- 
rious and fordid humours of a miferable wretch 

his Wife, ftiorten'd his days, Anno 1528. J^tde 
jEt. 58. <p^^. pj. 

ANTONIO da CO^EGGIOy fo named from 
the place where he was born, in the Dukedom of 
Modena, Anno \ 472, was a Man of fuch admirable 
natural parts, that nothing but the unhappinefs of 


Modern Makers ^ g$"j 

lus Education (which gave him no opportuni- 
ties either of (eeing ^me^ or Florence ; or of con- 
fulting the Antiquities, for perfeding himfctf in 
the Art of T>ejtgning) hinder'd him from being 
the moft excellent fainter in the world. Yet ne- 
verthelcfs, he was Mailer of a Pencil fo wonder- 
fully (oft, tender, beautiful and charming^ that 
Julio ^mano having feen a Leda^ and a naked Ve- 
nus painted by him, for Frederick Duke of Mode- 
na (who intended them a prefent for the Emperour) 
declared, he thought it impoflible for any thing 
of Colours ever to go beyond them. His chief 
Works are at Modenuy and Tarma: at the laft of 
which places he fpent moft of his Life, retir'd and 
little taken notice of, working hard to maintain his 
Family, which was fomewhat large. He was 
extremely modeft and obliging in his Behaviour ; 
and died very much lamented, about the year 
1512; having thrown himfelf into a f ever, by 
drinking cold water, when his body was over- 
heated, with bringing home fome Copper Money ^ 
which he had received for one of his Pieces. See y^f\ /^ 
more(P^^. 220 and 221. 

fcended, born near Florence, Anno 14745 was '^^'^' 
aDifciple oiDomentco Ghirlandaioy and moft pror 
'n Mm foundly 

Pff» Modern MrMI.- 

foundly skiird in the Arts of IPanitin^.'S^PJ^^^ 
¥hd JnhiteBure. He has the name of the greateft 
^eftgner \\\\o ever has been : and 'tis univerfally 
i^llow'd him, that never any fainter in the Worlds 
iinderftood Anatomy fo well. He was alfo an ex^ 
Gcllent ^oet^ and not oncly highly efteem'd by 
feveral ^o^es fucceffively j hy the Grand Duke of 
Tufcany, by the ^puhlick of Fenicey by the Em- 
perour Charles V. by King Francis I. and by moft 
of the Momrchs and Princes of Cbrijlendom : but 
was alfo invited over into Tnrkyj by Solyman tha. 
'Magnificent J upon a Defign he then had of making 

M \ ^'^ ^ Bridge over the Hellejpont^ from Con/lant'mople to 
^era. His moft celebrated Piece of ^amti?igy is 
that of the Laji Judgment ^ in the "Po/^^j Chapei He 
. tiied in great Wealth at ^owe, from whence his 

^. Body was tranflated to Florence^ and there ho- 

* nourably intcrr'd, Jnno i j 64. Fide Tag, 1 1 4. 

H77' GEO<HpiOKE, becaufe of his noble and comely 
Afped:, was born at TreVifano^ a Province in the 
State ofVenice^ Jmo 1^77; and received his firft. 
Inftru(5tions from Giovanni 'Bellino: but having 
afterwards ftudied the Works of Leonardo da Fi?Ki, 
he foon arriv'd to a manner of Tainting fuperiois 
m them both 5 defign d with greater Freedom', 


• MMefn Maflen. ^^ 

^^fflit^^^'^ more Strength and Beauty, gave 

fte adniirable ^ft?;^vfii fr/3RS ^'S^^^ ^^^ %- 
3ows, amongfl: the Lombards:* ^j^gj^xccU'd both 
in Portraits and Hi/?o; ies : byf^^ I^^^ofl: valuab^ 
Pkce in 0)7, is that of Our SaViour carryniglns 
Crofy now at Venice ; where it. is had in wonder- 
full Eljeem and Veneration. He died young of 
the Plague (which he got in the Arms of his Mi- 
ftref^y who was infected with it) Anno 1511: ha- 
ving been like wife as famous for his performances 
in Muficy as his productions in. ?4i«/^/';jg*;..^/^^ . 

• xTTTIAKO the moft univerfal Gen'm of 41 
the Lomhard School, the beft Colourljl of all the Mo- 
dernsy and the mod eminent for MJlorieSy Landt- 
fchapesy and Portraits ; was born at Cadore in the 
Venetian Territories y Jnno 1477^ being defcended 
from the ancient Family of the Vecelli. He was "^K^^ 
bred up in the School of Gio» SeUmOy at the fao^e 
time with Geor^iowe : but improv'd himfelf mQi?c 
by the Emulation that was betwixt him and h^ 
Felhw-Difiipky than by the Inftrudions ofhisx^f*: 
fier. He was cenfur'd. indeed by ^f. Jngelo Su^ 
narotiy for \Y^C,,o(,cQiTe(^gf[§i,in,^^^^ 

^ M mi ' fault 

'ther parts of a moft accomplfflfdc^/Jffi^JH '^ET 
flaadcjthrce fevcral portraits of phe Empcrour 

^alattney made au nis fteia^nd^Ks^Gew^fewf??, aP 
i(ign'd him a. coiifiderable Ptnfion out of the 
Chamber of Naples j and what other remarkable 
proofs of his Affe(5lion he ftieWd him, kc pa^, 
i6) 87. and a CharaSler of his Works, />^^. 21 8, 
^d 2 19. He painted alfo his Son Philip II. «Sd- 
^W4;j Emperour of the Turks^ two ?o/jej, three 
l^ingSy VNoEmpreJJeSy feveral ^e^?w, and almoft 
all the princes of Italy^ together with Lud, Ariojio^ 
and ^eterJretine, the hmd Italian Wits, his inti- 

: jrhate Friends. Nay, fo great was the Name and 
^iR^eputation of Titian^ that there was hardly a per- 
fon of any Eminence then living, from whom he 
.'^id not receive fome particular mark of Efteem : 
and befides, being of a temper wonderfully obli- 
ging and generous, his houle at Venice was the 

iconftant ^ende:^ous of all the Firtuoji, and Peo- 
d\c of the beft Quality. He was fo happy in 
the conftitution of his Body, that he never had 

-^en fick till the year 1^76^ when he died of 


■uU of 
Ifjiying behind him 

the blague, full of Honour, Glory and Kiclus, 
If^ying behind him two Sons and rSWrJW 

well prcfert'd mUZ ^ 'x» T '"" '^" 

Tortratts that mighc Itana in Competition .wicK 
thofe of his Fathers. He was famous alfo forj^ffiP 
ny Hi/iory-fieces which he made at ^e?2/ce in ^(Jhi- 
currence with ^aulFeronefcy znd Tmt ore t. But 
hewitch'd atiaft with the hopes of finding the Thi- 
kfophers Stoney he laid afide his Tencily and hi- 
ving reduc d mofl: of what had been got by his 
Father into Smoke j died of the ^la^ue foon after. 

was an ^rf//? fo well inftru6ted in the fundamen- 
tal Maximes of VeJlgUy that Ttt'tan grew jea- 

. Ions of him 5 and fearing, that he might in time 
come to eclipfe his Reputation, fent him upon, 
pretended bufinefe to Ferdinand King of the (^o^ 
mans: and there found fuch means to divert him. 
from Taintingy that he <^uite gave ov€r the ftudy.' 
of it, and never any farther attempted it, unlefs 
it were to make a Portrait now and then, at the 

. Kiueft^of his particular Ac^wangc^^^ ^^ 


ni M^^M.^l SJ(^rO, (fo call'd, bccaurc,^ 
^^ffi(S\$o^)^,hor^'2iX Floycfwcy Mio 1478 j was 
ScQi($'f)^ of ^ictro di CofmiOy very careful and di- 
l/gfcfc^fj]^! his Works, and his Colouring was 
wonde-rfully fweec : but his Pid:ures generally 
wane Strength and Life, as well as their Author^ 
>}/,ho was naturally mild, timorous, and poor-fpiri- 
r^. He was fcnt for to (P^m, by FraiKts I. where 
he might have gathered great Riches, but that his 
Wife and Rclatioi^^^would not fuffer him to con- 
tinue long ther&MriHe lived in a mean and con- 
temptible condition, becaufe he fet but a very lit- 
tle value upon his own Performances: yet the Fk-^ 
ratines had fo great an Eftcem for his Works j 
that during the fury of the Popular FaSlions a- 
mongfl them, they preferv'd his Pieces from the 
jP Flames, when they neither fpared Churches or any 

j thing elfe. Hediedof the'P/^^wg, Anno 1520. 

ns.,A.j(S^i\^AFAELLE daU^lKO, hoxn Anno 1483, 

1485* was one of the handfomeft and beft tempered mea 

living. See fome account of him ^ag. 215, and 

^"'''^--^^^* add to it, That by the general confent ofMankiytd, 

'■^"^^ he is acknowledged to have been the Prince of 

the Modern Painters : and is oftentimes ftyl'd the 

Vmne Q(apl)ael, for the inimitable Graces of his 

$milxji^%iSQx ^k^,^^^^^Mi^kf^^y which 

-i^iih \ feem'd 


fcem^d-tbhave fomething more thaft^j^f^^ in. 
its Compofirion. <Tft4t^1ie^\»3^4)ci69^2^1^^ 
higheft degree by the Popes 'juliti^%i}^hWl^i9}^. 
That he was admir'd and courted by all the Prin- 
ces and States of Europe^ and particularly by Men- 
ry VIII. who would fain have oblig'd him to come 
over into England, That his Perfon was the won- 
der and delight of ^me^ as his Works are now 
the Glory of it. That he liv'd in the greateft 
State and Splendor imaginable , moft of the 
eminent Mafters in his time being ambitious of 
working under him : and that he never went a-. 
broad without a Croud of Art'tfls and others, 
who attended and followed him purely out ofrc- 
Ipedt. That he declined Marriage (tho* very ad- 
vantageous offers had been made him) in hopes 
e( a Cardinals Cap, which he expected: but fall- ^. ^^^ 
ing fickin the mean time, and concealing the true -.'^"V^v^ 
caufe of his diftemper from his Thyjicians, Death - 
difappointed him of the reward due ta his moft jEt. ^7. 
extraordinary Merits, Anno i') 10, noanoasv/v 

born at a place fo call'd, not far from Udine in 
t\\t Venetian Territories J Anno 1484, after fome 
time fpent in Letters and Muftc, apply'd himfelf •' 
to fainting 5 yet without any other Guide to cc^ 

375 Modern Maften: 

dud him, befide his own prompt and Hvely Ge- 
niiiSj ami the Works of Geor^iowe : which he ftu- 
diid at Fenxe with lo much attention, that he 
foon arrived to z manner of Colouring nothing in- 
ferior to his Pattern, But that which tended yet 
more to his improvement, was the continued E- 
mulation betwixt Titian andhimfelf: which in- 
fpir'd him with noble Defigns^ quicken'd his In- 
^ent'ton^ and produc'd feveral excellent Pieces in 
Oyly Vijlemper, and Frefco, From Venice he went 
to Getioua, where he undertook fome things in com- 
petition with Tierino del Vaga : but not being able 
CO come up to the perfedions of ^ierinos Pencil, 
he return d to Venice y and afterwards vifited fe- 
veral other parts of Lombard): was l^nghted by 
the Emperour Charles V. and at laft being (ent 
for to Ferrara, was fo much efteem'd there, that 
he is faid to have been poifon'd by fome who en- 
jp y vy'd the Favours which he received from the Duhj 
'Anno 1540. ,,, 

SESJSTIAKO del mOMWy a Native of Tf- 
w/cie. Anno 1485, took his name from an Office 
given him by Pope Clement VII. in the Lead- 
Mines. He was defign d by his Father for the Pro- 
feffion of }dufic^ which he pradis'd for fome time 5 
iiil following at lafl: the more powerful Dilates of 


* *■, 

Modtrn Mdfiers. ^73 

Nature, he betook himfelf to ^ahiimg, and be- 
came a DifcipleofGio. ^elUm: continued hisftii- 
dies under Georgtone, and having attained his ex- 
cellent w^mz^r of Colouring, went to (?(owej where 
he infinuated himfelf fo far into the favour of M- 
chael Angeloy by fiding with him and his Party, a- 
gainft (Z^^ffc^f/; that pleasM with the fwcetnefs 
and beauty of his IPencii, he immediately fur- 
nifh'd him with fome of his own Dejtgns, and 
letting them pafe under Sebajlians name, cry'd 
him up for the beft Painter in ^me. And indeed 
fo univerfal was the Applaufe which he gain d by 
his Piece of La:^rus rats' d from the dead, (the de> 
fign of which had likewife been given him by Mi- 
chael Angela) that nothing but the famous Tranf 
figuration of Raphaels could eclipfe it. He has 
the name of being the firjl who invented the Art 6( 
preparing ^laijler -walls for Oyl- fainting: but was 
generally fo flow, and lazy in his Performances, 
that other hands were oftentimes employ'd in fi- *- "^Ti^ 
nidiing what he had begun. He died J^fwwo i j 47. 

SA^IiTOLOMEO (in the Tufcah^tialeB call'd 
SACCIO) SANVINELLI, a Florentine fainter ^4^7^ 
and Sculptor^ born ^wwo 1487 5 was a Difcipleof 
Gio. Francefco^ijiici^ and by die help of Anatomy^ 
joyn d with his other Studies, bccara« a very cx- 

N n cellent 

ccllenc and corrcdt Vejij^mr: but in the Colou- 
fin^ part was to unfortunate, that after he had 
heard Mchael Jngelo condemn it, for being hard 
and unpleafantj he never could be prevailed upon 
t6 make any farther ufe of his Pencil, but always 
ingag'd fome other hand in Cohur'm^ his Defvms^ 
Yet however, in Sculpture he fueceded better: and 
for a Defcent from the Crofs, in Me:^:^o (^lieVo^ was 
Knighted by the Emperour, He was hkewife much 
in favour with Francis I. and acquired great Re- 
putation by feveral of his Figures : which yet are 
more admir'd for their true Out-l'tne^ and Propor- 
JEt 71 "^"^ than for being either graceful or gentile. He 

,^^^-^r-^ dkd /im\q i j 5 j^, ^^^ ^ 

^iKjonoig gnimu 

^-r^'^ GIULIO (I(pMANOy born Jmo 1492, was 
^^^49^^ the greateft /4rtijly and moft univerfal fainter of 
all the Difciples of (Raphael : bclov'd by him as if 
'"^"''^-'^^^ he had been his Sv?iy for the wonderful fweetnefs 
■-^^ of his temper 5 and made one of his HWrj, upon 
condiapn, that he Oiould affift in finifhing fuch 
things as he had left imperfect. He was profound- 
ly learn d in all the parts of the J?itiquities : and 
by his converfaeion with the works of the mod 
cjccellent ^Poets, and particularly Horner^ had made 
hin:ifelf an abfolute Mafier of the qualifications 
. n^ccfl&rily requir'd in a ^rtat Vefignet. He con- 

tinuM for fome years ac 3^owe, after the deathof 
(Raphael : aqd by the directions of Pope Clement 
VII. wrought feveral admirable pieces in the Hall 
ol Conjlantmey and other publick places. But his 
principal perforrnanees were at Mantoua : where - 
he was fent for by tlie Marquefs Frederico Gom^a- 
ga 3 and where he made his name illuftrious, by 
a noble and ftately Palace built after his Model^ 
and beautified with variety of Paifirings after his 
Defigns. And indeed in Jrch'ueBure he was fo 
eminently skilful j that he was invited back to 
3lpmey with an offer made him of being the chief 
JrchiteEi of St. Teters ChutcK : but whilft he w^ ^ -^ 
debating with himfelf, whether Of no he fliould ^^^.-.^.^^ 
accept of this opportunity, of returning glorioufly 
into his Qwn Country^ Death incerpos d^ Jmt& ¥ 5 46. j^^ 
fide fag. 2x6. fbii;oi2 r ' 

.;; GlACOim da mNr&^MG, fo caird' ffcm 
ffie place of his Birdiy Jmto t^f^, flrudied uttdet H9? 
Leomrda da Finery Mmatto AlbertmB^ ^kfr^SCo- 
fimo, and Andrea del Sam : hm chiefly followed 
the manner of th« ta(^ bot& in J)f/g^ and Co- 
lour mg. He was' of fo unhappy a t^nper of min J^ 
that chough his Works liad flood the Tell even 
o( ^phadiini Michael Angeloy cii)s befi Judges, ytt 
h^^^&i^ never ordeu die:nai fa as^ to^ pleafe kimfelfc 

27^ Mai^MMnfl^^ 

and. was fo far from being fathfied with TLVif^imn^ 

he had ever done, that he was in great danger of 

lofing the gracefulnefs of his own manner^ by 

imitating that of other 3ii?/?erf, and particularly 

the Style of Albert Vurer in his prints. He fpcnt 

moil of his time at Florence y where he painted the 

Chapel of St. Laurence : but was fo wonderfully 

-- tedious about it, that in the fpace of eleven years 

T^l^^^ he would admit no body to fee what he had per- 

form'd. He was alfo of fo mean and pitiful a 

fpirir, that he chofe rather to be imploy'd by Or- 

dinary Teopky for inconfiderable gains 5 than by 

TT^ /. PWwcej and Noi/ewew, atanyrates; fo thathedied 
At. 63. ' -^ 

poor^ Aim 1556. 

GIOFJNNI ^'UDINEy fo nam'd from the 
1494. place where he was born (being the Metropolis of 
Frioul) Anno 1 494 ; was inftru^led by Georgione 
at Venice^ and at (^ome became a Difciplc of <]^- 
fhael: and is celebrated, for having been the firji 
who found out the Compofition of Stucco-work-t ia 
'^ ^ * ufe amongft the ancient ^mansy and difcover'd in 
the Subterranean Vaults of Titus's Palace ; which 
he reftor'd to its full Splendor and Perfedion. He 
was employed by <Haphaely in adorning the Apart- 
ments of the Vatican ; and afterwards by feveral 
^WQtSy and Cardinals^ in the chief Palaces ol^me 
ys.\ and 

and Florence yzni by the agreeable variety atirf 
richacfs of hisFancy) and his peculiar happinefs in 
expreffing all' forts of Jtmnahy Fruity Flowers^ zn4 
the Still h/gy both in ^afl relieVOy and Colours j a8^ 
quir'd the reputation of being the bed Majler m 
the world, for Ornaments in Stucco^ and Grotefque, 
He died Anno i 5 64, and was bury'd, according 
to his defire, in tht^tunday nearchis^d^a'f' Mafter ^^ ^^.^ 

%^phaeL .*..-.-; _. ^. ,..^ II :iimb£ blue / \^^^-^r^ 

'un^ nL^m olio oik sew sH .bmiol 
mSATTISTJ F(SJKC0 his Contemporary, # 
Native ofFenice, was a Difciple of Mc/?^ e/^w^g/(fe 
whofe manner hefoUowM fo clofe, that in the coS- r ^ 4^ 
red:ne(s of his Out-line , he furpafs'd moft of the 
Majler s in his time. His Paintings are fomewhat 
numerous, and difpers'd all over Italy y and other 
parts of Europe : but his Colouring being very dry^. "^^^ ^ 
they are not much more efteem'd than the prints 
which he etch'd. He died Anno \ j6iv e^i*-^^ ^-i.-^ 

ni LUCAS -Van LEYDEN, fo callM ffofii- 11$6.''^-^*^^ 
place where he was born, Anno 1 45^4, was at firft ^^y^^ 
a Difciple of his Father y a ^Painter of note, and at 
ter wards of Cornelius Engelhert : and wonderfully 
cry'd up in Holland^ and the Lm Countries y for his 
skill in Taintingy and Graving. He was prodigi- 
oufly laborious in his Works, and a great Emuk- 


.278 'Modern Mafiers^ 

tor of Jlkrt Durer : with \vhom'^he/! became at 
lengrh fo inrimare, that they cktw kaoli^Others 
^iBure. And indeed their Manmry and Style sltc 
ife^i^V rcfpeds fo very much alike, that it fecm^d 
3S' if one and the fame 5of</ had anknaced them 
4©tk\ i .He died Jnno i 5 3 J, after an interview be- 
twixt him and fome other Maimers zz Mtddlehurghi 
where difputing, and falling out in their Cups, 
Mt ? o ^^^^ fancying they had poyfon'd him, languifh'd 
i^ by degrees, and pined away purely with conceit. 

V QUmTiN MATSTS of Jntwer^, was the Con- 
/?R-^^ temporary of Lmc<^; and famous for having been 
transform'd from a Slackfmith to a ^ainUr, by rbc 
force of jLoVe, and for the fake of a Mijire/?, who 
diflik'd his former profejfjion. He was a parnfui 
and* diligent Imitator of the ordmary Li/e,and much 
better at reprefenting the defeBsy than the Seau^ 
ties oilSlcitme, One of his bed Pieces is 2L'Defcent 
from the Crofs (in a Chapel of the Cathedral at Ant- 
. werp) for which, and a multitude of other Hifio- 
rksy and "Porfrditj, he gain' d a great number of ad- 
mirers ; efpecially for his Curkjlty and Neatnefsy 
which in truth, was the principal p^t of his Cha- 
ra^er. He AKdJnm 1529. 

li, IJr^J 

rw^c.^ ,* Befidc 

n Befidecihoritwo Majiers laft mentiorty, irfieaw 

iverc feycr^ other ffijiory- fainter $y who flourifli'd 

m Gttman^ iVUnk^i^ and Holland about t hi6^cirtl& 

But their manner being generally Oothique^ Hard^ 

and Drj; 5 more like the Style of Cimabue, in the 

Dawning of the Jrt of ^atntuig, than the G«/?o of 

^phael, in its Meridian Lujire-^ v^c fliall onely 

give you the names of fome of the moft noted ; 

and fuch were Mahufe, AUegraef Schoorely Frans > -^ 

Florisy Martin Hemskerckj ChnfSchwartSy &Ctju yO 3^v">s^ 

^OLim%p of CA%AVAGG10 y'm the Dutchy ^^v-A^x-^- 
of Milan, was bom ^?mo 1 49 5 , and brought up ^4?5\ 
to no better an imployment than carrying Stone 
and Mortar, in the New- buildings of Pope Leo X. 
But being tempted at laft by the performances of- 
Gio, d'Udine, to try his Tale?tt in Vefignmg: by the 
afljftance of one of his Scholars, and his own con- ^ 
tinued Application to the Antiquities, in a lictk 
time he became fo skilful an Artifl, that he had ^ 
the honour of contributing much to the finifliing . 
thofe glorious Works in the Vatican, He aflbcia- 
tcd himfelf both in the Study and Practice of his 
Art with one MATWSJN.O, a Florenttne-^ and their • 
Genius being very conformable, they liv'd toge- 
ther like brothers, working in Frejco upon feveral ^ 
Fronti/pieces of the moft noble Talaces in <^me : : 


28 o Modern Aiafters. 

whereby they accjuir'd great reputation j their In- 
' ^i^ention being the richeft, and their Vefi^n the eafi- 
eft that could any where be feen. But Maturino 
dying Anno 1527, and ^ome being then in the 
hands of the Spaniards j Tolidoro retir'd to Na[>leSy 
and from thence to Mejfma j where his excellent 
Talent in Arch'tteSlure alfo being highly commend- 
ed, lie was order'd to prepare the Triumphal Arches 
for the reception of the Emperour Charles V. from 
Tunis y for which he was nobly rewarded ; and 
being afterwards defirous of feeing ^me once 
more 5 in his return thither was murther'd by his 
Servant and Accomplices, for the fake of his Mo- 
jEt ^8 "^y* ^"^ bury 'd at Mejfmay Anno 1543. Vide 
- ^ * (P/g. 217. 

^OSSO (fo caird from his red Hair) born at 
1490. plorefice, Anno 14965 was educated in the ftudy 
of ^hilofophyy Mujlc^ Sec, and having learnt the 
firft Rudiments oiDefign from the Cartoons of M- 
chaelAngeloy improved himfelf by the help of Ana- 
tomy-y which he underftood fo very well, that he 
composed two Sooh upon that Subje(5t. He had a 
copious Invention, great skill in the mixture of his 
Colours, and in the management of his Lights 
and Shadows ; was very happy alfo in his Nakd 
Figures ywhich he cxprcfs'd with a good 3(efeVo, and 


Modern Mafltrs.^ 


ptoper Attttuie^'^ and would have excelled in all 
the parts of (PAfm/g, had he not been too fow//- 
oHsznA ^-xfr^V^^^^zt fometimes, and fuffer'd himfelf 
rather to behurry'd away with the heat of an un- 
bounded Fancy ^ than governed by his own Judg- 
ment, or the (^les of Art. Vrom Florence his Cu- 
rioficy carry'd him to^me and Venice, and after- 
wards into France '^ where by hrs Works in the 
Galleries at Fount alnbleau, and by fcveral proofs 
which he gave of his extraordinary knowledge in 
ArchiteSlure . he recommended himfelf fo effedlu- 
ally to Francis I. that he made him Super -Intendent 
General of all his buildings, ^lEiures, &c. and gave 
him other opportunities of growing fovaftly richj <f 
that for fome time he liv'd like a Prince himfelf, 
m all the Splendor and Magnificence imaginable: 
till at laft being rob'd of a confiderable Summ of ;^q^ , 
Money, and fufpeding one of his intimate Friends 
(a Florentine who frequented his houfe} he caus'd-v 
him to be imprifon'd, and put to the Torture, t 
which he underwent with courage • and having iti 
the higheft extremities maintained his innocence , 
with fo much conftancy, as to procure his Releafej 
^Jfoj partly out of remorfe for the barbarous . 
treatment of his Friend, and partly out of fear of 
the ill confequence from his' juft Refentment, ^^^ .^^ 
made himfelf away by ^ol/on, Anno 1541. 

O o F(I{AN' 


28*2 Modern Makers. 

V<^AKCESCO (p^IMATICCIO, a famous ^ain^ 
ter and ArchiteEi of !Bologna, fucceeded <^oJfo in. 
^ the Honours and Imployments which he enjoyed 

by the favour oi Francis I. and befides, being very 
well defcended, was made Abbot of St. Martin de 
Troy, in Champagne. He finifh'd all the feveral 
Works begun by his Predeceflfor at Fount ainhleauy. 
by the affiftance of NICOLO delt jmATE, an ex- 
cellent Artift, his Difciple: and enrich'dthat J^alace^ 
with abundance of noble Statues, and other Tieces. 
o{ AtJtiquity, which he brought purpofely from. 
Italy by the lyings order. He had been bred up at 
Mantoua under Julio ^mano, as well to Stncco* 
work as fainting : and by ftudying his manner, to- 
gether with the Performances of other great Ma-^ 
Jlers, became perfed in the Art of Deftgning, and> 
well vcrs'd in grand Compojttions. He continued 
in France during the remainder of his Life : liv'd 
in Pomp and State, more like a Nobleman than x 
fainter-, and was very well efteem'd in four fever 
ral <l(egns, 

DON GMLIO CLOVIO, the celebrated I/W 
ner>y hoxn in Sclayojua, ^mw. 1498, at the age of 
eighteen years went to Italy : and under the Con- 
du6l of Julio ^mano, apply'd himfelf to Miniature. 
with fuch admirable Succefsj that never did and- 


Modern Mafiers. 283 

^nt VreecBy or modern ^me produce his Fellow. He , 

cxceird both in Portraits and Hijiories : and (as 
V'afari his Contemporary reports) was another Ti- 
tian in the one, and a fecond Michael Angelo in 
the other. He was entertain d for fometime in the 
fervice of the King of Hungary : after whofe de- 
ceafe he return d to Italy ; and being taken Pri- 
foner at the facking oi^meyhy the Spaniards ^ made 
a Vow, to retire into a Conyent^ as foon as ever he 
fhould recover his Liberty 5 which he according- 
ly performed not long after in Mantoua : but up- 
on a Difpenfation obtain'd from the TopCy by Car- 
dinal Grimaniy foon laid afide the religious Habit, 
and was received into the Family of that Prince, 
His Works were wonderfully efleem'd through- 
out Europe 5 highly valu d by feveral ^opes^ by 
the Emperours Charles V. and Maximilian 11. by 
Philip King of Spainy and many other illuftrious 
Perfonages : and fo much admir'd at (^ome j that 
thofe Tieces which he. wrought for the Cardinal 
Farne/e (in whofe Palace he fpent the latter part 
of his Life) were by all the Lovers of Jrty rec- 
kon'd in the number of the parities of that Citj/, ^^^ ^^ 
Oh. Anno i 578. 

HATSIS HOL'SETRy born at ©4^, in Smt- 
^erlandy Anno 1498, was a Difciple of his Fa- MP^' 

O o 2 thery 

284 Modern Maflers. 

ther 5 by whofe afliftance and his own induftry, 
he made a wonderful Progrefs in the Art of J^aitp- 
t'mg : and acquired fuch a name by. his Piece of 
Deaths-dance^ in the Town-hall of Sajil, that the fa- 
mous Er^wMJ, after he had oblig'd him to draw his 
TiSiurey fenc him over with it into England, and 
gave him Letters recommendatory to Sir TI:>omas 
Moore then L*^- ChanceUour-^ who received and enter- 
tained him with the greateft refpedt imaginable, im- 
ploy'd him in making the 'Porfr^iri of himfelf and 
Family ; and which the fight of them fo charmed 
King Henry VIII. that he immediately took him 
into his fervice, and by the many fignal Inftances 
which he gave him of his Royal Favour and Boun- 
ty, brought him likewife into efteem with all the 
Nobility, and People of Eminence in the King- 
dom. One of his beft Pieces ^ is that of the faid 
^ng with his Queen^ 8cc. at Whitehally which with 
divers other admirable Portraits of his hand (fome 
as big, and others lefs than the Life ; and as well 
in Wat er- Colour Sy as Oyl) may challenge a place a- 
mongft thofe of the mod fam'd Italian Majlers : Vid. 
Tag, iij^. He was eminent alfo for a rich vein 
of LiVentionj very confpicuous in a multitude of 
DeJtgnSy which he made for Craven ^ Sculptors y 
Jewellers^ &c. and was particularly remarkable 
for having (like Turpilim the ^man) performed 


Modern Mafiers. 285 

all his Works with his Left hand. He died of the ^ ^ 
^lague^ ztLondoriy Anno 1554. • ) • 

fpIE^KO del VAGA, was born at Florence, 
Anno 1500, of fuch mean Parent age \ that his Mo- * 5 ^^» 
tber being dead at two months end, he was af- 
terwards fuckled by a Goat, The name of Vaga 
he took from a Country fainter , who carry'd hinx 
to (^o;«e : where he left him in fuch poor circum- 
ftances, that he was forc'd to fpend three days of 
the week in working for Bread j but yet fettinga- 
part the other three for his improvement 5 in a Ht- 
tle time, by ftudying the Antique, together witli 
the Works of ^fhael, and Michael Angelo, he be- 
came one of the boldeft and beft Defigners of the 
^man School ; and underftood the Mufcles in nar 
ked Bodies, and all the difficulties of the Art fo 
well ; that Raphael took an affedion to him, an J , 
imploying him in the ^oj^es Apartments, gave 
him a lucky opportunity of diftinguifhing him- 
felf from his Fe How difciples, by the marvellous beau* 
ty of his Colour ingy and his peculiar Talent in Gro- 
tef(jue. His chief Works are at Genoua: where he 
grew famous hkewife for his skill in ArchiteBure 5. 
having defign^'d a noble Palace for Prince Doria, 
which he alfo painted, and adorn'd with his own 
hand. From Genoua he remov'd to ^ija, and af 


2S6 Modern Mafters. 

terwards to feveral other pares of Italy ; his ratti- 
bling humour never fufFering him to continue long 
in one place : rill at length returning to ^me, he 
had a Penfion fettled on him, for looking after the 
Pope's P^/jr^, and the Ca fa Farnefe, But Vienna 
having {quanderM away in his Youth, that which 
fliould have been the fupport of his old Age 3 and 
being conftrain d at laft to make himfelf cheap, 
by undertaking any little ^mes^ for a fmall Summ 
of ready money ; fell into a deep Melancholy y and 
from that extreme into another as bad, of Wine 
JEt, A7 ^^^ Women^ and the next turn was into his GraVe, 
Anno I 5 47. 

^ 5 ^4* GlANOy becaufe born at Tannuy Anno \ 5 04, 
was an eminent fainter when but fixteen years old, 
famous all over Italy at nineteen, and at twenty 
three perform'd fuch wonders ; that when the Em- 
perour Charles V« had taken <B^me by Storm, fome 
of the common Soldiers in facking the Town, ha- 
ving broke into his Apartments, and found him 
intent upon his work, were fo aftonifliM at the 
<:harming Beauty of his J^ieces, that inftead of 
Plunder and Deftrudlion, which was then their 
bufinefi, they refolv'd to protect him (as they af- 
terwards did) from all manner of violence. But 


Modern Mafierr. 287 

Befides the perfe(5tions of his Pencil Cwhich was 
one of the gentileft, the moft graceful, and the 
mcft elegant of any in his time) he delighted much 
in M^ftcy and therein alfo excell'd. His princi- 
pal Works are at 'P^rww 5 where, for feveral years 
he liv'd in great Reputation, till falling unhappi- 
ly into the ftudy of Chymlflry^ he wafted the moft 
confiderable part of his Time and Fortunes in 
ftarch of the Wdofophers-Stone^ and died poor, in 
the flower of his age. Anno 1540. See farther 
^age 221: and note, that there are extant ma- j^'f , , ^^ 
ny valuable ^rintSy etch'd by this Mafter. 

GIACOMO ^JLMA^ Senior^ commonly call'd 
TALMA VECCHIO, was born at Ser'malu, in the ^ '^■' 
State oiVenkey Anno 1508; and made fuch good 
ufe and advantage of the inftrudtions which he re- 
ceived from Tjit/4rt> that few Maflers 2xt to be nam'd, 
who have fhewn a nobler Fancy in their Compofi 
tions, a better Judgment in their Vejignsj more of 
Mature in their Expreffion, or of A^t^ in finijhing 
their Works. Venice was the place where he ufual- 
lyrefided, and w^here he died, Aiinox'^'^S. His 
Pieces are not very numerous, by reafon of his- 
having fpent much time, in bringing thofe which- 
he has left behind \nmxo fuch wonderful pafe<5li. >^f. 48'^ 

288 Modern Mafiers. 

^-.-A_>-N t>ANIELE%lCCIA^LUM^^^-^'<^daVOL- 
\ J op. TE^^^Aj from a Town in Tufcany where he was 
born, Anno 1509, was a perfon of a melancho- 
ly and heavy temper, and feem'd to be but mean- 
ly qualified by Nature for an Artifl : Yet by the 
inftru6tions of Salthafar da Siena, and his own 
continued Application and Induftry, hefurmoun- 
f f^ ltd all difficulties, and at length became fo excel- 
^-^ lent a l)efigne)\ that his Vefcent from the Cro/sy in 
the Church of the Trinity on the Mount, is rank'd 
amongft the principal Pieces in ^me. He was 
chofen by Pope ^aul IV. to cloath fome of the 
Nudities, in Michael Angela's Laji Judgment ; which 
he performed with good fuccels. He was as emi- 
nent likewifefor his Lhifel,zs his 'Pe7Ja75and wrought 

■^f. - - feveral confiderablc things in Sculpture, Oh, Anno 

F1(ANCESC0 SALVIATI, a Florentine, born 
J I O' Anno 1 J T o, was at firft a Difciple of Andrea del 
Sarto, and afterwards of Saccio Sandinelii ; and 
very well efteem'd both in Italy, and France, for 
his feveral works in Frefco, Dijlemper, and OyL 
He was quick at Invention, and as ready in the exe- 
cution ; Graceful in his Naked Figures, and as Gen- 
tde in his Draperies : Yet his Talent did not lie in 
great Compofitions 5 And there are fome of his 


Modern Makers. 289 

Pieces in two Colours onely, which have the name 
of being his beft Performances, He was natu"- 
rally fo fond and conceited of his own Works-, 
that he could hardly allow any body elfe a good 
word : And 'tis faid, chat the Jealoufie which 
he had of fome loujig^ men then growing up into 
reputation, made him fo uneafic, that the very 
apprehenfions of their proving better Artijls than ^^^ ^ 
himfelf, haften d his De^f/?, y^wwo ij^Sj, « 

m^i<^ LIGO^HJO, a Neapolitany liv'd in this 
time : and tho' he addrefs'd himfelf chiefly to the 
ftudy of ArchiteBure, and for his skill in that Art 
was imploy'd, and highly encouraged by Pope'Pr- 
us IV. yet he was withall an excellent Vejt^ner; 
and by the many noble Cartoons which he made 
for Tapejlriesy Sec. gave fufficient proof, that he 
was more than indifferently learn'd in the Antiqui- 
ties. There are feveral Volumes of his Defigns 
prefer v'd in the Cabinet of the Duke oiSayoy ; of 
which fome part confifts in a curious ColleEtion 
of all the ShifSj and other forts of Vejfels^ in nfe 
amongft the Ancients. He died about the year 
1573. VtdeTag.iij. 

GIACOMO da TONtE da ^ASSANO, fo caird 
from the place where he was born in the Marca Tre^ ^ 5 ^ ^* 

P p Vifana 

250 Modern Mafiers. 

yifana, Anno 1510, was a Difciple of Sonifacio, x 
noted Tamter^2Lt Fenice-jby whofe AfliftancCjand his 
own frequent copying the Works of Titian, and 
^armegmnOj he brought himfelf into a pleafant and 
moft agreeable way of Colouring : but returning in^ 
CO the Country, upon the death of his Father, he 
apply'd himfelf wholly to the imitation of Nature; 
and from his Wife, Children and Servants, took 
the Ideas of moft of his Figures. His Works arc 
very numerous, all the Stories of the Old and New 
Tefiament having been painted by his hand, be- 
fides a multitude of other Hijtories. He was fa* 
mous alfo for feveral excellent portraits, and par- 
ticularly thofe of the celebrated ^oets Ludo'vico 
Jriojio , (Bernardo Taffo, and Torquato his Son. 
In a word, fo great was the Reputation of this 
Jrtiji at Fettice, that Titian himfelf was glad to 
purchafe one of his Tieces (reprefenting The en- 
tfance o/Noah and his Family, into the Ark) at a ve- 
ry confider-able Price. He was earneftly folicir 
ted to go over into the fervice of the Emperour : 
but fo charming were the pleafures which he 
found in the quiet enjoyment of fainting, Mujic, 
and good 'Books ^ that no Temptations whatfoevep 
could make him change his Cottage for a Court. 
j£t. 8*2. He died Anno i 5 9 2> leaving, behind him four Sms, 
^ of whom 
: F^AN. 

Modern Mafters. 25>'4 

^ V^AKCESCO the Eldeji, fettled at Fema ^ 
where he foUow'd the manner of his Father, and 
was well efteem'dj for divers Pieces which he made 
in the Ducal Talace and other publick places, in 
conjundion with (P^«/ Veronefe, Ttntoret, &cc. But 
his too clofe Application to fainting having ren- 
der'd him unfit for all other bufinefs, and igno- 
rant even of his own private Affairs j he contra- 
died by degrees a deep Melancholy, and at laft 
became fo much craz'd, that fancying Sergeants 
were continually in purfuit of him, he leap'd 
out oihisWindoWy to avoid 'em (as he imagin d) 
and by the fall occafion d his own Death, Anno 
1594, jEt. 43. 

LEAKD<^, the TInrd Son, had fo excellent 
a Talent in Face-painting, (which he principally 
iludied) that he was Knighted for a Portrait which 
he made of the Doge Marin Crimano. He hke- 
wife finifh'd feveral things left imperfect by his 
Brother Francefco 5 compos'd fome Hijiory- pieces 
alfo of his own, and was as much admir'd for 
his perfeHlon in Mujtck, as his skill in fainting, Oblit 
Anno 1623, jEt, (5j. 

GIO, SJTTISTA, the Second Son, and 61-:% .\% 
SiOLAMO the Joungejl, apply'd themfelves to co- 

P p 2 fymg 

25 2 Modern Makers:. 

fyng tlieir Vcithzrs Works 3 which they did fo very 
well, that they are oftentimes taken for Originals, 
Gio. Sattijla died Jnm 1613, j^t. 60 ; and G/- 
rolamo Anno 1622, -^f. 62: See more of the 
!BaJfans ^ag, 220. 

^-A-^ GIACOMO %0mSJl c^\\'dTINT01(ETTOy 
* 5 ^ 2^' becaufe a Djeri Son, born at Venice^ Anno 1512^ 
was a Difciple of Titian ; who having obfervM 
fomcthing very extraordinary in his Genius, diC- 
mifs^d him from his Family, for fear he (hould 
grow up to rival his Majler, Yet he flill purfu'd 
Tttians way of Colouring, as the moft natural 5 and 
fludied Michael Angelos Gufto of Veftgn, as the 
moft correal. Venice was the place ofhisconftant 
Abode 5 where he was made a Citi^^n, and won- 
derfully beloved, and efteem'd for his Works -, the 
CharaEier of which fee ^Pag. 219- He was call'd- 
the Furiom Tint or et, for his bold manner of Taint- 
ingy with ftrong Lights and deep Shadows-, for the 
rapidity of his Genim^ and grand vivacity of Spi-^ 
' rity much admir'd by Taul Veroneje, But then, 
on the other hand, he was blam'd by him, and all 
others of his Trofepon, for under- valuing himfelf, 
and his Art, by undertaking all forts of bufinefs 
for any Trice-, thereby making k^ <:reat a difference 
in his fevcral (Per/orm^wce5, that (' Hannibal Carrach 


Modern Majlers. 253:. 

obfcrv'd} he is fometimcs equal to Ttt'tan^ and at 
other times inferior even to h'lmfelf. He was ex- 
tremely pleafant and affable in his Humour : and 
delighted fo much in fainting and Muftc^ his be- 
loved Studies^ that he would hardly fuffer him- 
felf to taft any other Pleafures. He died Amw 
I 594, leaving behind \{\m 2, Daughter^ and a Son^ ^^^ g^ 
of whom the Eldeft 

MA^IETTJ TINTO^ETTA was fo well in^ 
fl:ru6ted by her Father in his own J^rofeJJion, as 
well as in Mujtc, that by her Pencil flie got great 
Reputation J and was particularly eminent for an 
admirable Style in Portraits. She died young, 
Jnno I 590, A^t, 30. 

DOMEKICO TIKrO(^TrO his Son, gavr 
great hopes in his youth, that he would one day 
render the name of Tmtoret yet more illuftri- 
ous than his Father had made it: but neglciSting to 
cultivate by ftudy the Talent which Nature had 
given him, he fell fhort of thofe mighty things 
expeded from him, and became more confidera- 
ble for Portraits y than Hiftorkal Compofitions, He 
died Anno i<5j7, ABt.7^, 


254 Modern Majlers. 

(PA^IS m^IipONE y well defcended , and 
broLighc up CO Letters, Mufic, and other gentile 
Accomfl'ijhmentSj was a Difciple of Titian, and 
flouriih'd in the time ofTmtoret: but was more 
commended for the Delicacy of his Pencil, than the 
T^tmty of his Out lines. He was in great favour and 
efteem with Francis I. for whom, befides abun- 
dance of Hijlories^ he made the Portraits of feve- 
ral Court Ladies, in fo excellent a manner, that the 
Original Nature was hardly more charming. From 
France he teturn'd home to Venice, laden with 
Honour and Riches j and having acquired as much 
Reputation in all the parts of Italy, as he had 
done abroad, died Anno ABt. 75. 

^^^^^ GEO^IO VASA%1, born at Are:^^9 a City 
* 5 ^ 4' in Tii/cany, Anno 1514, equally famous for his 
¥en and Tencil, and as eminent for his skill in Ar- 
chiteSiure , was a Difciple of Michael Angela, and 
Andrea del Sarto ; and by his indefatigable diligence 
in ftudying and copying all the beft Pieces of the 
mod noted Artifls, improved his Invention and 
Hand to fuch a degree, that he attain'd a wonder- 
ful Freedom in both. He fpent the moft confide- 
rable part of his Life in travelling over Italy 5 lea- 
ving in all places marks of his Induftry, and ga- 
thering every where materials for his Hiflory ofth 


* Modern Mafiers. 25 5 

Lives of the moji excellent ^amters, Sculptors, Archi- 
teSisy &c. which he publifli'd at Florence, about 
the year i J J i: a work, in the opinion of Hannibal 
Caro, written with much exa(5lnels and judgment 5 
tho' Felibieny and others tax him with fome mi- 
ftakes, and particularly with flattering the Ma- 
y?^ri then alive, and with partiality to thofe of ^ . 
his own Country. He died Armo \ 578. l^--^nx-J^* 

ANTONIO MO^Ey born at Utrecht in the 
Low- Countries J Anno 1519, was a Difciple of 15^9* 
John Schoorelf and in his younger days had feen 
^ome, and fome other parts of Italy. He was re- 
commended by Cardinal Granville, to the fervice 
of the Emperour Charles V. and having made a 
Portrait of his Son Thilip II. at Madrid, was feno 
upon the fame account to the King, Queen, and 
Princefs of Portugal, and afterwards into England, 
to draw the ^ifture of Queen Mary. From Spain^ 
he retired into Flanders^ where he became a migh- 
ty Favourite of the Duke of Aha (then the Go- 
vernour of the Low-Countries,) And befides the 
noble Prefents and Applaufe which he gain'd in 
all places by his Pencil, was as much admir'd for 
his extraordinary Addrefs, being as great a Courtier 
as a Tainter. His Tale?it lay in Deftgning very 
juftly, infinifliing his Pieces with wonderful care. 


2$ 5 Modern Makers. 

and neatneG, and in a moft natural innitation of 
Flejh snd Bhiid, in hhCokwmg, Yet after all, 
he could not reach that noble Strength and Spirk, 
fo vifible in the Works of Titian, and to u hich 
/^/i DjcA. has iincc arrived. He made feveral At- 
tempts alfo in Hiflory-piecesy but underftood no- 
thing of grand ComPbfuionSj and his manner was 
'^^ «^ tame, hard, and dry. He died at Antwerp^ Amio 

^AOLO FA^INJTOy bom at Ferona, Anm 
^5"^^' 1522; was a Difciple of Antonio Sadtle, and an 
admirable Vejigner^ but not fo happy in his Co- 
louring : tho' there is a Ttece of his in St. Georges 
Church at Verona^ fo well performed in both parts, 
that it does not feem to be inferior to one oi^aulo 
Feronefcy which is plac'd next to it. He was very 
confiderable likewife for his knowledge in Scul- 
pture, and ArchiteEiure^ efpecially that part of it 
AEt, 84. ^^^^ relates to Fortifications y &c. Ohiit Anno 

AKD^A SCHIAVOKE, fo call'd from the 

^ * Cowwtr^ where he was born, Anno 1521; was fo 

very meanly defcended, that his Parents after they 

had brought him to Venice^ were not able to allow 

him a Majler : and yet by great ftudy and pains, 


Modern Majlers. 2^1 

together with fuch helps as he received from the 
Prints of TarmegianOy and the Paintings of Georgi- 
««eand Titian , he arriv'd at laft to a degree of 
Excellence very furprizing. 'Tis true indeed, 
that being obliged to work for his daily Bread, 
he could not fpare time fufficient for making him- 
felf throughly perfect in Deftgn : but however, 
that Defed: was fo well cover'd by the fingular 
Beauty and Sweetnefs of his Colours^ that Tmtoret 
us'd oftentimes to fay, no fainter ought to be with- 
out one ^iece (at leaft) of his Hand. His principal 
Works were composed at Venice^ fome of them in 
concurrence with Tmtoret himfelf, and others 
by the dire<5lions of Titian^ in the Library of St. 
Mark* But fo malicious was 'Fortune to poor An- 
dreay that his ^iSlures were but Httle valued in his 
life-time, and he never was paid any otherwife 
for them, than as an ordinary fainter : tho' after his 
Deceafe, which happcn'd ^«wo 1582? his Worh 
turn'd to a much better account, and were e- 
fteem'd anfwerable to their Merits, and but lit- 
tle inferior to thofc of his mod famous Contemn- j£t, 60. 

F^EDE^ICO SA^OCCIy born in the City of- 
Urhiny Anno 1528, was train d up in the Art of ^5^^' 
Defigning by !BaptiJla Venetiano^ and having ac 

Q^q ^me 

298 Modern Majlers. 

^me acquir'd a competent Knowledge in Geo- 
metry, J^erfpe^ive, and ArchlteBure^ apply'd him- 
felf'to the Works of his moft enriinent Tredecejfors ; 
and in a particular manner ftudied ^aphael^ 
and CorreggiQ ; one in the charming Ayrs^ and 
graceful 0«f-//«f^ of his Fg«rf J, and the other in 
the admirable Mmoriy and agreeable Harmony of 
his Colours, He had not been long in ^ome, be- 
fore feme malicious Cahners ^ his Competitors y 
found means by a Dofe of ^oyfon conveyed into 
21 Sallet, with which they had treated him, to 
fend him back again into his own Country^ attend- 
ed with an Infirmity fo terribly grievous, that for 
above fifty years together it leldom permitted 
him to take any Repofe, and never allowed him 
above two hours in a day to follow his fainting. 
So that expe(5ting, almofi: every Moment, to be re- 
mov'd inco another World, he imploy'd his Pen- 
cil altogether in the Hijlories of the ©/We, and o- 
thcr Religious SuhjeBsj of which he wrought a con- 
fiderable number, in the ftiort Intervals of his pain- 
j£t. 84.. ^"'f^^^> ^^^ notwithftanding the Severity of them, 
liv'd till the year 1612. 

TADDEO ZUCCHE^, born in the Duc- 

^5^9- c\\y oiUrhiny Aniiox^i^^ was initiated in the 

Art of Ittainting^t home, by his Father ^ and at 

Modern Majlers. 295 

^me inftrudted by Gio. ^ietro Calairo 5 but im- 
prov'd himfelf mod by the Study oi Anatomy ^ and 
by copying the Works of Raphael. He excell'd 
chiefly in a florid InVentionj a gentile Manner of 
Dejignlng^ and in the good Vijpofitlon and Oecon^- 
my of his pieces: but was not fo much admir'd 
for his Colourings which was generally unpleafanc, 
and rather refembled che S^tues than the Life. He 
liv'd for th€ moft part in ^me and Urbm^ where 
he left many things unfinifh'd, being taken away ^^ 
in his (Priwe, Jnno \^66» 

■•>■<' <PMLO CALIJI(I FE^ONESE, born Anno 
1551, W2LS a. D'i(c\ip\co( Antonio Sadilcy and not ^53^* 
only efl:eem'd the mofl: excellent of all the Lorn- 
hard Tainters, but for his copious and admirable 
JnVentiony for the Grandeur and Majefty of his 
ComfoJitioHy for the Beauty and Perfection of his 
Draperies, together with his noble Ornaments of 
ArchiteEiure, &;c. \s ftyf d by the Italians^ 11 ^ittore 
felice (the happy Painter.) He fpenc moft of his 
time at Venice 5 but the beft of his Works wer€ 
made after he return'd thicher from ^?ne, and 
had ftudied the Antique, ih could not be pre- 
vailed upon, by the great Offers made him by the 
King of Spain, to leave his own Country j where 
his Reputation was fo well eftablifh'd, that moft 

Q^ q 2 of 

300 Modern Majiers. 

of the Princes of Europe fenc to their fevefal Erm 
bajjadours^ to procure them fomething of his Hand 
at any Rates. He was a ^erjon of an ingenuous 
and noble Spirit, us'd to go richly dreft^ and ge- 
nerally wore a gold Chain^ which had been pre- 
fented him by the procurators of St. Mark, as a 
Tri:^e which he won from feveral Jrtifis his Com- 
petitors, He was highly in favour with all the 
principal Men in his time, and fo much admired 
by all the great Majleis, as well his Contempo- 
raries, as thofe who fucceeded him, that Titian 
himfelf us'd to call him the Ornaynent of his Tro- 
fifflon : and Guido ^eni being ask'd, which of the 
Majlers his Predeceffors he would chufe to be, 
were it in his power j after a litde paufe, cry'd 
out ^aulo, Taulo. He died at Venicey Anno i j 8 8, 
Mt. 56. leaving great Wealth behind him to his two 

GA^^IELLE and CA^LO , who liv'd ve- 
ry happily together, joyn'd in finifhing feveral 
Pieces left imperfcd: by their Father ^ and follow'd 
his manner fo clofe in other excellent things of their 
own, that they are not eafily diftinguifli'd from 
thofe of Taulos hand. Carlo would have performed 
wonders, had he not been nipt in the Bud, Ann(^ 
x')^6yjSt, 16: after whofe Deceafe Gabriel ap. 


Modern Mafl^rs. 301 

ply'd himfelf to Merchandf:^ng -y yet did not quite 
lay afide has (PfwoV, but made a confiderable 
number of J^ortraitSy and fome Hijiorypieces of 
a very good Gufio, Ohllt Anno i(Jj i , jEtat. 

SENEVETTO CAL1A%1 livM and ftudy'd 
with his Brother ^auloj whom he lov'd intirely ; 
and frequendy aflifted him, and his Nephews, in 
finifhing feveral of their Compojitions ; but efpeci- 
ally in Painting AnhiteHurey in which he chict 
ly dehghtcd. He pradtifed for the moftpartin 
Frefco : and fome of his beft Pieces are in Chiaro^ 
Scuroy or two Colours onely. He was befides, 
Majler of an indifferent good ftock of Learnings 
was Poetically inclined, and had a peculiar Ta- 
lent in Satire. He died Anno 1598, j£t, 60, See 
more of ¥aulo pag, 2 1 p. 

GIOSEffE SALVIATly a Venetian fainter, r-^^j,^^ 
was born Anno 1535, and exchanged the name i JJJ* 
of Torta, which belonged to his Family, for that 
of his Mafter Francejco SalVtatiy with whom he 
was plac'd very young at <^ome by his Uncle, He 
(pent the greateft^ part of his Life in Venice-^ where 
he apply'd himfelf generally to Frefco : and was 
oftentimes imploy'd in concurrence with ¥aul Fa- 


go2 Modern Maflers. 

ronefe and Tmtoret, He was well cftecm'd for his 
.i^o great skill both in Veftgn and Colouring ; was 
likewife well read in other Arts and Sciences^ and 
particularly fo good a Mathematician ^ that he writ 
v£-^ feveral Treatlfes very judicioufly on that SubjeSi, 

He died ^;ma 1585. 

F^EVE^ICO ZUCCHE^Kp, born in the 
'543* Dutchy of Wrim, i4«^w ^543? "was a Difciple of 
his Brother Taddeo, from whom he differed but 
very little in his Style and Manner of Tamtmgy tho' 
in Sculpture and Jrchiteclure he was far more ex- 
cellent. He fled into France to avoid the Popes 
Difpleafure, which he had incurr'd by an Affront 
put upon fome of his Officers', and from thence 
paffing through Flanders and Flolland, came over 
into England y drew Queen Ell;^abeths Pi(5lure, 
went back to Italy y was pardon'd by the fPope, and 
in a little time fent for to Spain by Philip II. and 
imploy'd in the EfcurtaL He labour'd very hard 
at his return to S^owe, for eftablifliing the Academy 
of Tainting, by virtue of a ©/ ie/ obtained frora 
Pope Gregory XIII. Of w/;/c/; being chofen the 
firft prince himfclf, he built a noble Apart- 
ment for their Meeting, went to Venice to print 
fome 'Books which he had composed of that Art^ 
and had form'd other Deilgns for its farther Ad- 

Modern Majleri:^ ^o^ 

Vancemcnt, which yet were all defeated by bis ^ 
Death (zt Jncona) Anno 1609. 

GIACOMO fJLMAjunm, commonly c;All'd 
GIOVANE fALMA, horn 2X Venice, Anno 1J44, iH4t- 
was the Son of Antonio the Nephew of ^falma Fee- 
thio. He improved the Infiru<5tions which his Fa- 
ther had given him, by copying the Works oi t\\t ^' 
mod eminent Maflersy both of the ^man and' 
Lombard Schools ; but in his own Compojicions chief- 
ly followed the Manner o( Titian and Tmtoret,. 
He fpent fome years in ^me, and was imploy'd - 
in the Galleries and Lodgings of the Vatican : but 
the greateft number of his Pieces is at Venice, where 
he fl:udied night and day, fill'd almoft every, 
place with fomething or other of his Hand ; and 
(like Tintoret) refused nothing diat was offer'd him, ., 
upon the leaft Profped of any Gains. He died ^ ^. 
Anno 1628. 

DOMENICO FETI, a (Upman, flouriffi'd in' 
this time. He was a Difciple of LodoVico Cf^oli^ 
oi Florence ', and excell'd in Figures and Hifloricali 
CompoJuions^_ but died young, Anno jEt» j 5. 

!BA^H0LOMEW S?(I{JKGHE% born at 
Antwerp, Anno 1546, was chki fainter to the * 54^' 


304 Modern Mafters. 

Emperour Maximilian 11. and^fo much refped^ed 
by his SuccelTor ^dolphii^j that he prefented him 
with a Gold Chain and Medaly allowed him a Ten- 
Jion, honoured him and his Poftericy with the Ti- 
tle ofNohdity^ lodg'd him in his own Talace^ and 
would fufFer him to paint for no-body but himfelf. 
He had fpent fome pare of his Yoiith in (Z^owe, 
where he was imploy'd by the Cardinal FarnefeyZnd 
afterwards preferred to the Service of Pope (P/wj V- 
but for want of Judgment in the Condu(5t of his 
Studies y brought little with him, befides a good 
Pencil from Italy, His Out-line was generally y?/^ 
^and very ungracefuly his Tojlures forcd and ex- 
tra')?aga7it 5 arid in a word, there appeared nothing 
of the ^oman Guflo in his Dejigns. He obtained 
leave from the Emperour (after many years continu- 
ance in his Court) to vifit his own Country 3 and 
accordingly went to Antwerp, Amflerdajji, Haerlein^ 
and feveral other places, where he was honoura- 
bly received : and having had the fatisfadion of 
feeing his own Works highly admir'd, and his man- 
ner almoft univerfally followed in all thofe parts, 
as well as in Germany y return'd to Prague, and di- 
jed Jnno 1 602, or thereabout. In the fame Form 
with Sprangher we may place his Contemporaries, 
John "Van Ah, and Jofeph Hemts, both Hiflory Tain- 
Mt. 5 6. ters of note, and much admir'd in the Emperour s 
Court. MATH' 

Modern Majlers. 305 

M/fTlHEW !B^L was born at Antwerp^ Anno r^s^^w^ 
I J 50, but ftudicd for the moft part at (3{owf. MJO- 
and was famous for his Performances in Hiftory 
and Landtfchapiy in the Galleries of the Fattcan, 
where he was imploy'd by Pope Gre^orj XIII.^^ 
He died young, Anno 1J84. 

(P^ML !85(IL, of Antwerp alfo, born ^/zwo 
1554, foUow'd his Brother Matthew to (2^owe, M 5 4* 
painted feveral things in conjunction with him, 
and after his Deceafe, brought himfelf into Repu- 
tation by his Lanitjchapes : but efpecially by thofc 
which he compos'd in his latter time (after he 
had ftudied the manner of Hannibal C^trrachy an3 
had copied ifome of Xttians Worhy in the fame 
kind^ the hiVentlon in them being more pleafant, 
the Vifpojition more noble, all the parts more a- 
greeabky and painted with a better Gufloy than 
chofe in his former days. He died at 5^owe, Anno j^^^ y 

MTOmO T£W(P£:5r^, his Contemporary, 
a Native of Florencey was a Difciple of John 
Straday a Fleming. He had a particular Genius 
for Sattelsy Cahacadesy HuntingSy and for defign- 
ing all forts of Animals : but did not fo much re- 
gard the Delicacy of Colouringy as the lively ex- 

R X preflTion 

3 o6 Moiem Mafiers. 

preflion and Sfirit of thofe things which he rcpre^ 
fenced. His ordinary Refidence was ac ^ome ; 
where, in his younger days he had wrought feve- 
ral pieces by order of Pope Gregory XIII. in the 
Apartments of the Vatkaru He was full o(TI)ought 
and Invention y very quick and ready in the Exe- 
cutio7iy and famous alfo for a multitude of TrintSy 
etch'd by him/elf. He died Anno 1630. 

rv,..A.^ LOmViCO CJJl^ACCI, the Uncle oi Augujli^ 
^5 5 5* ^0 and Hannibal j was born at Sologna^ Anno 1 5 j j, 
and under his firft Majler ^rofpero Fontana, diC 
cpver'd but an indifferent Genius for fainting : but 
however, Art fupply'd the defedls of Natwe, and 
by conflant and unwearied diligence in ftudying 
the Worh of Tarmegiano, Correggio^ Titian^ and 
other great M?/, he brought himfelf ac laft to a 
degree of TerfeBion hardly inferior to any of 
diem. He a/Tifted his Nephews in Founding and 
Settling the famous Academy of Dejign ac 'Bologna^ 
and afterwards in Tainting the Tala:^^ Farneje at 

[£t 6± ^^^^9 and having furviv'd them both, died Anno. 
1619, Vide fag, ixi* 

AGOSTINO CA(^ACCT, a mogneje alfo, was 

^•J5.7' borny^/2«o 15575 and by the care and inftrudi- 

ons of VomenicQ Tehaldij Alejfandro Minganti and- 


Modern Makers. 307 

9thers^ became not onely a very good De/t^ner- 
and Tainter , but in the Art of Graving furpafs'd 
all the Majlers in his time. He had an infighc 
likewife into all the parts of the Mathematics^ Na- 
tural Thilofophyy ^?etoricy Mujtc, and mod of the 
Liberal A^ts and Sciences, He was befides, an 
admirable Toety and in all other particulars ex- 
tremely well accomplifli'd. From (Bologna he 
Went to Venice^ where he contradled an intimate 
Friendflaip with ^aul Veronefe^ Ttntoret, and Saf 
fan 5 and having gravM a confiderable number 
of their Works, return d home, and foon after- 
wards foUow'd his Brother Hannibal to 5^owe, and 
joyn'd with him in finifhing feveral Stories in the 
Farnefe Gallery: But fome litde difference arifing 
unluckily betwixt them, Auguflino remov'd to the 
Court of the Duke of ^arma, and in his Service 
died Jnno 1602, Fide pag. 223. His moft ce- 
lebrated ¥iece of fainting, is that of the Commu- 
nion of St. Jerom, in bologna : a ^iSlure fo com- 
pleat in all its parts, that it was much to be la- 
mented, that the excellent Author of it flbould 
withdraw himfelf from the TraSlice of an Art in 
which his Abilities were fo very extraordinary, to^^^ ^^^ 
follow the inferior ^rofejjlon of a Gra'Ver, 

R r 2 AK' 

3 o8 Modern Maimers. 

N-A.^ AKKWALE CA<^ACC1, born likewife a* 
1560, (BolognAj Anno \ 560, was a Difciple of his Uncle 
LudoVico ; and amongft his ocher adnndrable qua- 
lities, had fo prodigious a Memory^ that whatever 
he had once (een, he never fail'd to retain and 
make his own : fo that at ^arma^ he acquir'd ths 
Smeet?iejs and purity of Correggio j at Fetiice the 
Strength 2itid Dijlribution of Colours oi Titian -^ and 
at ^mBy the CorreHmfs of Dejtg7i, and beautiful 
Fonns of the Antique : And by his wonderful (P^r- 
formances in the ^ala:^^ Farnefe^ foon made it ap- 
pear, that all the feveral TerfeBions of the moft 
eminent Majiers his Tredecejfors, were united in 
himfelf alone. In his Con^erfatimi he was friend- 
ly y plain y honeft y and open-hearted y very commu- 
nicative to his ScholarSy and fo extremely fc>/^ to 
tfcew, that he generally kept his Money in the fame 
box with hisCo/o«rj,where they might have recourfc 
to either as they had occafion. But the unhappi- 
ncfs of his Temper inclining him naturally to Me- 
hncholy 5 the ill ufage which he received from the 
Cardinal Farnefe (who through the Perfuafions of 
an ignorant Spaniard his Domejlicy gave him but 
a little above 200 /. Sterl for his eight years ftudy 
and labour) fo confirmed him in it, that he re- 
folv'd never more to touch his Tencil: and had 
und.oubtedly kept his rcfolution, had not his Nc- 


Modern Mafiers. 3 o^ 

ccffities compell'd him to rcRime it. Yet not- 
withftanding, fo far did his Vtfiemper by degrees 
gain upon him, that at certain times it deprivM 
him of the right ufe of his Sences 5 and at laft 
made him guilty of fome Irregularities y which 
conceahng from his ThyficianSy he met with th& 
fame fate as ^phael (in the like cafe) had done 
before him, and feem'd to copy that great Majier 
as well in the manner of his Death, as he had imi- 
toted him all his Life long in his Worh- Nay, 
fuch was the Veneration he had for ^aphaely that 
it was his Death-bed f^quejl^ to be bury'd in the 
very fame TowJ with him: which was according- 
ly done in the Tantheotij or ^tunda at ^me. Anno 
1 60^, See more fag. 1 2 2, and befides take notice^ 
that there are extant feveral prints of the ©. T^ir- 
giriy sind oi other SubjeBs^ ctch'd by the hand of ^^. in, 
this incomparable Artifi, 

ANTONIO CA^ACCI, the natural Son of Au- 
guftinoy was brought up under the Care and Tui- 
tion of his Uncle Hannibal: after whofe Deceafe, 
he apply'd himfelf fo fuccefsfuUy to the ftudy of 
all the Capital Pieces in 3^owe, that he would have 
furpafs'd even Hannibal himfelf, if Death had not 
prevented him. Anno idi8, Mt, jj. 


•^xo Modern Makers. 

JNTONIOy the Sons and Difciples of E^I^COLE 
^^OCJCCJNI, flouriflVd in this time. They 
were Natives of ^ologna^ but upon fome mifun- 
derftanding between them and the Carr aches y re- 
tnov'd to Mdatij where they fpent the greatefl: 
part of their Lives. Of thefe, 

CJMILLO the Eldeft, abounded in Invention 
and Spirit : but was a great Mannerifi^ and ra- 
ther fludy'd the 'Beauty y than CorreBnefsofhisVt- 

GIULIO CESA<I{E, was both a Sculptor and 
fainter y and famous in Genouay as well as Sologna 
and Milany for feveral admirable things of his 
hand. He was the beft of all the Procaccini, and 
furpafs'd his Brother Camillo in the exaBne/? and 
furity of his Out- lines y and in the Jlrength and bold- 
^ie/?of his Figures, 

CA^V ANTONIO was an excellent Mujiciany 
and as well skill'd in the Harmony of Colours as of 
Sounds : yet not being able to arrive to the ^erfe- 
aion of his Brothers in Hijlortcal Compojitions , he 
apply'd himfelf wholly to Landtfchapes and Flowersy 
and was much efteera'd for his Performances that 
way. E^' 

Modern Maflers. j^pj: 

E^OLE the Son of Carl' Antonio ^ was a DiC 
eiple of his Uncle Julio Cefarcy and fo happy in 
imitating his manner^ that he was fent for to the 
Court of the Duke of S^Vo)i, and highly honoured, 
and nobly rewarded by that'Pn'wce for his Services. 

CIOSEffE V'J^mO, commonly call'd Ca^ n^^A.^ 
Valier GIOSE^^INO, born in the Kingdom of N^ . i J ^o; 
flesy Anno i J^o, was carry'd very young to (2^ow^,. 
and put out to fome ^aint^rs, then at work in 
the Vatican^ to grind their Colours : but the quick- 
nefs of his Apprehenjton having foon made him 
Mafier of the Elements of Dejlgn, he had the fortune 
to grow very famous by degrees; and befidcs the- 
rcfpedl fliewn him by Pope Gregory XIIL and his 
SuccefforSj was fo well received by the French K. 
Lewis XIIL that he made him a IQjight of the Order^ 
of St* Michael, . He has the charade r of a florid^ 
hyentioHy a ready Handy and a good Spirit in all 
his Works : but yet having no fure Foundations^ 
either in the Study of Nature^ or the ^des of Arty 
and buildin?, onely upon thofe Chimeras and fan^ 
tajiical Ideas ywhkh he had formed in his own Head^. 
he has run himfelf into a multitude of Errors^ 
being guilty of thofe many Extral^agancieSy ne- 
ceffarily attending fuch as have no better Guide- 
than their own capricious Fancy, He died -at ^ome, ;'^^£f^ 
Amo 1 640. HANS 

312 Modern Mafiers. 

-V..A.-X-. HANS (l(pTTBKHAME%^w3.shoxn at Mun> 
I 5 64. ^y^j^ ff^g Capital City of ^aVariUy Anno 1 5 64, and 
after he had ftudied lome time in Germany y went 
to Vemce, and became a Difciple of IHwroref. He 
painted both in Frefco and Q>'/, but his Talent lay 
chiefly in the latter, and his peculiar excellence was 
in little Pieces, His Indention was /ree and eajiey 
his ©f^w indifferently corre£?5 Viis 9 oflures gentile j 
and his Colouring very agreeable. He was well e- 
fteem'd both in Italy and his own Country^ and 
by his ^rofejfion might have acquired great Wealth.3 
but was fo wonderfully extravagant in his way of 
living, that he confum'd it much fafter than it 
came in, and at laft died fo poor, that his Friends 

jEt, 4.0. ^^'■^ forc'd to make a gathering to bury him, 
Anno 1604. 

€d);alier FRANCESCO VANNI, born at Siena 
15 00. in the Dukedom of Tw/c^^iy, Anno 1568, was a 
Painters Son^ but <juitted the manner which he had 
learnt from his Father^ to follow that of !Barocci j 
whom he imitated in his choice oi^ligious SuhjeEls^ 
ts well as in his Guflo of fainting. The moft 
confiderable Worh of this Mafler are in the fevcral 
Churches of Siena , and are much commended 
JEl A7* ^^^ f^^ ^^ beauty of their Colourings and Cor- 
reBne/? of their Vejign. He <licd Anno 1615. 

Modern Mafiers. 

MICHELANGELO UE^KIGI born An, \ 5 (5?, 
Vit CA%AVAGG10, from whence he deriv'd his 
Kame^ was at firft (like his Countryman ^olldore) 
no bcccer than a Day-labourer -^ till having feen 
fome Painters at work, upon a Brick-wallj which 
he had prepared for them, he was fo charm'd 
with their Arty that he immediately addrefs'd him- 
fclf to the ftudy of it: and in a few years made fo 
confiderable a progrefs, that in Few/ce, (Z^owe, and 
fevcral other parts of Itafyy he, was cryM up, and 
admir'd by all the Young merij as the Author of a 
new Style oi Tainting. Upon his firft coming to 
^eme , his Necejfities compell'd him to faint 
Flowers and Fruit, under CaValier Giofepftno : but 
being foon weary of that Suhje^, and return- 
ing to his former pradice of Hi/lories , with. B- 
gures drawn to the middle onely, he made ufe of 
a Method, quite different from the conduct of 
GiofeppitiOy and running into the contrary extreme^ 
follow'd the Life as much too clofe, as the other 
went wide from it. He affedcd a way particu- 
lar to himfelf, of deep and dark Jhadows, to give 
his Tieces the greater relievo, and defpifingall ocher 
help, but what he received from Nature alone 
(whom he took with all her faults, and copy'd 
without judgment or difcretion) his Invention be- 
came fo poor, that he could nc\Qr draw anything 

S f without 

514 Modern Majiers. 

without his Model before his eyes; and therefore 
underftood but little either of ©f/gw, or Decorum 
in his Cowpojltms, He had indeed an admira- 
ble Colourings and great flrength in all his Works : 
But thofe ^iHures which he made in imitation of 
the manner of Georgione^ were his bed, becaule 
they have nothing of that hlachnejs in them, in 
which he afterwards delighted. He died in his 
return from Malta^ (where he had been Knighted 
by the Grand Majier, for fome things which he 
had wrought for him) Jnno 1609. His chief 
Difciples were 'Bartolomeo Manfredi of Mantoua^ 
Carlo SaracinOy corrimonly call'd Venetiano^ Vakth 
Mt. 4.0.^^'^° ^ French-man^ and Gerard Hunthorfi of M- 

FlLlffO d' ANGELl was a (I(pman born, but 
called N£^?flLlT^ W,becaufe his Father fent him 
to Naples y when he was very young. At his re- 
turn to (2^owe, he apply 'd himfelf to the Antiquities-^ 
but unhappily left that ftudy too foon, and fol- 
lowed the manner of his Contemporary M, Angelo 
da Cara^^aggiQ. He pra<5tis'd for the moft part in 
Landtfchapes, and (Battels , was every where well 
efteem'd for his Worksj and imploy'd by feveral 
Princes in many of the Churches and Palaces of 
%omey Naples and Venice \ at the laft of which pla- 
ces, he died Anno Stat, 40. J^T^ 

Modern Majiers. 315 

JAN S^EGHEL, the Son of old feter, and '-^-a.^ 
the younger Brother of Helfen (Brueghel, was born ' ^ 9* 
in^rujfels, Anno i 569, and call'd ELUWEELEK 
becaule of the Fehet Garments which he generally 
affed:ed to wear. He began his Studies at home, 
under TeterOoe-kindty and continued them in Italy 
with fuch fuccefs, that of all the German, Dutch^ 
or Flemlfh Majlers, Elflmmer onely was fuperior 
to him in Landtfchapesy and Hijlories with fmall 
Figures, He fainted both in Water-colours and Oylj 
but in the /^fter chiefly excell'd j and efpecially, in 
rcprcfenting Wakes, Fairs, and other frolickfom 
and merry meetings of Country-people. His hi'Ven- 
tion was eafie and pleafant, his Out-lines firm and 
fure, his Tencil loofe and free : and in fhort, all 
his Compofitions were fo well managed, that Nature 
in her plain Country Vref, was always to be ken ^^^ ^^ 
in his Works. He died Anno 1625. 

ADAM ELSHElUE^hoxn Sit Frankfort ui^on 
the Mayn, Anno 1574, was atfirfta Difciple of 1574- 
Philip' Ujfenbach a German : but an ardent dcfire of 
Improvement carrying him to (^me, he foon 
became a moft excellent Artijl in Landtfchapes, 
Hiflories, and Night-pieces, with /i«/e Figures. His 
TFori^x are very few 5 and for the incredible ^a'ms 
and Labour which he beftow'd upon them ^ valu d 

S f 2 at 

3 i 5 Modern Majlers. 

at fijch prodigious rates ^ that they are hardly any 
where to be found but in the Cabinets otTrinceSi. 
He was a Terfon by Kature inclin'd to Melancholy , 
and through continu'd ftudy and thoughcfulnefs, 
was (b far fettled in that unhappy temper^ that neg- 
lecting his own domejlic concerns, Debts came 
thick upon him, and Imfrlfonment foUow'd : which 
ftruck fuch a damp upon his Spirits^ that though 
-^ y he was foon releas'd, yet he did not long furvive 
,^y^^yisj it, and died in the year 1 6 to, or thereabout.. 

''^^-^^-^ GUWO ^ENI was born at bologna, An, i j/ y, 
^-5 ^5' and having learnt the ^diments oi^aint'mg^uni^x: 
SL Flemijh Majier, was rcfind and polifh'd in the 
School oi the Carraches'. and to what degree of 
Ey:ce Hence he arriv'd, kcpag, ii^. He acquired 
great perfed:ion in Mujtc, by the Inftrudtions of his 
Father, an eminent Trofejfor of that Art. In his 
behaviour he was modeft, gentile, and very ob- 
liging; liv'd in great fplendor, both at 'Bolognay 
and ^tney. and was onely unhappy in his im- 
moderate love of G4?«m^: to which, in his latter 
days, he had abandond himfelf fo intirely, that 
all the Money which he cou*d get by his Pencil, or 
borrow upon Interefl, being too little to fupply 
his lofles, he was at laft reduc'd to fo poor, and 
mean a condition, that the confideration of his 


Modern Mafters. 5.17 

prefcnt circumftances, together with reflexions 
on his former reputation, and high manner of li- 
ving, brought a languifliing Vijlemper upon him, 
which occafion'd his Deaths Anno 1 642. Note, 
that there are feveral Vejigns of this great Mafterj in ^^^ ^^ 
printy etch'd by himfelt 

GIO. SATTISTA^ VlOLAy a Mbgnefe^ born 
Anno 1^76, was a Difciple of Hannibal Can achy ^ 57"»' 
by whofe affiftance he arriv'd to an excellent man^ 
ner in Landtfchape-faintin^ywhidi he chiefly fl:udy'd, 
and for which he was well eft^em'd in ^mcy and 
feveral other parts of Italy, But Pope Gregory XV. 
having made him I^eeper of his ^Palace, to reward 
him for the SerVices which he had done for him, 
when he was C^rJiW, he guitted his "Pewa/, and^^ • 
died (bon after, Amw 1 6 2 i. 

S/r ^ETE(IifAUL(IimENSy born at Co-, 
logncy Anno 1577, was the befl: accomplifli'd of 1577. 
all the Flemijh Mafters ; and wou'd have rival'd 
even the moft celebrated Italians y. if his ^armtSym- 
ftead of placing him under the tuition of Adojfh 
VanKoorty and OB a'^io Verms y had bred him up- 
in the ^man and Lombard Schools, Yet notwith- 
fl:anding, he made fo good ufe of that little time 
which he fpent in thofe places, that perhaps none. 


3^8 Modern Mafiers. 

of his Tredeccjfors can boaft a more heaut'tful Co- 
louring , a ?iobler Inyent'ton^ or a more luxurious 
■Fancy in th6r Compojttionsy of which fee a farther 
account ^^. 125. Bnc befideshis talent in P^m- 
r/>g, and his admirable skill in ArchiteBure ^very 
eminent in the feveral Churches^ and Palaces y 
built after hisDe/gwj, at Gemua.) He was a !P^r- 
yc)?z poflefs'd of all the Ornaments and Advanta- 
ges, that can render a man "Valuable: was uni- 
verfally Learned^ fpoke feven Languages very 
perfectly, was well read in Htjloryy and withall 
fo excellent a State/man, that he was imploy'd in 
feveral public Negotiations of great Importance j 
which he manag'd with the moft refin'd Prudence j 
and ConduB, And was particularly famous for 
the CharaBer with whigh he was fcnt into England^ 
of Embajfadour from the Infanta IjabeUa^ and Phi- 
lip IV. of Spainj to K. Charles I. upon a TV^^if^ of 
^eace between the two Crowns , confirmed Anno 
KJ30. His principal Performances are in the 
^anquetting-houfe at Whitehall^ the EjcuriaVm Spain j 
and the Luxemburgh Galleries at !P^m, where he 
was imploy'd by Queen Mirji of Medicisy Dowa- 
ger of Henry IV. and in each of thofe three Courts 
had the honour of i^?i/gk/?oo J conferred upon him, 
befides feveral magnificent TrefentSy in teftimony 
of his extraordinary Merits- His ufual abode was 


Modern MaJIers: 5151: 

at Jnturerpy where he built a fpacious Apartment^ 
in imitation of the (I(otunda at ^me^ for a noble 
CoHeftion of l^iHures which he had purchased in 
Jf<i/y : fome of which, together with his Statuesy 
Medalsj and other Anttcju'tt'tes^ he fold, not long., 
after, to the Duke of 'Buehngham^ his intimate • 
Friend, for ten thoufand pounds. He liv'd in the 
higheft Efteem and <S^futation imaginable, was- 
as great a TatroHy as Majler of his Art ; and fo much 
admir'd all over Europe, for his many fingular 
Endowments , that no Strangers of any Quality 
cou'd pa(s through tfie Low-Countrks, till they 
had firft (een ^bensy of whofe Fame they had 
heard fo much. He died Jnno x 640, leaving 
vaft Riches behind him to his Ch'ildreny of whom 
Albert the Eldeft, fucceeded him in the Ojfce of jj^. ^ 
Secretary of State y in Flanders, y 

0%mO GEKTILESCHIy a Native of fPi/"^, 
a City in Tu/canyj flourifli'd in this time: and 
after he had made himfelf known in Florence y. 
§(pmey Genoudy and other parts of Italy ^ remov'd 
to SaVoyy from thence went to France, andatlaft, 
upon his arrival in Englandy was fo well received 
by K. Charles I. that he appointed him Lodgings 
in his Court, together with a confiderable Salary, 
and imgloy^'dhimin his Palace at Greenwich y and 


320 Modern Mafters. 

other public places. He made feveral Attempts 
m Face- paintings buc with little fuccefs, his Talent 
lying alcogecher in Htfiorks^ with Figures as big 
^i\\Q Life: In which kind, iovnt oihxs Compojlti- 
ons have defer vedly met with great Jpplau/e. 
He was much in favour with the Duke of ®/<ct 
ingham, and many others oi the Nobility: and af- 
ter twelve years continuance in this Kingdom, 
died An7io yEtat. 84. and was bury'd in the Queens 
Chapel in Somer/et-houfe. 

exceU'd her Father in Tortraits^ and was but little 
inferior to him in Hijlories, She liv'd for the 
moft part at NapleSy in great fplendor : and was 
as famous all over Europe for her Amour Sy and 
Loye-Intriguesy as for her talent in fainting. 

^^.A.,^ F%AKCESC0 AUBJNI a <Bolognefe , born 
1578. Anno 1578, wasaDifcipleof theC4r/'4c/?ej, well 
vers'd in polite Learnings and excellent in all the 
parts of ^dinting ; but principally admir'd for 
\ns performances \n little. He had a particular Ge- 
niu^ for naked Figures : and the better to accom- 
plifli himfelf in that Study, marry 'd a beautiful 
Lady of (Bologna, with little or no fortune 3 by 
whom (upon all occafions) he us'd to defign 


Modern Mafien. 321 

naked Ventiss^ the Graces^ Nymphs, and other Cod- 
Jejfes: and by her Children little Cupids , pl^y^"g> 
and dancing, in all the variety oi^ojlures imagi- 
iiable. He fpent fome time at %07ne^ was im- 
ploy'd alfo by the Grand Duke of Tujcany , but 
composed moft of his Works in his own Country 5 
where he died, Anno \66o. His moft famous 
Difciples wert^ier Francefco Mola, and Gio-Oattijla 
his !Brothery both excellent Mafiers in Figures and ^^ g ^ 

F(I(ANCIS SNYDE(1(S, bom 2Lt Antwerp, Anno 
1579, was bred up under Henry "Van ^alen his ^579' 
Country-man ; but ow'd the moft confiderablc 
part of his Improvement, to his Studies in Italy, 
He painted all forts of Wdd !Bea/ls, and other Ani- 
malsy Huntings, Fifl?, Fruit, &c. in great Terfe- 
Bion : was often imploy'd by the King of Spain, 
and feveral other Princes, and evcry-where much 
commended for his Works* 

DOMEKICO ZAMP1E<^, commonly calPd ^^.^.a.^ 
WMENICHINO, born in the City of Sologna An, 1581. 
1581, was at firft a Vifciple of a Flemijh Mafter, 
but foon quitted his 5c/;oo/, for a much better of 
the Carr aches ; being inftru6ted at bologna by Lu- 
doVico, and at ^}?ie by Hannibal, who had fo 

T c great 

"522 Modern Majters. 

great a Value for him, that he took him to his ajjir 
fiance in the Famefe Gallery, He was extremely laho' 
rious and flow in his TroduBions, applying himfelf 
always to his work^kh much fiudy and thoughtful- 
nefsj and never offering to touch his Tencil till he 
found a kind of Enthujtafmy or Infpiration upon 
him. His talent lay principally in the correBnefs 
of his Sfj/e, and in expreffing the Tapons and Jf- 
feBions of the M/«^. In both which he was fo ad- 
mirably judicious^ that Nicolo TouffJnj and Andreci 
Sacchi usM to fay, his Communion of St. Jerome^ in 
the Church of the Charity^ and ^phaels celebra- 
ted Tiece of thcTransfigurationy were the two bcft 
^iBures in ^me. He was made the chief Jrchi- 
uB of the Apofiolkal falace^ by Pope Gregory XV. 
for his great skO in that .^rr. He was likcwife 
well vers'd in the Theory of Mujicy but in the Tra- 
Bice of it had little fuccefs. He had the misfor- 
tune to find Enemies in all places where-ever he 
came 5 and particularly at Naples was fo ill treated 
by thofe of his own ^rofeffiony that having agreed 
among themfebes to difparagc all his Works, they 
would hardly allow him to be a tolerable Mafieri. 
And were not content with having /rgto J him, for; 
fome time, from that City, but afterwards, upon his 
return thither, never left ferfecuting him, till by 
their trich and cmtriy^nces they had quite weary*d 


Modem Makers. , 323 

him out of his Lifey Anno 1641. Vtde pag, 223. ^. • 
His Contemporary^ and mod malicious Efiemy 

GIOSEP^E <^mBI(A, a Native oi Fahuiay 
in Spainy commonly known by the name of 
STAGKOLETTOy was an Art'tjl perfed in Deftgny 
and famous for the excellent jnanner of Colouring 
which he had learnt from Michael Angela da Cara- 
Vaggio. His way^ was very often in Half- Figures 
onely, and (like his Mafier) he was wonderfully 
ftrid: in following the Life 5 but as lU-naturd in 
the choice of his SuhjeEiSy as in his 'Behaviour to 
poor DomenichinOy affei^ling generally fomething 
very terrible and frightful in his Pieces, fuch as Pro- 
methem with the Vulture feeding upon his LiVery Ca- 
to Uticenfis weltering in his own SlouJy St. Bartho- 
lomew with the Shn flea'd ojf from his Body, See. 
But however in all his Compojitionsy Nature was 
imitated with fo much Art znd Judgment y that a 
certain Lady big with Onldy having accidentally 
caft her Eyes upon an Ixiony whom he had rc- 
prefented in Torture upon the Wheel, receiv'd fuch 
an hnpreffion from it, that (he brought forth an 
Infant with Fingers diftorted juft like thofe in his 
^iSiure. His ufual abode was at Naples, where 
he liv'd very fplendidly , being much in fa- 
vour with the Viceroy his Countrymany and in 

T t 2 great 

324 Modern Majiers. 

great Reputation for his Works in ^aint'mg^ and 
for feveral Prints ttch' i by his own hand. 

/--s.>^..^ GIOFJNNI LAlSlF%ANCO\ born at ^ama^ 
*-J^^* JW201581, was a Difciple of the Qrr^c/;^^, and 
bcfides a zealous J?»ir^r or of the Works of Raphael 
and Correggio. }:]\s charaBer kc pag. ii^. He 
was highly applauded at Naples for feveral excel- 
lent pieces which he wrought there, and was fo 
much efleem'd in (^ome^ that for his Performances 

j^t. 66. ^^ ^^^ Vatican he was J^nighted by Pope Hri4?z VIIL 
He died /^/2?io 1647. 

57ST0 SJDJLOCCHI his Fellow-difciple , 
was of Tarma alfo, and by the Infl:rud:ions of the 
Garraches at !2^owe, became one of the beft D^- 
figners of that School He had alfo many other 
commendable ^v^fei 5 and particularly Facility!^ 
but wanted Vilgence, He joyn'd with his Coun-» 
try man Lanfranco in etching the Hijlories of th§ 
{Bibky after the Paintings o( Raphael, in the Vati- 
f<i?i, which they dedicated to Hannibal their Majler*. 
He pradtifed moftly, at Solognay where he died 

SIMON VOUET, born at ^aris, Anno 1 jSir^ 
15; 82:* t^as bred up to fainting under his Father, and 


Modern Mafiers: ^.25 

earry'd very young to Conjlantinopk by the French 
Embaflador, to draw the ^'tEiure of the Grand 
Senior y which he did by ftrength of Memory 
onely. From thence he went to Venice^ and af- 
terwards fettling himfelfat (?(owe, made fo confix 
derable a Progrefs in his Art^ that befides the Fa- 
vours which he r«cciv'd from Pope Urban VIII. 
and the Cardinal his Nephew, he was chofen 'PW«ce 
of the ^man Academy of St. Luke. He was fent 
for home ^72wo 1627, by theorder of I.ei«^wXIII^ 
whom he ferv'd in the quaHty of his chief fainter. 
He pra(5lifed bosh in Tortraks and Htfioriesy and 
furnifh'd fome of the Apartments of the LouVre^ 
the Palaces of Luxemhurgh and St. GermmiSy the 
Galleries of Cardinal ^chUeu and- other publio 
places with his Works^ His greateft TerfeEiion was 
in his agreeable Co/o«n?ig, and his brisk^Lud livelyTencHy 
being otherwife but very indifferently qgalify'd j he 
had no Genius for grandCompcfitionSy was unhappy in 
\i\s hCi^ention^ unacquainted with the (J^les otTerfpe- 
Eiivey and underftood but littk of the Union of Co- 
loursy or the VoEirim of Lights and Shadows : yec 
neverthelefs he brought up feveral eminent Scholars-^ . - 
amongft whom, was CHARLES ALFONSE du 
F^SNO^y ^/<fW of the preceding f'oe/?!.. But 
his chief Difciple was the KJJSiG himfelf, who.rri 
he had the Honour to inftrud in i\izArt of Defigih^Et,^ 5y.^. 
ing. He died An, \ 64 j . . S/- 

326 Modern Mafters. 

r-^...^^,^ I'lETE^Il Van L AE% commonly called BAM- 
1584. SOCCIO, or the (Beggar- painter^ was born in the 
City o{ Haeyleniy Anno 1584: and after he had 
laid a good Foundation mDraip'mg and ^erfpeHiVe 
at bome^ went to France ^ and from thence to <I(ome 5 
where by his earned application to Study ^ for Jtx- 
teen years together, he arriv'd to great ^erfehton 
in HiJlorieSj Landtfchapes^ Orottos^ Huntings^ Sec, 
with little Figures and Animals. He had an ad- 
mirable Gujlo in Colourings was very judicious in 
the ordering of his ^ieces^ nicely ju/l in his Tropor- 
iionsy and onely to be blam'd, for that he gene- 
tally affedted to reprefent Nature in her worft 
©re/?, and follow' d the Life too clofey in moft of 
his Compofltions. He return d to Amflerdam^ Anne 
1639, and after a fhort flay there, fpent the Re- 
mainder of his days with his 'Brother^ a noted 
SihoQlmafler in Haerlem, He was a Perfon very 
ferious and contemplative in his humour, took Plea- 
sure in nothing but Tainting and Mufic : and by 
indulging himfelf too much in a melancholy 3^e- 

^t. ^ tirementy is faid to have fliorten'd his Li/e, ^««© 
J. 1 644. 

a)(^ELIUS fOELEKm^H, bom at 

*59^« Utrecht y Anno 1590, was a Difciple oi Abraham 

Slomaert, and afterwards for a long time, a S'fft- 

Modern Maf^rsi 3:27 

dent in ^me and Florence, His Talent lay alcogc- 
ther in frndl Figures^ naked Soysj Landtfchapesy 
^insj &c which hecxprefs'd with a 'Pewd/ agree- 
able enough, as to the Colouring part, but general- 
ly attended with a little ftiffne/s, the (almoft) /w/^* 
parable Companion of much Labour and Neatnefs^ 
He came over into England^ Anno 1657; and af- 
ter he had continued hcrt four years, and had been • 
handfomly rewarded by K. Charles I. for fcveral 
2^/ecej which he wrought for him, retir'd into his — 
own Country y and died Anno 1667. lvA/^CI 

Gv^fer GIO. FRANCESCO BA^IBSJ da n^j<.^ 
CENTO, commonly called GUE^CINOy (be- ijp.o-v 

caufe of a C^/? which he had with his Eyes) was 
born near 'Bologna^ Anno i 590, and bred up un- 
der (Benedetto Gennari his Country- man: by whofc'^ 
InftruEiionSj and the DiBates of his own excellent 
GenitiSj he foon learnt to d'e/gw^r^c^yii/Zy and with 
CorreBne/s; and by converfing afterwards with- 
the Works of Michael Angelo da CaraVaggio, became-^ 
an admirable Colouriji, and befides, very famous- 
for his happy Invention and Freedom of T^encily and 
for the Strength, (J^eCeVo, and becommg Boldnefs- 
of his Figures, He began, in the Declenfion oV 
his Agty to alter his Style in fainting : and (to « 
pkafe the unthinking Multitude) took up another* 


328 Modern Mafltrs. 

'manner mor t gay ^ neat and pleafant, but by no 
means fo^reat and noble as his former Gu/io. He 
cornpos'd feveral x:onfiderable Tieces in (^o;;;e : but 
thegreateft number of his Performances is in, and 
about 'Solcgna, where he died, Jnno \666y very 
j^t. 76 ^^^^^^ ^^^ highly commended for his extraordina- 
ry Tietyy prudence and Morality, 

NJCOLO fUSSINO, the Frewc/; %7W/, was 
'5?4" the Defcendent of a ?toble Family in Ticardy^ but 
bom2itJnJely, a Town in Normandy^ Anno \ 5 5? 4, 
He was feafon'd in Literature at home, inftru(5ted 
in the ^idiments of Dejign at Taris, learnt the 
principles of Geometry^ TerfpeBiVe and Jnato??ty at 
(?^owe, pra(5tife-d after the L//e in the Academy of 
VomenichinOy and ftudy'd the Anticjuities in com- 
pany with the famous Sculptor Francefco FiammingOj 
who was born in the fame year, and lodg'd in the 
fame houfe with him. His way^ for the moft part, 
was in Hiflories^ with Figures about two or ^/;ree 
/(?er high 5 and his Colouring inclined rather to the 
Antique than to Kature : but in all the other parts 
of Tainting^ he was profoundly excellent -^ and 
particularly the Seauty of his Genius appear'd in 
his nice and judicious Obferl^ation of the Decorum 
in his Compofitionsy and in expreffing the ^affions 
^nd AfJeElions with fuch incomparable ifo//, that all 


Modern Maflers. 3 2^ 

his Pieces fcem to have the very Spirit of the ASHoHy 
and the Life and Soul of the Terfons Vv'hom they 
reprefent. He had not been in <I(ome above Jix- 
teen years, before his Name became fo un'iV erf ally 
celebrated, that Cardinal <S^chlleu refolving to ad- 
Vance the nolle Arts in France^ prevailed upon him 
(by means of an obliging Letter^ written to him 
by Lewis XIII. himfelf. Anno 1639) to return to 
his own Country : where he was received with aJl 
pofEble demonftrations oi EJleem, was declared 
Firji fainter to the i^iwg, had a confidcrable Pm- 
Jion appointed him, was imploy'd in feveral pub- 
lic Works J and at laft undertook to paint the Grand 
Gallery of the LoWVre, But the I^ing and Cardinal 
both dying in the time that he went back to fettle 
his affairs in Italy ^ and bring his Family from thence5 
he quite laid afide the Thoughts of returning any 
more to France^ and ended his days in <2^owe, Anno 
x66<^ : having for [omc years before his Deceafe^ 
been (o much fubjedtto ihcTalJiey that the effects 
of his unjieddy Hand are vifible in feveral of his ^^^ ^ ^ 
Tfejigns, _ ^ .^^ 

TlEJf^ TESTAj his Contemporary, was a 
Native of Lucca^ a City in the Dukedom of Flo- 
rence, and fo miferably poor upon his firfl: arrival 
at ^ome, that he was fore d to make the public 

Uu Streets 

330 Modem Makers. 

Streets his School, and the Statues^ Suildings, (^w- 
ins, &CC. the Leffons which he ftudied. He was 
a Man of a ^«/cA. Head^ a re^^ i^^w^, and a //Ve* 
/y S/^/Vif in nioft of his Performances : but yet for 
want of Science^ and good d^w/ei to cultivate and 
flrengthcn his Genius^ all thofe hopeful Qualities 
foon ran to Weedsy and produced little elfe but 
MonfterSy Chimerofy and (uch like wild and extra- 
vagant Riwaw: ?^/U]?^^. loi. He attempted very 
often to makehimfelf per/eci^ in the ArtoiColouringy 
but never had any Succefsxhzt way, and indeed 
was onely tolerable in his VramngSy and the Prints 
which he ctch'd. He was drown d (as 'tis general- 
ly reported) in the Tyher, having accidentally fall'n 
©fFfrom the !BanKy as he was endeavouring tore- 
gain his Haty which the Wind had blown into thc: 

^^^ Sir AKTBOm VaK mci^y was born at 
^ J 99' Antwerpy Anno i 599, and gave fuch early proofs 
of hismoft excellent EndowmentSy thzt Rubens his 
Maftery fearing he would become as Uniyerfal as 
himfelf, to divert him from HiflorieSy us'd to com- 
mend his Talerd in fainting after the L//e, and 
took fuch care to keep him continually imploy'd 
in bufincfs of that Nature, that he refolv'd at laft 
to make it his fr'mctpal jludy 5 and for his Improve- 

Modern Majiers. 531 

mcnc went to Fenicey where he attain d the beauti- 
ful Colouring of Titian^ Taulo Veromfey Sec, And 
after a kw years fpent in ^mCy Genoua and Sicily^ 
return'd home to Flanders with a manner of Tain- 
ting, fo Hohley naturaly and eafie^ that 75tw» him- 
felf was hardly his Superior, and no other Majier 
in the world equal to him for Portraits. He came 
over into England foon after (^hens had left it, and 
was encertain'd in the Service of King Charles I. 
who conceiv'd a marvellous efteem for his Works^ 
honoured him with Slight hood, prefented him 
with his own TiElure fet round with Viamondsy 
affign'd him a confidcrable Tenjiony fate very often 
to him for his Portrait y and was followed by moft 
of the Nobility and principal Gentry of the IQngdom, 
He was a perfon low oi flaturey but wellproporti- 
ond'y very handfomcy modefly and extremely obli- 
ging ; a great Encourager of all fuch as exceltd in 
any /^rr or Science, and Generous to the very laft 
degree. He marry'd one of the faireft Ladies of 
the EngUp? Courty Daughter of the Lord (^uthen 
Earl oi Gowry, and liv'd in State and Grandeur 
anfwerableto her Birth; His own G^r^ was gene- 
rally very rich, his Coaches and Equippage magni- 
ficent, his ^tinue numerous and gallant, his Ta- 
ble very fplendid, and fo much frequented by 
Teople of the beft (Quality of both Sexes, that his 

U u 2 Apart' 

352 Modern Majlers. 

Apartments feem'd rather to be the Court of fome 
Trince, than the Lodgings of a fainter. He grew wea- 
ry, towards the latter end of his Life, of the conti- 
nued trouble that attended Face-^a'inting ; and being 
defirous of innmortalizing his TSlame by fome more 
glorious Undertakings went to ^aris in hopes of 
being imploy'd in the Grand Gallery of the LoWVre ; 
but not fucceeding there, he return'd hither, and 
proposed to the Kjng (by his Friend Sir I^enelm 
Vigby) to make Cartoons for the ^mjueting houfe 
at Whitehall: the fubjed of which was to have 
been the Injlitution of the Order of the Garter y the 
Trocefflon of the IQiights in their HahitSy with the 
Ceremony of their Injiallment^ and St. Georges Feajt, 
But his Demands oi four f core thousand pounds^ be- 
ing thought unreafonable, whilft the Kjng was 
upon treating with him for a lefs Summ, the Go«t 
and other Viftemfers put an end to that^^^^^^^ 
and his L?/i?, Anno 1641 ; and his ^ody was in- 
terred in St. ^auls Church. See farther, pag, ii6. 
And note, that amongfl: the Portraits of llluflriom 
^erfonsy Sec, printed and publifh'd by the parti^ 
jEt. 42.^"'^^ dire(5lions of this Mafter^ fome were etch'd 
in Aqua-forti^ by Fan Dyck himfelf. 

was at firft a Difciple of 'Battijla Taggi and Ferrari 


Modern Mafters. 335 

his Countrymen 5 improv'd himfelf afterwards 
by the inftrudions of Van Vyck (as long as he 
continu'd in Genoua) and ac laft became an Imi- 
tator of the manner of Nicolo ^oujjln. He was 
commended for feveral very good Prints of his 
own etching: but in^ ainting his Indmatiom led him- 
to Figures, with Landtfchapes and Animals j which 
he touchM up with a great deal of Life and Spi- 
rit, and was particularly remarkable for a brisk 
Pencil, and <l free handling in all his Compofitwns, He 
was a Perfon very unjettled in his Temper, and 
never lov'd to ftay long in one place ; but being 
continually upon the ramble, his Works lie feat- 
ter^d up and down in Genoua, ^me, Naples, Ve- 
nice, ^arma, and Mantoua, where he died. 

riFUNO CODJZZO, generally call'd TZ-rv^^v^ 
njNO delle T<I{pSTETTIFE, was born at ^er- i 599. 
gam in the Venet tan fcrYitoncs, J?mo \y^p : and 
by the Inftrudions of Augujiino Tajfo his Matter, 
arriv'd to a raoft excellent jnojmer of painting 
'Buildings, (J^ins, dec. His ordinary Refidence 
was at 5^0 we, where he died. Anno 1674, and 
was bury^d in the Church of S. Lorenzo in Lucina* 
He had a Son call'd. Kicolo, who purfu d his Fa-, 
thers fteps, and died 2Lt Genoua, in great Reputati-y€'f. 75, 
Qnim\\isperfornwKts \r\fMpeiHiye,r, - ,;. 

-A:,.- ^ ^ MA' 

334 Modern Mafiers. 

^--A..^ MA^IO NllZZI, commonly caird MA^IO 
^599' de' FIO^Ij born at On a in the Terra dt Sahma^ was 
a Difciple of his Uncle Tomafo Sdltnty and one of 
the moft famous Majiers in his rime for painting 
Flowers. He died in ^me^ (^ where he had fpcnt 
yEt. 72. gr^^t part of his Life) and was alfo bury'd in S. 
Lor en^^s Q\\mc\\y Anno 1671, 

1600. jj^ ^mcj Anno 1600, and bred up in the 
Sc})ool of Antonio Salvatti, a (Bolognefe. He was 
call'd delle ^ATTAGLIE, from his excellent Ta- 
lent in ^Battels j but befides his great skill in that 
particular SubjeHy he wsLSYcry fuccefsfulinaW forts 
of Figures^ and painted Fruit incomparably beyond 
j€t. 60. ^^y Majler in Europe. He was bury'd in the 
Choire of S. Maries Church in !2^owe, Anno 1 660. 

1600. \6oo, was hy his ^are)its fent very young to 
(I(ome 5 and after he had been grounded in the 
Elements of Defign^ and the (I(ules of ^erfpeEiiye ^ 
under Auguftino Tajfo, he remov'd his Stw^* ^^ ^'^^ 
Sanks of the TJ'^er, and into the open Fields, took 
all hisLeJfons from N4f«rf her felf, and by many 
years diligent Imitation of that excellent Mtftrefs, 
climbM up to the highcft ftcp of ferfe^ion m 


'err. 35^' 

Landtfchape-painting: and was univerfally admir*d 
for his pleajant and moft agreeable lu'Ventm-y for 
the delicacy of his Colourings and the charming Va* 
rietya.nd tendernefSoi his Tmts \ for his artful Di- 
firibution of the Lights and Shadows y and for his 
wonderful ConduByin difpojing his Figures for the ^J- 
V4?2f^^e and Harmony of his Compojitiens. He was 
much commended for fevcral of his Performances 
in fre/iro as well as Oj/, was imploy'd by Pope Ur- 
ban VIII. and many of the Italian Princes in adorn- 
ing their Palaces : and having by his Pencil made 
his Name famous throughout Europe^ died An. 1682, 
and was interr^'d in the Church of Trinita de Montiy jEt. 82 . 
in %omei 

GASfJIiP DUGHET, was of Bench Extra- 
ftion, but born in ^S^me^ Anno 1 600. He took * "°^' 
to himfelf the name of ^OUSSlNy in gratitude 
for many Favour s, and particularly that of his E- 
ducatioHy which he receiv'd from Nicolo Touffiny 
who married his Sifter. His firft Imployment 
under his (Brother -in- LaWy was in looking after his 
Colours^ ^encilsy &c. but his excellent Genius for 
If^aintiHg (oon difcovering it felf, by his own iw-- 
dufiry and his Brothers InftruBions was fo well im- 
prov'd^ that in Landtfchapes (which he principal- 
ly ftudied) he became one of the grcateft Ma-* 


33^ Modern MajlerJ. 

fiers in his Jge-y and was much in requeft^ for his 
eajie Liyerition, /olid Judgment, regular Dijpojttion, 
and true <^femhlance of Nature in all his Works. 
He died in his great ClimaSlerkal year 1663, and 
Et, 67,^^^ biiry'd in his ^arijh-Churchoi S. SufamUy in 
f ^me. 

In his time, liv'd and flourifh'd ANDREA 
SACCHI, a celebrated ^man Ma/ler^ highly ex- 
toird for his general Accompli p)ments in all the parts 
of Painting 'y but more particularly eminent for 
his extraordinary skill in the Elegatice of Dejign, 
the Harmony of Order y and zhcSeauty of Colouring, 

His Competitor 9IEVI(P !BE^ETTINI da 
CO^^JVNAj was alfo of great confideration in 
this time 5 and much applauded for his magnifi- 
cent Works in feveral of the Churches and Palaces 
of ^ome and Florence, He excelled both in Frejco 
and Oyly was profoundly read in the Antiquities^ 
had a noble and rich Imagination, and a Genius far 
beyond any of his Contemporaries, for Ornaments 
and grand Hijiorical Compofttions. He was very 
well efteem'd by Pope Urban VIH. Innocent X. 
and moft of the ferjons of the fi,fl %ank in Italy, 


Modern Majlers. 337 

GEE\A<^ WFy born at Leyden, about the "^^-^^ 
year 1607, was a Difciple oi ^mbrandt^ but *^^"* 
much pleafantcr in his Style o( Tainting, and fupe- 
rior to him in little Figures. He was cfteem'd in 
Holland the bed Majler in his way : and tho' we 
muft not expert to find in his Works that Ele'Vation 
ofTl^ought, i\i2Lt CorreEinefS oi Dejign, orthatwoWe 
Spirit y a.nd grand Gujlo, in which the Italians have 
diftinguifh'd themfelves from the reft of Mankind 5 
yet it muft be acknowledg'd, that in the Manage- 
ment of his Tencily and the Choice and beauty of 
hi sColourSy he has been curious to the laft degree ; 
and in finishing his Pieces y laborious and patient be- 
yond example. He died circa Annum 1^74, 
leaving behind him many Scholars y of whom 
^flE^HJS the chief, was in feveral rcfgeds equal 
to his Majler. But for the reft of his Imitator Sy ge- 
nerally fpeaking, we may place them in the fame j£^^ ^-^ 
Form with the cumiing Foolsy mention d, pag, 135. 

AD^SJAEK ^B^UWE^ was born in the Ci- 
ty oiHaerlemy Anno 1608 j and befides his great ^A^^?^ 
Obligations to Nature, was very much beholden 
to Frans Hals, who took him from begging in the 
Streets, and inJlruBed him in the ^diments of 
Tainting 5 And to make him amends for his kind- 
nefs, Srouwer, when he found himfelf fufficiently 

X X ' qua- 

338 Modern Makers. 

qualified to get a Liyelyhoody ran away from his 
Majler into France, and after a (hort flay there, 
return'd, and fettled at Antwerp, Humour was 
his proper Sphere, and it was in little Pieces that 
heus'd toreprefenc 'Boors, and others his dotcom* 
panionsy drinking, fmoKing Tobacco, gaming^ fight- 
ing, dec, with a Pencil fo tender and free, lo much 
oT Nature in his ExpreJ/Ion^ fuch excellent Draw- 
ing in all the particular farts, and good I^eeping 
in the ip/?o/e together, that none of his Countrymen 
have ever been comparable to him in that Sub- 
jcd:. He was extremely facetious and tleafant o- 
ver his C^^/, fcornM to woM as long as he had 
any Money in his dockets, declar'd for a fliorc Life 
and a merry one : and refolving to ride <Po/? to 
his Grave, Jpy the help of Wine and brandy, got 
to his Jormiejs end, Anno 1638; fo very foor, that 
Contributions wQtc raised to lay him privately in- 
the Ground, from whence he was foon after taken , 
up, and (as 'cis commonly faid) very handfome- 
j&. roM J^fcrr'd by ^bens, who was a great Admirer. 
of his happy Genim (or Tainting. 

SAUUEL COOTE^, born in London, A?mo^. 
1609. i(5qp^ xvas bred up (togecher with his elder Bro- 
ther J/exWcr} under the Gare and Difciplinc of - 
Mr. HosHns his Uncle : but derived the mod con- 


Modern Mafters. 539 

fiderabla advantages, from the Ohferyations whidi 
he made on the Worh of Fan Vych His Pencil 
was generally confin'd to a Head oncly 5 and in- 
deed below that part he was not always fo fuccefs- 
ful as could be widi'd ; but for a Face, and all 
the dependencies of it {V/;^.) the graceful and hecom- 
ing Air^ the Strength, ^lieVo and noble Spirit^ the 
foftnefs and tender liVelinefs of F/f^ and Blood, and 
the fooy^ and gentik management of the Hair , his 
Tafewf was fo extraordinary, that for the Honour 
of our Nationy it may without Vanity be affirmed, 
he was (at leaft} equal to the mod famous Itali- 
ans ; and that hardly any of his Predecejfors has ever 
been able to fliew fo much ^.erfeElion in fo narrow 
a Compafs. Anfwerable to his Abilities in this Art 
was his skiO in Mujk : and he was reckon d one of 
the befl Luteniflsy as well as the moft excellent 
Limner in his time. He fpent feveral years of 
his Life abroad, was perfonally acquainted with 
thcgreateftMen ofFr^Mce, Holland, and his own 
Country, and by his Jfbr^j more univerfally known 
in all the pars of Chriflendom, He died Anno 1671, ^ . 
and lies bury'd in ^ancras Church, in the Fields, ' ^* 

WILLIAM WBSON, a Gentleman defcend- 
ed of a F^mrT)! very eminent (at that time) in St. »<J^<5. 
Alhansy was born in Sc. Andrews Parifli, in Hoi- 

Xx 2 hum. 

340 Modern Majiers. 

bourn, Anno 1610. Who firft inftrudled him in 
the ufe of his ?^ewa7 is uncertain: of this we are 
well afllir'd, that he was put out very early an 
Apprentice to one Mr. ^eake, a Stationer and Tra- 
der in fiBures 3 and that Nature, his beft Mijlrefi 
inclin d him fo powerfully to the praBice of fain- 
ting after the Life, that had his Education been but 
anfwerablc to his Genius, England might juftly have 
been as proud of her Vobjon, as Venice of her 77^/- 
an, or Flanders of her Van Dych How much he was . 
beholden to the latter of thofe^re^f Men, may eafi- 
\y be feen in all his Works 5 no fainter having ever 
come up fo near to the TerfeElion of that excellent 
Majier, as this his happy Imitator, He was alfo 
farther indebted to the Generojtty of Van Vyck, in 
prefenting him to King Charles I. who took him 
into his immediate TroteSlion, kept him in Oxford 
all the while his Majejly continued in that City ; fat 
ftveral times to him for his ^iSiure, and oblig'd 
the Prince oi Wales ^ Wince ^ipert, andmoftofthc 
Lords of his Court to do the like. He wasa/<ji>, 
middlefiis^d Man, of a ready Wit, and pleajtng Con- 
'Verfation ; was fomewhat loofe and irregular in his 
way jq( LiVtng, and not withftanding the many Op- 
fortunities which he had of making his Fortunes, 
Mt> J7. died \ cry poor, at his. hoafein St. Martins-lam, Anno 
I <^47. 


Modern Mafl^rs. 34.1 

MICHAELAKGELO TACE, born Anno i(J i o, rsj^w^ 

and call'd ii CAMTWOCLIO (becaufe of an Ofi '^^o- 
fice which he had in the Capitol) was a Difcipic of 
FioraVanti, and very much eftcem'd all over Italyy 
for his admirable Tafewf in paint'mg Fruit and the 
Jim Life, He died in 3(owe, ^//wo 1670, leaving 
behind him fw^o Sons y of whom G^'o. 'Battijla the 
eldeft, was brought up to Hijiory pamtifig under 
Francefco MoUy and is now in the Service of the 
King of Spain : But the other call'd Tietro, died 
in his "PW/we, and onely liv'd jufl: long enough 
to fhew that a few years more would have nude ^ > 
him one of the greateft Maflers in the World. 

SALVATO^S^ ^SJy a Neapolitan.bornAn. i <J 1 4, 
in both the Sifier-Arts of ^oefy and ^aintingy was ^ " * 4^^ 
cfteem'd one of the moft excellent Mafters that 
Italy \i2iS produced in this Centwy, In the firfl:, 
his province was Satire ^ in the latter, Landtfchapes, 
Sattelsy HaVens, &c. with littk Figures, He was 
a Difciple of Daniele Falconi. his Countryman, an 
Artlji of good repute 5 whofe infti:u(5lions he very 
much improved by his Study after the Antiquities^ 
and the Works of the moft eminent Tainters who 
went before him. He was fam'd for his copious 
zni florid hiVentiony for his prof oujid Judgment in the 
ordering of his ^iecesy for the gentik and uncommon 

Wi- ■ 

3^2 Modern Majiers. 

'-Management of his Figures y and his ^eral B^ow- 
ledge in all the parts of ^aintmg : But that which 
gave a more particular /lamp to his Compojitionsy 
was his i?imitahle Liberty of Tencily and the nehle 
S)«Vir with which heanimated all his Works. <l(ome 
was the place where he fpent the grcateft part of 
his Life 5 highly courted and admir'd by all the 
Men of Note SLtid Quality y and where he died Anno 
jSt* 5 ^ ^^ 3 ? having etch'd abundance of valuable Trints 
with his own hand. 

GIJCOMO CO^ESIy the famous 'BattApain- 
tery commonly caird The <BO<IiGOGNONE y 
from the Country where he was born , was the Con- 
temporary oiS abator %ofay and equally applaud- 
ed for his admirable Gufloy and grand Manner of 
fainting. He had for feveral years been conver- 
fant in Military Affairs, was a confiderable Ojff?cer 
in the Armyy made the Camp his Schooly and form'd 
all his excellent Ideas from what he had ittnper- 
fornid in the Field, His Style was roughly nobky 
and (Souldier like) full of Fire and Spirit, He re- 
cir'd, towards the latter end of his Life, into the 
Convent of the Jefuits in ^ome : where he was 
forc'd to take SanEiuary (as they fay) to rid his 
hands of an ill Sargainy which he had unhappi- 
ly got in a Wife, 


Modern MaJIers: 

Sir TETE^ LELY was born Jtmo \6\7y in 
Wejlfbaliuj where his Father, being a Captain^ 
happen d to be then in Garr'tfon, He was bred up 
for fome time in the Hague, and afterwards com- 
mitted to the care of onede GrehberoiHderkm, He 
came over mto England, Anno 1 641 , and piirfu'd 
the natural bent of his Genius in Landtfchapes with 
fmall Figures y and Hfjlorical Compojitions : but find- 
ing the practice of fainting after the Life general- 
ly more encourag'd, he apply'd himfelf to Tor- 
traits with fuch fuccefs, as in a little time to fur- 
pa(s all his Contemporaries in Europe. He was ve- 
ry earned in his younger days, to have finilVd- 
the courfe of his Studies in Italy : but the great bu- 
finefs in which he was perpetually ingag'd, not 
allowing him fo much time; to make himfelf^ 
amends, he refolvM atlaft, in an excellent and 
well chofen CoUeElion of the Drawings, Trlnts, and 
9mnting$y of the moft celebrated Maflcrs, to bring 
the (I(oman and Lombard Schools home to him. 
And what benefit he reap'd from this Expedient, 
was fufficiently apparent in that admirable Style 
of Tainttngi which he formed to himfelf by dayly 
converfing with the Worh of tliofe great Men: In - 
t\\tcorreBne[^oi)\\sJ)ratplng, and the beauty of his 
Colouring -, but efpecially in the graceful Airs of his 
Figures^ the pleajmg Variety of his f^fturesy and 


34'f Modern Maflers. 

his gentile negligence and loofe manner of 'Draperies: 
m which particular as few of his ^redecejfors were 
equal ro'him, fo all fccceeding Jrtijis muft fland 
oblig'd to his happy LiVention, for the noble Pat- 
tern which he has left them for Imitation. He 
was recommended to the favour of King Charles I. 
by /Philip Earl of Tembrokey then Lord Chamber- 
lain-, and drew his Majejiies ^iBurCj when he was 
Trifoner in Hampton-Court, He wa5 alfo much in 
efteem with his Son Charles II. who made him 
his ^ainterj conferred the honour of I\riighthood 
upon him, and would oftentimes take great plea- 
fure in his CofiVerfation, which he found to be as a- 
greeablc as his ^e7iciL He was likewife highly re- 
Ipeded by all the Teople of Emmence in the king- 
dom J and indeed fo extraordinary were his riatural 
Tarts^ and fo great his accpiird I^nowledgey that it 
would be hard to determine whether he was a bet- 
ter Tainter, or a more accomplip?'d Gentleman : or 
whether the Honours which he has done his !Pro- 
fejpony or the Jhantages which he derived from 
it were the moft confiderable. But as to his 
Jrty certain it is, that his lajl Pieces were his bejl, 
and that he gain'd ground, and improv'd himfelf 
tvery day, even to the very Moment in which 
JEt. 6 1 , 'Death fnatch'd his Pencil out of his hand in an Apo- 
^^^ 'pie flic Fit, Anno 1680. 


Modern Mafters. ^45 

SEBASTIAN !BOU(I(pONy a French-many born ^^^^""^^ 
at Momfellier^ Anno i6i^y ftudy'il feVen years in ^ " * ?• 
^fney and acquired fo much Reputation by his 
Works both in Hijlory and Landtfchape, that upon 
his return to France^ he had the honour of being 
the firjl who was made (?^g^or of the fI(oyal Acade- 
my of Tainting and Sculpture at Taris. He fpent 
two years alfo ifi Sweden^ where he was very well 
efteem'd, and nobly prefented by that great Ta- 
troiie/i of Arts Sitid Sciences y Qncm Chrijtina. He jg(^ ^m 
dkdy Anno 1673. 

LUCA jO^ANOy was born in Naplesy Anno 
i6i6y and by hi$ StuSes under Tietro da Cortona *"^^' 
at SJowe, joyn'd with his continu'd Application to all 
the noUe^mains of Antiquity y became one of the 
beft accomplifli'd^and moft univerfal Mafters in his 
time. He was wonderfully skilled in the praSlical 
part of Defigningy and from his incredible Facility 
and prodigious Difpatchy was call'd by his Fellow- 
Taintersy Luca fa Trefto. He was befidcs very 
happy in imitating the different Styles of other 
great Mw, and particularly foUow'd the manner 
of Titiany iBaffany Tintorety Guidoy &c. fo clofc 
in feveral of his Tiecesy that it is not the talent of 
every fretender to Taintingy to diftinguifti them 
from Originals of thofe Hinds. He was famous 

Yy , for 

546^ Modern Mafters. 

for his many excellent Terformances in ^me and 
Florence: And being continually imploy'd in 
working for ^rincesy and People of the ///y? Quality 
all over Europe, grew fo vaftly nV/;, that at his re- 
turn to Naples^ he purchased a Dutchy in that i^/«g;- 
<^om, nnarry'd and hVd fplendidly, kept a noble 
Palace, and a numerous ^etinuey with Coachesy Lit- 
tersy and all other imaginable Sf^fe. Being grown 
0/J, he was earneftly prefs'd by the Viceroy to go 
over into Spaiuy and fervc the t{ing his Mafter : 
He had no fancy for the /^()><i^e, and therefore rais'd 
his Terms very high : was not content with twen- 
ty thoufand Crowns paid him down, and the Gol- 
den I^y given him, as Groom of the bedchamber ; 
* but bcfides, having heard, that by the Statutes 

of St. JagOj and the other Mditary Orders of Spainy 
jtwsLsexfYcdy proyidedy that no Gamier flhould be 
admitted into any of them, becaufc their Trofeffion 
was generally look'd upon as Mechanic ; he re- 
folv'd, for the Honour of his Jrty not to ftir a 
foot, till he himfelf was firft made a I\night of 
St. JdgOy and his two Sons Kj^ights of Alcantara 
and CalatraVa. All which being granted, he fet 
out for Madridy where he was receivM very kind- 
ly by the Kjngy and having adorn d the grand 
Stair-cafe of the Efcurialy with the Story of the (Bat- 
tel of St. ^intin^ (which is perhaps one of the beft 


Modern Mafiers. ^^7 

things in its kindy that has been any where perform'd 
in this Age) he fell to work upon the great C&wrcA 
belonging to that t^alace 5 but the Climate being 
too fevere for his Conjlitution of !Bodyy and his 
Mind not fo well fatisfy'd as at Naples^ he Jiclmed ^ 
and died in the Winter of the year 1 694. 1"^^^.^ 

In the fame year died FILIffO LAll^j a 
Af^/er equal to him in all refpeds, excepting one- 
ly that by confining himfelf to fmall figures^ and 
Hiftories in little^ he contracted his admirable Ta- 
lent into a narrower Compafs. He liv'd for the 
moft part in <^me'j and was highly valu'd for 
the Riches of his Fancy y and the Accuracy of his Judg- 
ment y for the Elegance of his Out-lines y and the 
Propriety of his Colouring ; and for the graceful 
Freedom of his, ^encil^ in all his Comfofitions, 

JOHN ^ILEYy born in the City of London^ 
Anno 1 646, was inftruded in the firft Rudi- * ^4^- 
ments of Tainting by Mr. Zouji and Mr. F«i7er, 
but left them whilft he was very Youngy and 
began to pradlifc after the Life : yet acquired no 
great %eputationy till upon the death of Sir Te- 
ter Leiyy his Friends being defirous that he fliould 
fuccecd that excellent Majier in the favour of 
King Charles II. ingag'd Mr. CUff^nch to fit to 

Y y 2 him 

348 Modern Maflers. 

him for his ^lEiure 3 which he performed fo well, 
that the IQng^ upon fight of it, fent for him, and 
having imploy'd him in drawing the Duke oiGraf- 
tons Portrait y and foon after his owriy took him into 
his Service, honoured him with feveral obliging 
Te/iimonies of his Efteeniy and withal gave this 
CharaBer of his Works y that he painted both Infide and 
Outfide. Upon the Acceflion of K, Wtttiam and 
Q; Mary to the Crown, he was fworn their Ma- 
jefties Trhicipal Taint er 5 which place he had not iti- 
joy'd in the preceding 3^egw, tho' K. James and 
his Queen were both pleased to be drawn by his Hand. 
He was very diligent in the Imitation of Nature 5 
and by ftudying the Lifey rather than following 
any particular manner^ attained a pleafant and 
moft agreeable S^y^ oi Tainting. But that which 
eminently diftinguifli'd him from all his Contem- 
poraries , was his peculiar Excellence in a Headj 
and elpecially in the Colouring part ; wherein fome 
of his ^eicwwere fo very extraordinary, that Mr, 
^ley himfelf was the onely Terfon who was not 
charm'd with them. He was a Gentleman ex- 
tremely courteous in his 'Behaviour, obliging in his 
Conner fat ion, and prudent in all his Anions, He 
was a dutiful &on, an afFeiftionate Brother ^ a kind 
Majlery and a faithful Friend, He never was 
guilty of a piece of Krfw>> (too common amongft 


Modern Mafiers. 3^^ 

Artifts) of faying mighty things on his own behalf, 
but contented himfelf with letting his Worh 
fpeak for him ; which being plentifully diipers'd 
over other Nations as well as our owuy were in- 
deed everywhere very Eloquent in his Commendati- 
on. He had for feveral years been violently 
perfecuted by the Gout-y which after many ter- 
rible AffaultSy flying up at laft into his Heady 
brought him to his Graycy Anno 1 69 1 , exceed- 
ingly lamented by all fuch as had the happinefs 
of being acquainted either with his ^erfon or his jEt. 4 j. 


{ 350 ) 

ancient piaftets 

Contain d in the preceding 






Cornelius Thus, 


ACttus Trifcus, 







































Fahius Pidtor. 



















Polignotus Athenienfis 



Marcus Pacuvius. 










































351 - 
















{ 352 ) 

^oDem :^aftecs. 



-^ Alhert Durer. 
del Sarto. 
Anmlale Carracci. 
AtttoneUo da Meffina 
\da Correggio. 
Artemifia Gentilefchi. 
Agoflino Carracci, 


Badalocchi f Sifto.) 
Bandinetti (Baccio.) 
Barocci (Frederico.) 
Bartolomeo (Fra.} 

















Gio. Baitifta. 



Battaglie (M. Angelo.)3 34 

Battijia Franco, 277 

BeUino -l^"'"'- . ^V^ 
I Giovanni. ib. 

Benedetto Yf^'*;. 3°! 
CCaJttgltone. 332 

Bordone (Paris.) 294 

Borgognone. 342 

Bourdon (^Sebaftian.) 345- 

Brueghel ( Flu weelen.) 315 

Bril .J Matthew. 3oy 

I Paul. lb. 

Brouwer. 337 
Buonaroti (M. AngeIo.)265' 


C Benedetto. 

C altar i <^ , .' ,, 

( Paolo. 

Camillo Procaccini, 



Cart Antonio Procaccm.}io 

Annibale. 308 

I Antonio. 309 

lAgoftino. 306 

Lodovico. ib. 
Carava^io(MAT\gt\o?)l i j 

C4/?/g//(7»f (^Benedetto.) 33x 

Cimahue, 2 5*3 

Clausih GiJIe (Lorzlti) 334 

Correggio, 264 


VanteU da Volterra, 288 

r>#^>». 339 

Domemchino. 321 

r/i?//. 303 

DomenicosGbirlanaah, 262 

(.Tintoretto, 293 

^^'^^ 337 

D«rtfr (Albert.) 263 


Eljheinter. 3 if 

Ercole ProcaccinL 311 


Fif/i (Domenica) 303 

Farinato (Paolo.) 19^ 

^'^'PP^ \SeapolitaHo. 314 

Modern Mafiers. 

Francefco^ Mazzuoli. 










Frefnoy (Q Alphonfe.) 32 j 

/r j»f (? (Battifta.) 




TGaddo. 2;^^ 

\Taddeo. ib. 

Gafparo Touffin, 335 

Giorgione. 266 

Giorgio Vafari, 294 

Bajfano, 289 

\Cortefi. 342 

i//j Tuntormo, 27 j 

Tintoretto, 292 
G/>. Battift a Bajfano, 








Girolamo Bajfano. 29 1 

Giulio Cefare P roc ace int. 310 
^. ,. jClovio, 182 

^"^"^ RmoHo. 174 

Guercino da Cento. 3 2, 7 

CWi9 /?^»/. 316 

Modern Makers 

iJeSe Batti^tie."^ 34 
Michel^ jBuoHoreti. x6$ 
angeh jdi Campidoglio.^^i 

( da Caravaggio. 313: 
iVfl/<f (Antonio.} -» ««■ 

-fi&w HoWein» 


7(^J?»« of Bruges^ 
Jordano (Luca.) 


Lauro (Filippo.) 
Leandro Bajfano, 
Lely {Sir PeterO 
Leonardo daVincii 
Lodovico Carracci, 
J ^Jordano. 

Lucas van Leyden^ 


Mantegna ^Andrea.) 
Marietta Tintoretta, 
Mario di Fiori, 
Matthew Bril. 















jN^^^^/zVtfwtf (Filippo.) 3 14 

mcola ^f/^^^'^^ *8^ 
^PuJItno. 328 







Paris Bordone, 


Pierino delVaga, 

Pietervan Laer, 

Cda Cortona, 

T, .■ Wi Cofimo, 
Ptetro^j. -' . 


Pirro Ligoriov 













Modern Maflersi 


CCamillo. 310 

//ffwc-^Girr Antonio, ib. 

€ini jErcole. 311 

C Giulio Cdare.3 10 

Fmtormo (Giacomo.} 275 

Qulntin Matfys, 


RafaeSe da Vrlitio, 

RicciarcUi (Daniele.) 

nUey (John.) 




Sacchi (Andrea.) 
Salvator Rofa, 

Sarttf(An6xt& del?) 







Schiavofte C Andrea.) 296 
Sehaflian Bourdon 345" 

Sehaftiano del Piomh. 272 
SignoreSi (^Luca.^ %$^ 

'Simone Memmi. 2 5" 5 

^ifio Badalocchi 3 24 

Snyder s, 321 

Spagnoletto (Ribera.) 


Taddeo ^ucchero. 
taffi (Andrea.) 
tempefla (Antonio.) 
tefta (Pietro.) 
tintwetta rMarietta.) 

^— isr 



F'an D)'ck; 
VaMHt (^Franccfco.) 
f^i^ri (Giorgio.; 
Vdine (Giovanni da. J 

''-'«' (K"- 

Ferotiefe (Paolo.) 

Verrccchio fAndrea.) 

yinci (Leonardo da.) 



Volterra (Danieleda). 

Vouet (Simon.) 

Zampieri CDomcnico.) 












298 i 

E I. N I & 




Inftead of 
















Sifi. rule. 

60th. Rule. 





Neglefting the Copiers, 

The Copiers neglefting. 



43^. Precept. 

i3//>. Precept, 




en dijhabillee. 



^h. Precept, 
it comprehends. 

417?. Precept. 






his Brothers. 

his Sons. 




















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